Explanation of the general relationship between various European Standards and the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) - Umbrella document

This document provides an outline of the calculation procedure for assessing the energy performance of buildings. It includes a list of the European standards, both existing and those that are being written, which together form the calculation methodology.

Erläuterung der allgemeinen Zusammenhänge zwischen verschiedenen Europäischen Normen und der europäischen Richtlinie über die Gesamtenergieeffizienz von Gebäuden (EPBD) - Übergreifendes Dokument

Razlaga splošne povezave med različnimi standardi CEN in Direktivo o energetski učinkovitosti stavb (EPBD) - Krovni dokument

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Dec-2007
Publication Date
25-Sep-2008
Withdrawal Date
11-Apr-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
29-Jan-2018
Due Date
21-Feb-2018
Completion Date
12-Apr-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST-TP prCEN/TR 15615:2007
01-november-2007
5D]ODJDVSORãQHSRYH]DYHPHGUD]OLþQLPLVWDQGDUGL&(1LQ'LUHNWLYRRHQHUJHWVNL
XþLQNRYLWRVWLVWDYE (3%' .URYQLGRNXPHQW

Explanation of the general relationship between various European Standards and the

Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) - Umbrella document
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prCEN/TR 15615
ICS:
91.140.99 Druge napeljave v stavbah Other installations in
buildings
oSIST-TP prCEN/TR 15615:2007 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT
FINAL DRAFT
prCEN/TR 15615
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
October 2007
ICS 91.140.99
English Version
Explanation of the general relationship between various
European Standards and the Energy Performance of Buildings
Directive (EPBD) - Umbrella document

This draft Technical Report is submitted to CEN members for Technical Committee Approval. It has been drawn up by CEN/BT/WG 173.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Report. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and

shall not be referred to as a Technical Report.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2007 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prCEN/TR 15615:2007: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Relationship of the standards to the EPBD ........................................................................................5

1.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................5

1.2 Calculation methodology......................................................................................................................5

1.3 Energy performance certificate............................................................................................................6

1.4 Periodic inspections of boilers and air-conditioning systems .........................................................6

2 CEN Committees....................................................................................................................................8

3 Definitions ..............................................................................................................................................8

4 Overview of the calculation process .................................................................................................12

5 Outline of the standards .....................................................................................................................17

5.1 General..................................................................................................................................................17

5.2 Section 1 – Standards concerned with calculation of overall energy use in buildings ...............17

5.3 Section 2 – Standards concerned with the calculation of delivered energy .................................18

5.4 Section 3 – Standards concerned with calculation of energy needs for heating and

cooling ..................................................................................................................................................18

5.5 Section 4 – Supporting standards .....................................................................................................19

5.6 Section 5 – Standards concerned with monitoring and verification of energy performance......19

Annex A Standards arranged by hierarchy....................................................................................................21

Annex B Summarised content of standards, arranged by standard number.............................................25

Annex C Definitions..........................................................................................................................................33

Annex D Common symbols and subscripts ..................................................................................................49

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
Foreword

This document (prCEN/TR 15615:2007) has been prepared by CEN/BT/WG 173, the secretariat of which is

held by NEN.
This document is currently submitted to the Technical Committee Approval.

This report refers to EU Directive 2002/91/EC of December 2002 on the Energy Performance of Buildings.

Attention is drawn to the need for observance of EU Directives transposed into national legal requirements.

Existing national regulations (with or without reference to national standards) may restrict for the time being

the implementation of the European standards mentioned in this report.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
Introduction

Directive 2002/91/EC on the Energy Performance of Buildings (the EPBD) requires several different measures

to achieve prudent and rational use of energy resources and to reduce the environmental impact of the energy

use in buildings.

This is to be accomplished by increased energy efficiency in both new and existing buildings. One tool for this

will be the application by Member States of minimum requirements on the energy performance of new

buildings and for large existing buildings that are subject to major renovation (EPBD Articles 4, 5 and 6). Other

tools will be energy certification of buildings (Article 7) and inspection of boilers and air-conditioning systems

(Articles 8 and 9).

A basic requirement for measures in Articles 4, 5, 6 and 7 is the existence of a general framework for a

methodology of calculation of the total energy performance of buildings, as set out in Article 3 and the Annex

to the Directive.

This technical report describes the European standards (ENs) that are intended to support the EPBD by

providing the calculation methods and associated material to obtain the overall energy performance of a

building.

In Annex A the standards concerned are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. Section 1 lists standards

concerned with overall energy performance in support of Articles 4 to 7 of the Directive. Sections 2 to 5 list the

standards relating to specific aspects or modules of building energy performance which contribute to the

overall calculation. The content of the individual standards is summarised in Annex B.

Annex C provides a list of definitions, and Annex D a list of principal symbols, that are used consistently in the

standards. It is intended that these annexes will form the basis of a future trilingual standard covering common

definitions and symbols for energy calculations.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
Explanation of the general relationship between various European standards
and the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)
1 Relationship of the standards to the EPBD
1.1 Overview

The calculation methodology follows the framework set out in the Annex to the EPBD. The various standards

used in this process are listed in Annex A. Many of the standards deal with specific aspects of the calculation

(e.g. fabric losses, air changes, energy use for lighting, system performance): these aspects are drawn

together in the following items:
EN number Content

prEN 15603 Energy use, for space heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting, inclusive of

system losses and auxiliary energy; and definition of energy ratings

EN 15217 Ways of expressing energy performance (for the energy certificate) and ways of expressing

requirements (for regulations); content and format of energy performance certificate

EN 15378 Boiler inspections
EN 15240 Air-conditioning inspections

EN ISO 13790 Energy needs for heating and cooling (taking account of losses and gains)

The main goal of these standards is to facilitate the implementation of the Directive in Member States. In

consequence they do not prescribe a single definition of energy rating or the expression of energy

performance, but rather give a limited number of options. Similarly the items on inspections offer various

levels of inspection. It is up to national bodies to select one or more of the options given, depending on the

purpose of the calculation and the type and complexity of the buildings and their services.

The four main components set out in the Directive relate to:
 calculation methodology;
 minimum energy performance requirements;
 energy performance certificate;
 inspections of boilers and air-conditioning.

Figure 1 illustrates how the standards are related to articles of the EPBD defining these requirements.

1.2 Calculation methodology

The standards providing the calculation methodology are indicated in Figure 1, either explicitly or by reference

to Annex A.

The calculation methodology is used to determine the data for energy certificates. EN ISO 13790 allows for

different levels of complexity:
 simplified monthly or seasonal calculation;
 simplified hourly calculation;
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
 detailed calculation,

which can be chosen according to relevant criteria related to the purpose of the calculation, such as new or

existing buildings or type and/or complexity of the building and its services. The calculations are based on

specified boundary conditions of indoor climate (EN 15251) and external climate. The simplified calculation

methods are fully specified in the EN ISO 13790. The detailed calculation methods are not fully specified in

EN ISO 13790, but any implementation needs to be validated according to the criteria in EN 15265 and the

input and boundary conditions are to be consistent with the fully specified methods. Zoning arrangements

(applicable to all calculation methods) are described in EN ISO 13790.
The characteristics of the technical building systems are included via:

 heating systems, EN 15316-1, EN 15316-2-1, EN 15326-2-3, EN 15316-4 (various parts) and EN 15377;

 cooling systems, prEN 15243;
 domestic hot water, prEN 15316-3 (various parts);
 ventilation, EN 15241;
 lighting, EN 15193;
 integrated building automation and controls, EN 15232.
1.3 Energy performance certificate

The indicative content of the energy performance certificate is set out in EN 15217. This standard also

includes the definition of the energy performance indicator and different options for the energy performance

classification.

prEN 15603 provides ratings to define energy performance. The categories for the purposes of certification

are:

 calculated rating, based on calculated energy use under standardised occupancy conditions ;

 measured rating, based on metered energy .
1.4 Periodic inspections of boilers and air-conditioning systems

These standards provide guidelines for the inspection of boilers and heating systems (EN 15378), ventilation

systems (EN 15239) and air-conditioning systems (EN 15240). They provide for different levels of inspection.

Also known as "asset rating"
Also known as "operational rating"
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prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
Figure 1  Methodology for calculating energy performance (Article 3 and Annex)
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prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
2 CEN Committees

The Technical Committees of CEN that were involved in the preparation of the standards comprise:

CEN/TC 89 Thermal performance of buildings and building components;
CEN/TC 156 Ventilation for buildings;
CEN/TC 169 Light and lighting;
CEN/TC 228 Heating systems in buildings;
CEN/TC 247 Building automation, controls and building management.

The process has been overseen by CEN/BT TF 173, energy performance of buildings project group, which

coordinated the work so as to ensure that standards prepared in different committees interface with each

other in a suitable way.
3 Definitions

NOTE The definitions given here are those used within the Technical Report. A more extensive list of definitions is

given in Annex C.
3.1
building

construction as a whole, including its envelope and all technical building systems, for which energy is used to

condition the indoor climate, to provide domestic hot water and illumination and other services related to the

use of the building

NOTE The term can refer to the building as a whole or to parts thereof that have been designed or altered to be used

separately.
3.2
new building
for calculated energy rating: building at design stage or under construction

for measured energy rating: building too recently constructed to have reliable records of energy use

3.3
existing building
for calculated energy rating: building that is erected

for measured energy rating: building for which actual data necessary to assess the energy use are known or

can be measured
3.4
technical building system

technical equipment for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water, lighting and electricity production

NOTE 1 A technical building system can refer to one or to several building services (e.g. heating system, heating and

domestic hot water system).
NOTE 2 A technical building system is composed of different subsystems.
NOTE 3 Electricity production can include cogeneration and photovoltaic systems.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
3.5
building automation and control

products, software, and engineering services for automatic controls, monitoring and optimization, human

intervention, and management to achieve energy-efficient, economical, and safe operation of building services

equipment.
3.6
auxiliary energy

electrical energy used by technical building systems for heating, cooling, ventilation and/or domestic water to

support energy transformation to satisfy energy needs

NOTE 1 This includes energy for fans, pumps, electronics, etc. Electrical energy input to the ventilation system for air

transport and heat recovery is not considered as auxiliary energy, but as energy use for ventilation (C.4.18).

NOTE 2 In EN ISO 9488, Solar energy – Vocabulary, the energy used for pumps and valves is called "parasitic

energy".
3.7
cogeneration

simultaneous generation in one process of thermal energy and electrical or mechanical energy

NOTE Also known as combined heat and power (CHP).
3.8
air conditioning system

combination of all components required to provide a form of air treatment in which temperature is controlled,

possibly in combination with the control of ventilation, humidity and air cleanliness

3.9
dehumidification
process of removing water vapour from air to reduce relative humidity
3.10
humidification
process of adding water vapour to air to increase relative humidity
3.11
ventilation

process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space

NOTE Such air is not required to have been conditioned.
3.12
ventilation heat recovery
heat recovered from the exhaust air to reduce the ventilation heat transfer
3.13
system thermal loss

thermal loss from a technical building system for heating, cooling, domestic hot water, humidification,

dehumidification or ventilation that does not contribute to the useful output of the system

NOTE 1 A system loss can become an internal heat gain for the building if it is recoverable.

NOTE 2 Thermal energy recovered directly in the subsystem is not considered as a system thermal loss but as heat

recovery and directly treated in the related system standard.

NOTE 3 Heat dissipated by the lighting system or by other services (e.g. appliances of computer equipment) is not part

of the system thermal losses, but part of the internal heat gains.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
3.14
recoverable system thermal loss

part of a system thermal loss which can be recovered to lower either the energy need for heating or cooling or

the energy use of the heating or cooling system

NOTE This depends on the calculation approach chosen to calculate the recovered gains and losses (holistic or

simplified approach).
3.15
recovered system thermal loss

part of the recoverable system thermal loss which has been recovered to lower either the energy need for

heating or cooling or the energy use of the heating or cooling system

NOTE This depends on the calculation approach chosen to calculate the recovered gains and losses (holistic or

simplified approach).
3.16
energy source

source from which useful energy can be extracted or recovered either directly or by means of a conversion or

transformation process
NOTE Examples include oil or gas fields, coal mines, sun, forests etc.
3.17
energy carrier

substance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work or heat or to operate chemical or

physical processes [ISO 13600:1997]
NOTE The energy content of fuels is given by their gross calorific value.
3.18
delivered energy

total energy, expressed per energy carrier, supplied to the technical building systems through the system

boundary, to satisfy the uses taken into account (heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water, lighting,

appliances etc.) or to produce electricity

NOTE 1 For active solar and wind energy systems the incident solar radiation on solar panels or on solar collectors or

the kinetic energy of wind is not part of the energy balance of the building. It is decided at national level whether or not

renewable energy produced on site is part of the delivered energy.

NOTE 2 Delivered energy can be calculated for defined energy uses or it can be measured.

3.19
exported energy
boundary and used outside the system boundary

NOTE 1 It can be specified by generation types (e.g. CHP, photovoltaic, etc) in order to apply different weighting

factors.
NOTE 2 Exported energy can be calculated or it can be measured.
3.20
non-renewable energy
energy taken from a source which is depleted by extraction (e.g. fossil fuels)
3.21
renewable energy

energy from a source that is not depleted by extraction, such as solar energy (thermal and photovoltaic), wind,

water power, renewed biomass
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)

NOTE In ISO 13602-1:2002, renewable resource is defined as "natural resource for which the ratio of the creation of

the natural resource to the output of that resource from nature to the technosphere is equal to or greater than one".

3.22
primary energy
energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process

NOTE 1 Primary energy includes non-renewable energy and renewable energy. If both are taken into account it can be

called total primary energy.

NOTE 2 For a building, it is the energy used to produce the energy delivered to the building. It is calculated from the

delivered and exported amounts of energy carriers, using conversion factors.
3.23
energy performance of a building

calculated or measured amount of weighted net delivered energy actually used or estimated to meet different

needs associated with a standardised use of a building, which may include, inter alia, energy used for heating,

cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting
3.24
energy rating

evaluation of the energy performance of a building based on the weighted sum of the calculated or measured

use of energy carriers
3.25
calculated energy rating

energy rating based on calculations of the net delivered energy used by a building for heating, cooling,

ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting

NOTE National bodies decide whether other energy uses resulting from occupants' activities such as cooking,

production, laundering, etc. are included or not. If included, standard input data shall be provided for the various types of

building and uses. Lighting is always included except (by decision of national bodies) for residential buildings.

3.26
standard energy rating

calculated energy rating using actual data for the building and standard use data set

NOTE 1 It represents the intrinsic annual energy use of a building under standardised conditions. This is particularly

relevant to certification of standard energy performance.
NOTE 2 It can also be termed "asset energy rating".
3.27
measured energy rating
energy rating based on measured amounts of delivered and exported energy

NOTE 1 The measured rating is the weighted sum of all energy carriers used by the building, as measured by meters

or other means. It is a measure of the in-use performance of the building. This is particularly relevant to certification of

actual energy performance.
NOTE 2 Also known as "operational rating".
3.28
energy certificate

certificate recognised by a member state or a legal person designated by it, which includes the energy

performance of a building

NOTE The meaning of the terms “certificate” and "certification" in this standard differ from that in EN 45020,

Standardization and related activities – General vocabulary (ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004).

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
3.29
space heating
process of heat supply for thermal comfort
3.30
space cooling
process of heat extraction for thermal comfort
3.31
heat gains

heat generated within or entering into the conditioned space from heat sources other than energy intentionally

utilised for heating, cooling or domestic hot water preparation

NOTE 1 These include internal heat gains and solar heat gains. Sinks that extract heat from the building are included

as gains, with a negative sign. In contrast with heat transfer, for a heat source (or sink) the difference between the

temperature of the considered space and the temperature of the source is not the driving force for the heat flow.

NOTE 2 For summer conditions heat gains with a positive sign constitute extra heat load on the space.

3.32
internal heat gains

heat provided within the building by occupants (sensible metabolic heat) and by appliances such as lighting,

domestic appliances, office equipment, etc., other than energy intentionally provided for heating, cooling or hot

water preparation

NOTE This includes recoverable system thermal losses, if the holistic approach for the calculation of the recovered

system losses is chosen.
3.33
solar heat gain

heat provided by solar radiation entering, directly or indirectly (after absorption in building elements), into the

building through windows, opaque walls and roofs, or passive solar devices such as sunspaces, transparent

insulation and solar walls

NOTE Active solar devices such as solar collectors are considered as part of the technical building system.

4 Overview of the calculation process

The calculation is based on the characteristics of the building and its installed equipment, as listed in the

Annex to the EPBD. It is structured in three levels:
 calculation of the building energy needs for heating and cooling;

 calculation of the building delivered energy for heating and cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and

lighting;

 calculation of the overall energy performance indicators (primary energy, CO emissions, etc.).

The calculation sequence is:

a) Calculate the building energy needs for heating and cooling, using applicable standards listed in

Section 3 of Annex A. This part of the calculation considers only the building properties and not those

of the heating/cooling system and results in the energy to be emitted by heat emitters, or energy to be

extracted from the conditioned space, in order to maintain the intended internal temperature. EN ISO

13790 covers both heating and cooling. To perform this calculation, data for indoor climate

requirements, internal heat gains, building properties and outdoor climatic conditions are needed, and

these are obtained using the standards listed in Section 4 of Annex A. EN ISO 13790 includes

guidance for partitioning a complex building into separate zones for the purposes of the calculation.

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)

b) Take account of the characteristics of the space heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and

lighting systems, inclusive of controls and building automation, to calculate the delivered energy, using

standards listed in Section 2. Energy used for different purposes and by different fuels is recorded

separately. The calculations take account of heat emission, distribution, storage and generation, and

include the auxiliary energy needed for fans, pumps etc.

c) Combine the results from b) for different purposes and from different fuels to obtain the overall energy use

and associated performance indicators, using standards listed in Section 1.

There is an interlinkage between steps a) and b) because system losses that are recovered can be counted

as gains for the building part of the calculation. Two approaches are permitted:
 Holistic approach

The effect of all heat gains associated with building and its technical building systems are considered in

the calculation of the energy needs for heating and cooling. When these gains cannot be predicted

without knowing the heating and cooling needs, steps a) and b) may have to be iterated. In the first

calculation the gains from systems are omitted in the calculation of the energy needs, in subsequent

iterations they are included from the system calculations in the previous iteration.

 Simplified approach

The recovered system heat losses, obtained by multiplying the recoverable thermal system losses by a

conventional recovery factor, are directly subtracted from the loss of each technical building system.

---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)
Key

[1] represents the energy needed to fulfil the user's requirements for heating, cooling, lighting etc, according to levels

that are specified for the purposes of the calculation

[2] represents the "natural" energy gains – passive solar heating, passive cooling, natural ventilation, daylighting –

together with internal gains (occupants, lighting, electrical equipment, etc)

[3] represents the building's energy needs, obtained from [1] and [2] along with the characteristics of the building itself

[4] represents the delivered energy, recorded separately for each energy carrier and inclusive of auxiliary energy, used

by space heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting systems, taking into account renewable

energy sources and cogeneration. This may be expressed in energy units or in units of the energy carrier (kg, m³,

kWh, etc)
[5] represents renewable energy produced on the building premises

[6] represents generated energy, produced on the premises and exported to the market; this can include part of [5]

[7] represents the primary energy usage or the CO emissions associated with the building

[8] represents the primary energy or CO emissions associated with on-site generation which is used on-site and thus

is not subtracted from [7]

[9] represents the primary energy or CO savings associated with energy exported to the market, which is thus

subtracted from [7]
Figure 2  Schematic illustration of the calculation scheme
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
prCEN/TR 15615:2007 (E)

The overall calculation process involves following the energy flows from the left to the right of Figure 2.

Figure 2 is a schematic illustration and is not intended to cover all possible combinations of energy supply, on-

site energy production and energy use. For example, a ground-source heat pump uses both electricity and

renewable energy from the ground; and electricity generated on site by photovoltaics could be used entirely

within the building, or it could be exported entirely, or a combination of the two. Renewable energy carriers like

biomass are included in [7], but are distinguished from non-renewable energy carriers by low CO emissions.

In the case of cooling, the direction of energy flow is from the building to the system.

Energy certification and
ways of expressing energy requirements
Primary energy and
CO emissions
Conversion factors
Delivered energy
Heating system Ventilation
DHW Lighting Cooling system
characteristics system
characteristics
Building
energy needs
Automation
and controls
Building
Internal heat
Heat Air change Internal and Solar heat gains
gains transmission external climate and daylighting
Figure 3  Energy flows
-------
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15615:2008
01-november-2008
5D]ODJDVSORãQHSRYH]DYHPHGUD]OLþQLPLVWDQGDUGL&(1LQ'LUHNWLYRRHQHUJHWVNL
XþLQNRYLWRVWLVWDYE (3%' .URYQLGRNXPHQW

Explanation of the general relationship between various European Standards and the

Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) - Umbrella document
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 15615:2008
ICS:
91.120.10 Toplotna izolacija stavb Thermal insulation
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15615:2008 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15615:2008
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15615:2008
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 15615
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
April 2008
ICS 91.140.99
English Version
Explanation of the general relationship between various
European standards and the Energy Performance of Buildings
Directive (EPBD) - Umbrella Document

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 5 February 2008. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/SS B09.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 15615:2008: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15615:2008
CEN/TR 15615:2008 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Relationship of the standards to the EPBD ........................................................................................5

1.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................................5

1.2 Calculation methodology......................................................................................................................5

1.3 Energy performance certificate............................................................................................................6

1.4 Periodic inspections of boilers and air-conditioning systems .........................................................6

2 CEN Committees....................................................................................................................................8

3 Definitions ..............................................................................................................................................8

4 Overview of the calculation process .................................................................................................12

5 Outline of the standards .....................................................................................................................17

5.1 General..................................................................................................................................................17

5.2 Section 1 – Standards concerned with calculation of overall energy use in buildings ...............17

5.3 Section 2 – Standards concerned with the calculation of delivered energy .................................18

5.4 Section 3 – Standards concerned with calculation of energy needs for heating and

cooling ..................................................................................................................................................18

5.5 Section 4 – Supporting standards .....................................................................................................19

5.6 Section 5 – Standards concerned with monitoring and verification of energy performance......19

Annex A Standards arranged by hierarchy....................................................................................................20

Annex B Summarised content of standards, arranged by standard number.............................................23

Annex C Definitions..........................................................................................................................................31

Annex D Common symbols and subscripts ..................................................................................................48

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15615:2008
CEN/TR 15615:2008 (E)
Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 15615:2008) has been prepared by CEN/BT/TF 173, the secretariat of which is held

by CMC.

This report refers to EU Directive 2002/91/EC of December 2002 on the Energy Performance of Buildings.

Attention is drawn to the need for observance of EU Directives transposed into national legal requirements.

Existing national regulations (with or without reference to national standards) may restrict for the time being

the implementation of the European standards mentioned in this report.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15615:2008
CEN/TR 15615:2008 (E)
Introduction

Directive 2002/91/EC on the Energy Performance of Buildings (the EPBD) requires several different measures

to achieve prudent and rational use of energy resources and to reduce the environmental impact of the energy

use in buildings.

This is to be accomplished by increased energy efficiency in both new and existing buildings. One tool for this

will be the application by Member States of minimum requirements on the energy performance of new

buildings and for large existing buildings that are subject to major renovation (EPBD Articles 4, 5 and 6). Other

tools will be energy certification of buildings (Article 7) and inspection of boilers and air-conditioning systems

(Articles 8 and 9).

A basic requirement for measures in Articles 4, 5, 6 and 7 is the existence of a general framework for a

methodology of calculation of the total energy performance of buildings, as set out in Article 3 and the Annex

to the Directive.

This technical report describes the European standards (ENs) that are intended to support the EPBD by

providing the calculation methods and associated material to obtain the overall energy performance of a

building.

In Annex A the standards concerned are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. Section 1 lists standards

concerned with overall energy performance in support of Articles 4 to 7 of the Directive. Sections 2 to 5 list the

standards relating to specific aspects or modules of building energy performance which contribute to the

overall calculation. The content of the individual standards is summarised in Annex B.

Annex C provides a list of definitions, and Annex D a list of principal symbols, that are used consistently in the

standards. It is intended that these annexes will form the basis of a future trilingual standard covering common

definitions and symbols for energy calculations.
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Explanation of the general relationship between various European standards
and the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)
1 Relationship of the standards to the EPBD
1.1 Overview

The calculation methodology follows the framework set out in the Annex to the EPBD . The various standards

used in this process are listed in Annex A. Many of the standards deal with specific aspects of the calculation

(e.g. fabric losses, air changes, energy use for lighting, system performance): these aspects are drawn

together in the following items:
EN number Content

EN 15603 Energy use, for space heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting, inclusive of

system losses and auxiliary energy; and definition of energy ratings

EN 15217 Ways of expressing energy performance (for the energy certificate) and ways of expressing

requirements (for regulations); content and format of energy performance certificate

EN 15378 Boiler inspections
EN 15240 Air-conditioning inspections

EN ISO 13790 Energy needs for heating and cooling (taking account of losses and gains)

The main goal of these standards is to facilitate the implementation of the Directive in Member States. In

consequence they do not prescribe a single definition of energy rating or the expression of energy

performance, but rather give a limited number of options. Similarly the items on inspections offer various

levels of inspection. It is up to national bodies to select one or more of the options given, depending on the

purpose of the calculation and the type and complexity of the buildings and their services.

The four main components set out in the Directive relate to:
 calculation methodology;
 minimum energy performance requirements;
 energy performance certificate;
 inspections of boilers and air-conditioning.

Figure 1 illustrates how the standards are related to articles of the EPBD defining these requirements.

1.2 Calculation methodology

The standards providing the calculation methodology are indicated in Figure 1, either explicitly or by reference

to Annex A.

The calculation methodology is used to determine the data for energy certificates. EN ISO 13790 allows for

different levels of complexity:
 simplified monthly or seasonal calculation;
Directive 2002/91/EC on the Energy Performance of Buildings
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 simplified hourly calculation;
 detailed calculation,

which can be chosen according to relevant criteria related to the purpose of the calculation, such as new or

existing buildings or type and/or complexity of the building and its services. The calculations are based on

specified boundary conditions of indoor climate (EN 15251) and external climate. The simplified calculation

methods are fully specified in the EN ISO 13790. The detailed calculation methods are not fully specified in

EN ISO 13790, but any implementation needs to be validated according to the criteria in EN 15265 and the

input and boundary conditions are to be consistent with the fully specified methods. Zoning arrangements

(applicable to all calculation methods) are described in EN ISO 13790.
The characteristics of the technical building systems are included via:

 heating systems, EN 15316-1, EN 15316-2-1, EN 15316-2-3, EN 15316-4 (various parts) and EN 15377;

 cooling systems, EN 15243;
 domestic hot water, EN 15316-3 (various parts);
 ventilation, EN 15241;
 lighting, EN 15193;
 integrated building automation and controls, EN 15232.
1.3 Energy performance certificate

The indicative content of the energy performance certificate is set out in EN 15217. This standard also

includes the definition of the energy performance indicator and different options for the energy performance

classification.

EN 15603 provides ratings to define energy performance. The categories for the purposes of certification are:

 calculated rating, based on calculated energy use under standardised occupancy conditions ;

 measured rating, based on metered energy .
1.4 Periodic inspections of boilers and air-conditioning systems

These standards provide guidelines for the inspection of boilers and heating systems (EN 15378), ventilation

systems (EN 15239) and air-conditioning systems (EN 15240). They provide for different levels of inspection.

Also known as "asset rating"
Also known as "operational rating"
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Energy Performance Energy Performance System inspection
Requirements Certificate and assessment
new buildings Articles 4,5 and Recommendations
major renovations Articles 4,6 Article 7 Articles 8, 9
Certificate format and Recommendations for
Energy performance
content improvements
ways of expressing Energy certification Heating systems
energy performance of buildings with boilers
EN 15378
EN 15217 EN 15217
Airconditioning
EN 15240
Total delivered energy
Specific procedures/input procedures for calculated and
for existing buildings measured energy ratings
Ventilation systems
EN 15603
EN 15239
System and building energy needs for space heating, space cooling
humidification, dehumidification, domestic hot water, lightning and
ventilation systems
standards in Sections 2 and 3 of Annex A
Definitions and terminology, external climate data, indoor conditions,
overheating and solar protection, thermal performance of building
components, ventilation and air infiltration, …
standards in Section 4 of Annex A
Not explicitly mentioned in the Directive
Unless covered by other standards
Figure 1 – Methodology for calculating energy performance (Article 3 and Annex)
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2 CEN Committees

The Technical Committees of CEN that were involved in the preparation of the standards comprise:

CEN/TC 89 Thermal performance of buildings and building components;
CEN/TC 156 Ventilation for buildings;
CEN/TC 169 Light and lighting;
CEN/TC 228 Heating systems in buildings;
CEN/TC 247 Building automation, controls and building management.

The process has been overseen by CEN/BT TF 173, Energy performance of buildings project group, which

coordinated the work so as to ensure that standards prepared in different committees interface with each

other in a suitable way.
3 Definitions

NOTE The definitions given here are those used within the Technical Report. A more extensive list of definitions is

given in Annex C.
3.1
building

construction as a whole, including its envelope and all technical building systems, for which energy is used to

condition the indoor climate, to provide domestic hot water and illumination and other services related to the

use of the building

NOTE The term can refer to the building as a whole or to parts thereof that have been designed or altered to be used

separately.
3.2
new building
for calculated energy rating: building at design stage or under construction

for measured energy rating: building too recently constructed to have reliable records of energy use

3.3
existing building
for calculated energy rating: building that is erected

for measured energy rating: building for which actual data necessary to assess the energy use are known or

can be measured
3.4
technical building system

technical equipment for heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water, lighting and electricity production

NOTE 1 A technical building system can refer to one or to several building services (e.g. heating system, heating and

domestic hot water system).
NOTE 2 A technical building system is composed of different subsystems.
NOTE 3 Electricity production can include cogeneration and photovoltaic systems.
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3.5
building automation and control

products, software, and engineering services for automatic controls, monitoring and optimization, human

intervention, and management to achieve energy-efficient, economical, and safe operation of building services

equipment.
3.6
auxiliary energy

electrical energy used by technical building systems for heating, cooling, ventilation and/or domestic water to

support energy transformation to satisfy energy needs

NOTE 1 This includes energy for fans, pumps, electronics, etc. Electrical energy input to the ventilation system for air

transport and heat recovery is not considered as auxiliary energy, but as energy use for ventilation (C.4.18).

NOTE 2 In EN ISO 9488, Solar energy – Vocabulary, the energy used for pumps and valves is called "parasitic

energy".
3.7
cogeneration

simultaneous generation in one process of thermal energy and electrical or mechanical energy

NOTE Also known as combined heat and power (CHP).
3.8
air conditioning system

combination of all components required to provide a form of air treatment in which temperature is controlled,

possibly in combination with the control of ventilation, humidity and air cleanliness

3.9
dehumidification
process of removing water vapour from air to reduce relative humidity
3.10
humidification
process of adding water vapour to air to increase relative humidity
3.11
ventilation

process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space

NOTE Such air is not required to have been conditioned.
3.12
ventilation heat recovery
heat recovered from the exhaust air to reduce the ventilation heat transfer
3.13
system thermal loss

thermal loss from a technical building system for heating, cooling, domestic hot water, humidification,

dehumidification or ventilation that does not contribute to the useful output of the system

NOTE 1 A system loss can become an internal heat gain for the building if it is recoverable.

NOTE 2 Thermal energy recovered directly in the subsystem is not considered as a system thermal loss but as heat

recovery and directly treated in the related system standard.

NOTE 3 Heat dissipated by the lighting system or by other services (e.g. appliances of computer equipment) is not part

of the system thermal losses, but part of the internal heat gains.
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3.14
recoverable system thermal loss

part of a system thermal loss which can be recovered to lower either the energy need for heating or cooling or

the energy use of the heating or cooling system

NOTE This depends on the calculation approach chosen to calculate the recovered gains and losses (holistic or

simplified approach).
3.15
recovered system thermal loss

part of the recoverable system thermal loss which has been recovered to lower either the energy need for

heating or cooling or the energy use of the heating or cooling system

NOTE This depends on the calculation approach chosen to calculate the recovered gains and losses (holistic or

simplified approach).
3.16
energy source

source from which useful energy can be extracted or recovered either directly or by means of a conversion or

transformation process
NOTE Examples include oil or gas fields, coal mines, sun, forests etc.
3.17
energy carrier

substance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work or heat or to operate chemical or

physical processes [ISO 13600:1997]
NOTE The energy content of fuels is given by their gross calorific value.
3.18
delivered energy

total energy, expressed per energy carrier, supplied to the technical building systems through the system

boundary, to satisfy the uses taken into account (heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water, lighting,

appliances etc.) or to produce electricity

NOTE 1 For active solar and wind energy systems the incident solar radiation on solar panels or on solar collectors or

the kinetic energy of wind is not part of the energy balance of the building. It is decided at national level whether or not

renewable energy produced on site is part of the delivered energy.

NOTE 2 Delivered energy can be calculated for defined energy uses or it can be measured.

3.19
exported energy

energy, expressed per energy carrier, delivered by the technical building systems through the system

boundary and used outside the system boundary

NOTE 1 It can be specified by generation types (e.g. CHP, photovoltaic, etc) in order to apply different weighting

factors.
NOTE 2 Exported energy can be calculated or it can be measured.
3.20
non-renewable energy
energy taken from a source which is depleted by extraction (e.g. fossil fuels)
3.21
renewable energy

energy from a source that is not depleted by extraction, such as solar energy (thermal and photovoltaic), wind,

water power, renewed biomass
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NOTE In ISO 13602-1:2002 Technical energy systems – Methods for analysis – Part 1: General, renewable resource

is defined as "natural resource for which the ratio of the creation of the natural resource to the output of that resource from

nature to the technosphere is equal to or greater than one".
3.22
primary energy
energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process

NOTE 1 Primary energy includes non-renewable energy and renewable energy. If both are taken into account it can be

called total primary energy.

NOTE 2 For a building, it is the energy used to produce the energy delivered to the building. It is calculated from the

delivered and exported amounts of energy carriers, using conversion factors.
3.23
energy performance of a building

calculated or measured amount of weighted net delivered energy actually used or estimated to meet different

needs associated with a standardised use of a building, which may include, inter alia, energy used for heating,

cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting
3.24
energy rating

evaluation of the energy performance of a building based on the weighted sum of the calculated or measured

use of energy carriers
3.25
calculated energy rating

energy rating based on calculations of the net delivered energy used by a building for heating, cooling,

ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting

NOTE National bodies decide whether other energy uses resulting from occupants' activities such as cooking,

production, laundering, etc. are included or not. If included, standard input data shall be provided for the various types of

building and uses. Lighting is always included except (by decision of national bodies) for residential buildings.

3.26
standard energy rating

calculated energy rating using actual data for the building and standard use data set

NOTE 1 It represents the intrinsic annual energy use of a building under standardised conditions. This is particularly

relevant to certification of standard energy performance.
NOTE 2 It can also be termed "asset energy rating".
3.27
measured energy rating
energy rating based on measured amounts of delivered and exported energy

NOTE 1 The measured rating is the weighted sum of all energy carriers used by the building, as measured by meters

or other means. It is a measure of the in-use performance of the building. This is particularly relevant to certification of

actual energy performance.
NOTE 2 Also known as "operational rating".
3.28
energy certificate

certificate recognised by a member state or a legal person designated by it, which includes the energy

performance of a building

NOTE The meaning of the terms “certificate” and "certification" in this standard differ from that in EN 45020:2006,

Standardization and related activities – General vocabulary (ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004).

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3.29
space heating
process of heat supply for thermal comfort
3.30
space cooling
process of heat extraction for thermal comfort
3.31
heat gains

heat generated within or entering into the conditioned space from heat sources other than energy intentionally

utilised for heating, cooling or domestic hot water preparation

NOTE 1 These include internal heat gains and solar heat gains. Sinks that extract heat from the building are included

as gains, with a negative sign. In contrast with heat transfer, for a heat source (or sink) the difference between the

temperature of the considered space and the temperature of the source is not the driving force for the heat flow.

NOTE 2 For summer conditions heat gains with a positive sign constitute extra heat load on the space.

3.32
internal heat gains

heat provided within the building by occupants (sensible metabolic heat) and by appliances such as lighting,

domestic appliances, office equipment, etc., other than energy intentionally provided for heating, cooling or hot

water preparation

NOTE This includes recoverable system thermal losses, if the holistic approach for the calculation of the recovered

system losses is chosen.
3.33
solar heat gain

heat provided by solar radiation entering, directly or indirectly (after absorption in building elements), into the

building through windows, opaque walls and roofs, or passive solar devices such as sunspaces, transparent

insulation and solar walls

NOTE Active solar devices such as solar collectors are considered as part of the technical building system.

4 Overview of the calculation process

The calculation is based on the characteristics of the building and its installed equipment, as listed in the

Annex to the EPBD. It is structured in three levels:
 calculation of the building energy needs for heating and cooling;

 calculation of the building delivered energy for heating and cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and

lighting;

 calculation of the overall energy performance indicators (primary energy, CO emissions, etc.).

The calculation sequence is:

a) Calculate the building energy needs for heating and cooling, using applicable standards listed in

Section 3 of Annex A. This part of the calculation considers only the building properties and not those

of the heating/cooling system and results in the energy to be emitted by heat emitters, or energy to be

extracted from the conditioned space, in order to maintain the intended internal temperature. EN ISO

13790 covers both heating and cooling. To perform this calculation, data for indoor climate

requirements, internal heat gains, building properties and outdoor climatic conditions are needed, and

these are obtained using the standards listed in Section 4 of Annex A. EN ISO 13790 includes

guidance for partitioning a complex building into separate zones for the purposes of the calculation.

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b) Take account of the characteristics of the space heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and

lighting systems, inclusive of controls and building automation, to calculate the delivered energy, using

standards listed in Section 2. Energy used for different purposes and by different fuels is recorded

separately. The calculations take account of heat emission, distribution, storage and generation, and

include the auxiliary energy needed for fans, pumps etc.

c) Combine the results from b) for different purposes and from different fuels to obtain the overall energy use

and associated performance indicators, using standards listed in Section 1.

There is an interlinkage between steps a) and b) because system losses that are recovered can be counted

as gains for the building part of the calculation. Two approaches are permitted:
 Holistic approach

The effect of all heat gains associated with building and its technical building systems are considered in

the calculation of the energy needs for heating and cooling. When these gains cannot be predicted

without knowing the heating and cooling needs, steps a) and b) may have to be iterated. In the first

calculation the gains from systems are omitted in the calculation of the energy needs, in subsequent

iterations they are included from the system calculations in the previous iteration.

 Simplified approach

The recovered system heat losses, obtained by multiplying the recoverable thermal system losses by a

conventional recovery factor, are directly subtracted from the loss of each technical building system.

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...

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