Natural gas - Sampling guidelines (ISO 10715:1997)

Erdgas - Probenahmerichtlinien (ISO 10715:1997)

Zweck dieser Unterlage ist es, kurze Richtlinien für eine einwandfreie Entnahme, Konditionierung und Handhabung repräsentativer Proben aufbereiteter Ergasströme zu geben. Sie enthält außerdem Richtlinien zu Probenahmestrategie, Anordnung der Probenahmestelle sowie der Handhabung und Auslegung von Probenahmeeinrichtungen. Sie behandelt Probenahmesysteme für Einzelproben, Sammelproben (Durchschnittsproben) und für die kontinuierliche Probenahme.

Gaz naturel - Lignes directrices pour l'échantillonnage (ISO 10715:1997)

La présente Norme internationale fournit des lignes directrices concises pour l'utilisation en vue du prélèvement, du conditionnement et de la manipulation d'échantillons représentatifs de gaz naturel traité. Elle fixe également les critères en termes de stratégie d'échantillonnage, d'emplacement de la prise de gaz et de manipulation et conception de l'équipement d'échantillonnage. La présente Norme internationale traite des systèmes d'échantillonnage par points, composites (par prélèvement) et continus. Elle examine également certains constituants des flux gazeux, tels que l'oxygène, l'hydrogène sulfuré, l'air, l'azote et le dioxyde de carbone. Le cas échéant, toute trace de liquide, tel que le glycol et l'huile provenant du compresseur, est considérée comme gênante et distincte du gaz devant être échantillonné. Son élimination est souhaitable, afin de protéger l'équipement d'échantillonnage et d'analyse de toute contamination. La présente Norme internationale peut être utilisée pour les systèmes de mesure de transfert surveillé et les systèmes de mesure de répartition.

Zemeljski plin - Smernice za vzorčenje (ISO 10715:1997)

General Information

Publication Date
Withdrawal Date
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
Due Date
Completion Date


Buy Standard

EN ISO 10715:2000
English language
41 pages
sale 10% off
sale 10% off
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (Sample)

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
Natural gas - Sampling guidelines (ISO 10715:1997)
Erdgas - Probenahmerichtlinien (ISO 10715:1997)
Gaz naturel - Lignes directrices pour l'échantillonnage (ISO 10715:1997)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 10715:2000
75.060 Zemeljski plin Natural gas
SIST EN ISO 10715:2000 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000

---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
First edition
Natural gas - Sampling guidelines
Gaz na furel - Lignes directrices pour khantillonnage
Reference number
IS0 10715:1997(E)

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
IS0 10715:1997(E)
1 Scope . 1
2 Definitions . 1
3 Principles of sampling . 3
4 Safety precautions . 5
5 Technical considerations . 7
6 Materials used in sampling . 10
7 General preparation of equipment . 11
8 Sampling equipment . 12
9 Spot sampling . 18
10 Direct sampling .
11 Incremental sampling .
A Use of a block valve in direct sampling . 23
B Cleaning of steel sampling cylinders . 25
C Procedure for low-pressure sampling into glass cylinders . 26
D Procedure for sampling by the fill-and-empty method . 28
E Procedure for sampling by the controlled-rate method . 30
............................................................................. 32
F Procedure for sampling by the evacuated-cylinder method
G Guidelines for the calculation of the residence time 34
H Student’s f-table . 38
J Bibliography . 39
0 IS0 1997
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic
or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.
International Organization for Standardization
Case postale 56 l CH-1211 Gen&e 20 0 Switzerland
Internet: central @?
x.400: c=ch; a=400net; p=iso; o=isocs; s=central
Printed in Switzerland

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
0 IS0
IS0 10715:1997(E)
IS0 (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (IS0
member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through IS0 technical
committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has
the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in
liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. IS0 collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.
Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
International Standard IS0 IQ715 was prepared by Technical Committee lSO/TC 193, Natural gas, Subcomittee
SC 1, Analysis of natural gas.
Annexes A to J of this International Standard are for information only.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
0 IS0
IS0 10715:1997(E)
This International Standard provides guidance on all aspects of the sampling of processed natural gas. Unless
otherwise stated, all pressures up to 15 MPa in this International Standard are given as gauge pressures.
The determination of the composition and the properties of the gas is highly dependent on the sampling technique.
Also of great importance are the design, construction, installation and maintenance of the sampling system as well
as the conditions of sample transfer and transport.
These guidelines cover sampling strategy, details of sampling methods, the choice of sampling method and
sampling equipment.
This document is intended for use in sampling is not described
those cases where as part of the analytical
This document concentrates on sampling systems and procedures. Analyses from the samples collected using
these systems and procedures may be utilized in many different ways, including calculations to determine the
calorific value of the gas stream, identification of contaminants contained in the gas stream, and compositional
information to determine whether or not the stream meets contractual specifications.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
IS0 10715:1997(E)
Natural gas - Sampling guidelines
WARNING - The use of this International Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and
equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It
is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and
determine the applicability or regulatory limitations prior to use.
All sampling activities shall comply with local safety regulations.
1 Scope
The purpose of this document is to provide concise guidelines for the collection, conditioning and handling of
representative samples of processed natural gas streams. It also contains guidelines for sampling strategy, probe
location and the handling and design of sampling equipment.
It considers spot, composite (incremental) and continuous sampling systems.
This document gives consideration to constituents such as oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, air, nitrogen and carbon
dioxide in the gas stream.
This document does not include sampling of liquid streams or streams with multiphase flow.
Traces of liquid, such as glycol and compressor oil, if present, are assumed to be intrusive and not a part of the gas
to be sampled. Their removal is desirable to protect the sampling and analytical equipment from contamination.
This document can be used for custody transfer measurement systems and allocation measurement systems.
2 Definitions
For the purposes of this International Standard, the following definitions apply:
direct sampling:
Sampling in situations where there is a direct connection between the natura ,I gas to be sampled and the analytica I
2.2 floating-piston cylinder:
A container which has a moving piston separating the sample from a buffer gas. The pressures are in balance on
both sides of the piston.
2.3 flow-proportional incremental sampler:
A sampler which collects gas over a period of time and at a rate that is proportional to the flow rate in the sampled
2.4 - high-pressure natural gas:
Natural gas with a pressure exceeding 0,2 MPa.
NOTE - The maximum for this International Standard is 15 MPa.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
0 IS0
IS0 10715:1997(E)
2.5 hydrocarbon dew point:
The temperature, at a given pressure, at which hydrocarbon vapour condensation begins.
2.6 incremental sampler:
A sampler which accumulates a series of spot samples into one composite sample.
2.7 indirect sampling:
Sampling in situations where there is no direct connection between the natural gas to be sampled and the analytical
2.8 liquid separator:
A unit, in the sample line, used to collect liquid fall-out.
2.9 low-pressure natural gas:
Natural gas having a pressure between 0 and 0,2 MPa.
2.10 purging time:
The period of time during which a sample purges a piece of equipment.
2.11 representative sample:
A sample having the same composition as the natural gas sampled when the latter is considered as a
homogeneous whole.
2.12 residence time:
The time it takes for a sample to flow through a piece of equipment.
2.13 retrograde condensation:
Retrograde behaviour describes the non-ideal phase properties of hydrocarbon gas mixtures, such as natural gas.
Retrograde condensation is the production of a liquid phase of heavy hydrocarbons at a particular pressure and
temperature where, at that same temperature, the gas stays in a single phase at a higher pressure as well as at a
lower pressure.
NOTE - See also 5.2.
2.14 sample container:
A container for collecting the gas sample when indirect sampling is necessary.
2.15 sample line:
A line provided to transfer a sample of the gas to the sampling point. It may include devices which are necessary to
prepare the sample for transportation and analysis.
2.16 sample probe:
A device inserted into the gas line to be sampled and to which a sample line is connected.
2.17 sampling point:
A point in the gas stream where a representative sample can be collected.
2.18 spot sample:
A sample of specified volume taken at a specified place at a specified time from a stream of gas.
2.19 transfer line:
A line provided to carry the sample to be analysed from the sample point to the analytical unit.
2.20 water dew point:
The temperature, at a given pressure, at which water vapour condensation begins

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
0 IS0 IS0 10715: 1997(E)
3 Principles of sampling
3.1 Sampling methods
The main function of sampling is to take an adequate sample that is representative of the gas.
The main distinction in sampling is between direct and indirect sampling methods.
In the direct sampling method, the sample is drawn from a stream and directly transferred to the analytical unit.
In the indirect sampling method, the sample is stored before it is transferred to the analytical unit.
The main classifications of the indirect sampling method are spot sampling and incremental sampling.
Figure 1 - Survey of direct and indirect sampling methods
The information needed from the analysis of natural gas falls into two basic categories: averaged and limit values.
3.1 .I Averaged values
A typical example is the calorific value. Custody transfer requires the time- or flow-averaged calorific value.
Commercial agreements determine the period and method of averaging.
3.1.2 Limit values
Most gas custody transfer contracts contain specification limits on composition or on gas properties. Direct sampling
can be applied, but often the requirements are such that also indirect sampling has to be applied.
3.2 Sampling frequency
This subclause gives guidelines for the establishment of the sampling frequency. Mostly the sampling frequency is a
matter of common sense. Information on the properties of the gas stream in the past and about expected
(systematic) future changes determines the sampling frequency.
Generally, pipeline gas composition will have daily, weekly, monthly, semi-annual and seasonal variations.
Compositional variations will also occur because of gas treatment equipment and reservoir changes. All of these
environmental and operational considerations shall be taken into account when selecting a sampling interval.
The statistical approach in this paragraph is only intended to support the common-sense approach.
In this context, the required sampling frequency is the number of samples to be taken in a certain period of time in
order to obtain meaningful results.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
0 IS0
IS0 10715:1997(E)
The formula for calculating the number of samples is:
n* =,Xj
d is the error margin required;
n is the number of samples;
is the standard deviation;
f is Student’s f-factor (see table H.1 in annex H).
This equation shall be solved by iteration: an initial value of f is estimated, and used to calculate a revised value of
n, which is used, in turn, to give a new value of t. The error margin, the number of samples and the standard
deviation shall be taken over the same period of time.
3.2.1 Error margin
There are two different cases of error margins. One case is related to the determination of averaged values. In most
custody transfer contracts, these values are given as an indication of the accuracy.
The other is related to the determination of limit values. Custody transfer contracts specify the limits but rarely give
an indication of the accuracy. In these cases, the difference between the last measured value, or the last year’s
average, and the limit value is the error margin.
3.2.2 Number of samples
The number of samples is the number of samples to be taken in a defined period. It is equivalent to the number of
partial samples in incremental sampling.
3.2.3 Student’s f-factor
Student’s f-factor allows for the finite sample size, and is to be found in standard statistical tables. The value
here to be taken as the number of
depends on the claimed certainty (typically 95 %) and the “degrees of freedom”,
measurements minus one (n-1).
Determination of the monthly average caloric value
d = 0,4 % (error margin required from custody transfer contract for monthly averaged value)
s= 0,6 % (estimated variation over a one-month period)
First estimate, taking n = 7:
f= 2,45 for 6 degrees of freedom and a certainty of 0,975 single-sided (equals 0,95 double-sided)
n2 =2,45xL
First iteration, taking n = 14:

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
0 IS0 IS0 10715:1997(E)
recalculate for
i! = 2,16 for 13 degrees of freedom, and a certainty of 0,975 single-sided (equals 0,95 double-sided)
n2 =2,16x-L
Second iteration, taking n = 11:
recalculate for
t= 2,23 for IO degrees of freedom, and a certainty of 0,975 single-sided (equals 0,95 double-sided)
ni =2,23x’
Total sulfur determination
Last measured concentration 20 mg/m3 and the contract limit value 50 mg/m3.
d = 30 mg/m” (difference between limit value from custody transfer contract and last measured value)
s = IO mg/m” [standard deviation in spot sample results (in the past year)]
f = 4,30 n - 1 taken as 2, level of certainty 95%
n = 2
Three samples are enough. Recalculation indicates that two samples are not enough.
4 Safety precautions
4.1 General
Sampling and sample handling shall follow all relevant national and company-related safety regulations
In the case of inadequate regulations, those responsible for sampling shall establish detailed procedures.
Specifications for equipment shall also be established.
Personnel involved shall be properly trained and educated to a level such that they are able to take necessary
4.2 Personnel
The person responsible for the department/section which is to perform the sampling shall be satisfied that the
sampling can be performed within relevant safety regulations.

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
0 IS0
IS0 10715:1997(E)
Those performing sampling or installing sampling equipment shall have the necessary training and education to
evaluate potential safety hazards in general.
The above personnel shall have the authority to prevent sampling or installation of sampling equipment which is
unsuitable or unsafe.
4.3 Equipment
Equipment if required
used in the sampling of high-pressure natural gas shall be inspected and recertificated
Documentation shall be available and up to date.
meet relevant sampling conditions, e.g. pressure mperature, corrosivity, flow,
Equipme nt shall be designed to 9 te
ibility, vibration, thermal expansion and/o thermal contraction.
chemical compat
Glass cylinders shall not be exposed to pressure.
If provided for, end caps shall be installed on cylinders during transportation and storage.
Cylinders shall have volume, working pressure and test pressure permanently stamped.
Cylinders shall have a test pressure of at least I,5 times the working pressure.
Cylinders shall be protected against damage during transportation and storage. Transportation boxes or cartons
designed for the individual type of cylinder shall be available.
Cylinders shall be accompanied by labels or paperwork with relevant information protected against damage.
Cylinders and associated accessories shall be inspected and leak-tested periodically.
Permanent transfer and sampling lines shall be properly secured. Breakable connections shall have easy access for
leak-testing. Outlets shall be equipped with double block and bleed valves. End caps shall be connected to fittings
when the cylinders are not in use.
The use of flexible high-pressure tubing shall be limited and manufacturers’ instructions for safe application shall be
strictly followed. Transfer lines can be blocked by solid or liquid contaminants. Special precautions shall be
employed when trying to “reopen” such lines. Only qualified personnel may do this.
Transfer lines shall have shut-off valves located as close to the source stream as possible. The sampling probe
shall be equipped with a shut-off valve.
Electrical equipment shall be approved for the relevant sampling application.
Equipment which can create static electricity shall be avoided.
Use of equipment or tools which may create sparks shall be avoided.
4.4 Flammability
In order to prevent fire or explosions, the following restrictions shall be followed within areas where flammable
concentrations of gas (about 4% to 16% for natural gas) may be found:
No open fire
No smoking
No use of equipment and tools which may create sparks

---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
0 IS0 IS0 10715:1997(E)
No use of equipment which operates at temperatures above the self-ignition temperature of gas mixtures, mostly
above 400 “C (for natural gas)
No use of chemicals which can react with
No running spark ignition motors
Ventilation shall be sufficient to prevent the build-up of a flammable atmosphere.
Purging of transfer lines shall be directed to a “safe area” (e.g. flare). Release of gas during manual (spot) sampling
shall be limited to a minimum at the sampling location.
Gas detectors shall be used at strategic locations relative to sampling locations.
Manual and/or automatic firefighting equipment shall be easily available.
Personnel performing sampling shall be trained to react appropriately in the event of a fire.
4.5 Personal protective equipment
Necessary personal protective equipment shall be available. The need for protective equipment will vary from place
to place. The following factors shall, however, be considered:
Toxic or irritant components in the gas (H+, radon, Hg, aromatics, etc.) may require the use of breathing filters, a
fresh-air supply, gloves and monitors for toxic components.
Sampling of high-pressure gas may require the use of goggles or face shields. Pressure indicators (gauges) shatt
be used to indicate the system pressure. Leak detector spray or a portable leak detection device shall be used to
check that the system is leaktight.
For fire protection, personnel shall wear flame-resistant clothing (aprons, coveralls, lab dress). Personal smoke
protection masks shall also be available.
4.6 Transportation
Sample cylinders containing gas under pressure shall be transported in accordance with relevant regulations.
Constant-pressure-type cylinders shall always be protected in some kind of transportation container. Damage to the
cylinder itself and/or to valves, gauges, etc., may otherwise occur.
During transportation, the cylinder shall also be protected against conditions of temperature which could create
overpressure or condensation of sample.
The container shall be properly labelled in accordance with applicable regulations.
5 Technical considerations
5.1 Flow characteristics
Flow in a pipeline may be laminar or turbulent. However, in the sampling system, laminar flow shall be avoided. It
can be single-phase or multiphase. Most gas streams operate with turbulent single-phase flow. Two-phase turbulent
-flow may also be found in gas lines where the fluid is near saturated conditions.
dew point, and a reduction
For example, the flow from a gas/liquid separator will be near the gas in line temperature
will cause some condensation to occur, resulting in two-phase flow.
It can also happen that, after a mixing station, the combined gases are not completely mixed in the pipeline.
If the composition is not completely homogeneous, a static mixer will improve the homogeneity.

---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
IS0 10715:1997(E) 0 IS0
5.1 .I Laminar flow
Laminar flow will not normally occur in a gas line because the gas viscosity is IOW and the flow velocities are high
enough to ensure that this will not happen. However, the design of the sampling system shall be such that laminar
flow is avoided.
5.1.2 Turbulent flow
In general, turbulent flow is advantageous in a sampling system and in the gas line to be sampled because the
turbulence creates a well-mixed fluid.
5.1.3 Two-phase flow
Sampling of two-phase (gas/liquid) mixtures is not covered by these guidelines and shall be avoided if at all
Current technology of natural-gas sampling is not sufficiently advanced to accomplish this with reasonable
5.2 Condensation and revaporization
The condensation behaviour of natural gas is rather complicated. Figure 2 gives an example of a
pressure/temperature phase boundary diagram for a natural gas. The shape of the curve depends on the
composition of the gas.
As figure 2 shows, the phase boundary is a complex function between the critical point and normal operating
conditions. Retrograde condensation can occur when the phase boundary is encountered in an unexpected manner
while adjusting the pressure or temperature of the gas.
Before starting the analysis, the sample shall be heated to at least IO “C above the source temperature. If the
source temperature is not known, the sample shall be heated to at least 100 “C. To ensure revaporization, this
heating shall be applied for a period of 2 h, or longer if necessary.
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40
Temperature ("U------t
Cooling from 35 "C
- Cooling from 25 "C
Critical point
Figure 2 - Example of a pressure/temperature diagram for natural gas

---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
0 IS0 IS0 10715:1997(E)
52.1 Example of a condensation problem
An example of how this problem can occur is shown in figure 2. The pipeline contains gas at pressure pO= If the initial
temperature is -10 OC, and the gas is expanded (i.e. has its pressure reduced) isothermally, it will follow the vertical
line in the figure as it approaches the pressure at which it can be analysed, p,= The gas is a stable single phase at p0
and continues to be so until it reaches pressure pZ9 which is on the boundary of the two-phase region
Between p2 and the lower pressure p,, both gas and condensed liquid are present. The relative quantities of the gas
and liquid phases, and their compositions, vary continuously over this range. At pressures below p,, and down to
the analysis pressure p,, a single-phase gas exists once more.
Conversely, a cylinder with an initial pressure of g,, filled isothermally to pO, will, as the pressure passes through p,,
contain two phases. These will in theory recombine at p2, but this process is slow, and any gas sampled from the
cylinder while two phases are present will be unrepresentative, and furthermore its removal will alter the
composition remaining in the cylinder.
these problems, in a state
The use of pressurized piston cylinders may be a to avoid keeping the sample where
no fall-out will take place.
In fact, as a gas is expanded, its temperature falls due to the Joule-Thompson effect. The gas whose behaviour is
shown in figure 2, starting from a temperature and pressure of 25 “C and IO MPa, will cool to below -10 “C at p,,
and hence suffer condensation. The initial temperature would need to be 35 “C to reach p, without encountering the
two-phase region.
52.2 Condensation after sample has been collected
A gas sample could partially condense in the sample container when it is being transported or is awaiting analysis in
a lab. High-pressure gas sample containers and the lines to an analytical unit shall always be heated prior to
analysis (except for gas that will not pass through a phase boundary). Heating times and temperatures shall be
sufficient to ensure that any condensed hydrocarbons are revaporized before an analysis is started.
5.2.3 Fall-out from the sampling probe
Liquid heavy hydrocarbons and condensation in the sample line which is returning into the main stream may reduce
the measured calorific value of a gas. This will manifest itself in a day/night sine wave effect on the recorder chart,
with the calorific value recording higher in the heat of the day and lower in the cool of the night.
5.2.4 Precautions by applying heating and insulation
In order to avoid condensation problems, the sample handling equipment temperature shall be kept above the gas
dew point at any pressure in the sampling system. Also the gas may be pre-heated, as indicated in figure 2.
5.3 Adsorption and desorption
The process whereby some gas components are adsorbed on to or desorbed from the surfaces of a solid are called
sorption effects. The force of attraction between some gas components and solids is purely physical and depends
on the nature of the participating materials.
Natural gas may contain several components which exhibit strong sorption effects. Special attention shall be given
to this in the case of the determination of trace concentrations of heavy hydrocarbons or impurities.
5.4 Leaks and diffusion
A regular check of the leaktightness of the lines and devices shall be carried out, in order to detect leaks. Minor
leaks or diffusion would affect the composition in the case of trace determinations (water or atmospheric oxygen
may diffuse into the tube or the container, even at high pressure: the partial-pressure difference for a constituent
determines the direction in which it will diffuse). Take special care when hydrogen is present.
Leaks can be detected using detergent solutions, by pressuring the sampling line, or by more sophisticated
methods such as portable leak detection equipment (e.g. mass spectometers).

---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------

SIST EN ISO 10715:2000
0 IS0
IS0 10715:1997(E)
5.5 Reactions and chemisorption
Reactive components can combine chemically with the sampling equipment (e.g. by oxidation) or exhibit
chemisorption. Also the materials used in the sampling equipment can catalyse reactions in the samples (e.g. in
mixtures with traces of hydrogen sulfide, water and carbonyl sulfide).
5.6 Precautions using drip pots
Drip pots or gas/liquid separators in a sample line system are intended to remove troublesome intrusive liquids.
Their application shall be considered carefully (see 8.4). Drip pots can accumulate liqu

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.