Full body photography

This Technical Specification is intended to provide a Full Body Image Format for pattern recognition services and applications requiring the exchange of full body image data. Its typical applications include:
a)   human examination of high resolution full body images;
b)   human verification of identity based on full body images;
c)   computer automated full body identification;
d)   computer automated full body verification.
To enable applications on a wide variety of devices, including devices that have limited data storage, and to improve image recognition accuracy, ISO/IEC 19794 standards are followed regarding not only data format, but also scene constraints (lighting, pose, expression, etc.), photographic properties (positioning, camera focus, etc.), and digital image attributes (image resolution, image size, etc.).
A specific biometric profile for cross-border interoperability is required for full body photographs. Full body photography standardization is required to get good quality database images for identification and verification using video surveillance and other similar system generated images. At the moment, border guards take full body photographs using local practices for enrolment, verification, identification and watch list identification.
ISO 22311:2012 [10] specifies a common output file format that can be extracted from the video-surveillance contents collection systems to perform necessary processing. ISO/IEC 30137 [8] specifies data formats for storing, recording and transmitting biometric information acquired via a video surveillance system. The EN 62676 series [11] defines video surveillance systems for use in security applications.
The purpose of this Technical Specification is to provide expert guidance (i.e. best practices) for the photography of full body, especially when the resulting images are to be used for purposes of identification and verification, either by automated recognition systems or by human viewers.

Ganzkörperfotografie

Photographie du corps entier

Fotografija celega telesa

Ta tehnična specifikacija je namenjena zagotavljanju formata slike celega telesa za storitve in aplikacije za prepoznavanje vzorcev, pri katerih je potrebna izmenjava podatkov o sliki celega telesa. Običajni načini uporabe vključujejo:
a) človeški pregled visokoločljivostnih slik celega telesa;
b) človeško preverjanje identitete na podlagi slik celega telesa;
c) računalniško avtomatizirano prepoznavanje celega telesa;
d) računalniško avtomatizirano preverjanje celega telesa;
Za omogočanje uporabe prek številnih naprav, vključno z napravami z omejenim prostorom za shranjevanje podatkov, in za izboljšanje natančnosti prepoznavanja slik je treba upoštevati standarde ISO/IEC 19794 ne le glede formata podatkov, ampak tudi glede omejitev prizora (osvetlitev, položaj, izraz itd.), lastnosti fotografiranja (določanje položaja, fokus kamere itd.) in atributov digitalnih slik (ločljivost slike, velikost slike itd.).
Za fotografije celega telesa je potreben poseben biometrični profil za izvozno medobratovalnost. Standardizacija fotografije celega telesa je potrebna za pridobivanje slik za zbirko podatkov dobre kakovosti za identifikacijo in preverjanje z video nadzorom in drugimi podobnimi sistemsko ustvarjenimi slikami. Trenutno mejni policisti fotografirajo celo telo s pomočjo lokalnih praks za vpis, preverjanje, identifikacijo in identifikacijo na seznamu opazovanih oseb.
Standard ISO 22311:2012 [10] določa skupno izhodno obliko zapisa datoteke, ki jo je mogoče pridobiti iz zbirnih sistemov video nadzornih vsebin za izvajanje potrebne obdelave. Standard ISO/IEC 30137 [8] določa podatkovne formate za shranjevanje, snemanje in prenašanje biometričnih informacij, pridobljenih prek video nadzornega sistema. Skupina standardov EN 62676 [11] določa video nadzorne sisteme za varnostne aplikacije.
Namen te tehnične specifikacije je zagotoviti strokovne smernice (tj. najboljše prakse) za fotografiranje celega telesa, zlasti kadar se bodo nastale slike uporabljale za namene identifikacije in preverjanja z avtomatiziranimi sistemi za prepoznavanje ali osebnimi pregledi.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Dec-2016
Publication Date
07-Aug-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
19-May-2017
Due Date
24-Jul-2017
Completion Date
08-Aug-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17051:2017
01-september-2017
Fotografija celega telesa
Full body photography
Ganzkörperfotografie
Photographie du corps entier
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 17051:2017
ICS:
35.240.15 ,GHQWLILNDFLMVNHNDUWLFHýLSQH Identification cards. Chip
NDUWLFH%LRPHWULMD cards. Biometrics
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17051:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17051:2017
CEN/TS 17051
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
May 2017
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 35.240.15
English Version
Full body photography
Photographie du corps entier Ganzköperfotografie

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 6 February 2017 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUN G
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 17051:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative reference ...................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Abbreviated terms .......................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Conformance ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Data structures................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Body Tree concept .......................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Camera images ................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3 Metadata ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.3.2 Pose Angle – Yaw ............................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3.3 Pose angle encoding .................................................................................................................................... 10

7 Recommendations for Full Body Photography Systems ................................................................ 11

7.1 Architecture ................................................................................................................................................... 11

7.2 Usability and accessibility......................................................................................................................... 11

7.3 Practical applications ................................................................................................................................. 11

7.4 Photograph sets ............................................................................................................................................ 12

7.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

7.4.2 Gait recognition ............................................................................................................................................ 12

7.4.3 Image recognition ........................................................................................................................................ 14

8 Full body photography ............................................................................................................................... 14

8.1 Full body image technical requirements ............................................................................................. 14

8.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

8.1.2 Example full body photographs .............................................................................................................. 14

8.2 Full body photography session ............................................................................................................... 16

8.2.1 Typical workflow for full body photography session ..................................................................... 16

8.2.2 Full body photograph content requirements..................................................................................... 17

9 Photo studio recommendations for full body photography ......................................................... 17

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

9.2 Recommended camera orientation ....................................................................................................... 18

9.3 Recommended positioning and distance between camera and subject .................................. 18

9.4 Recommended focusing settings ............................................................................................................ 19

9.5 Recommended white balance settings ................................................................................................. 19

9.6 Recommended backdrop design ............................................................................................................ 19

9.6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19

9.6.2 Example configurations for a photo studio......................................................................................... 20

10 Photography Use Cases .............................................................................................................................. 21

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

10.2 Photographic System Baseline Use Cases ............................................................................................ 21

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11 Image Acquisition Measurement Methods .......................................................................................... 23

11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

11.2 Exposure metering at various spots on a subject ............................................................................. 24

11.3 Standard Test Chart Setup ......................................................................................................................... 24

11.3.1 The ISO 12233 Test Chart .......................................................................................................................... 25

11.3.2 Grey scale, colour checking and EN 61966-8 test charts ................................................................ 26

11.4 Measurement preparations and analysis ............................................................................................ 26

11.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

11.4.2 Preparations ................................................................................................................................................... 27

11.4.3 Analysis ............................................................................................................................................................ 27

11.4.4 Camera image dynamic range checking ............................................................................................... 28

11.4.5 Lighting checking .......................................................................................................................................... 28

11.4.6 Background checking .................................................................................................................................. 28

12 Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 29

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 30

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 17051:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 224

“Personal identification, electronic signature and cards and their related systems and operations”, the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

Most countries around the world are provided with identification systems for law enforcement and

border control. Many of these systems are not limited to face recognition purposes. To be consistent in

such deployments and processes, technical documents, guidelines and best practice recommendations

are being developed by different groups. However, these documents are primarily focused on travel

document systems and the technical and operational issues to be considered when planning and

deploying such systems in Europe. Full body recognition is the biometric mode used as a secondary

mode in addition to face recognition or for forensic purposes. Face recognition is the biometric mode

suited to the practicalities of travel documents.

There is little guidance covering the full body imaging for cross-border interoperability or law

enforcement services. There is a need for guidance for the use of high quality digital cameras and video

surveillance devices for full body photography. This Technical Specification is not restricted to body

image data. For example, it may be possible to extract iris images in some scenarios where high

resolution cameras are used or body silhouette data for gait recognition when low resolution cameras

are in use.
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1 Scope

This Technical Specification is intended to provide a Full Body Image Format for pattern recognition

services and applications requiring the exchange of full body image data. Its typical applications

include:
a) human examination of high resolution full body images;
b) human verification of identity based on full body images;
c) computer automated full body identification;
d) computer automated full body verification.

To enable applications on a wide variety of devices, including devices that have limited data storage,

and to improve image recognition accuracy, ISO/IEC 19794 standards are followed regarding not only

data format, but also scene constraints (lighting, pose, expression, etc.), photographic properties

(positioning, camera focus, etc.), and digital image attributes (image resolution, image size, etc.).

A specific biometric profile for cross-border interoperability is required for full body photographs. Full

body photography standardization is required to get good quality database images for identification

and verification using video surveillance and other similar system generated images. At the moment,

border guards take full body photographs using local practices for enrolment, verification, identification

and watch list identification.

ISO 22311:2012 [10] specifies a common output file format that can be extracted from the video-

surveillance contents collection systems to perform necessary processing. ISO/IEC 30137 [8] specifies

data formats for storing, recording and transmitting biometric information acquired via a video

surveillance system. The EN 62676 series [11] defines video surveillance systems for use in security

applications.

The purpose of this Technical Specification is to provide expert guidance (i.e. best practices) for the

photography of full body, especially when the resulting images are to be used for purposes of

identification and verification, either by automated recognition systems or by human viewers.

2 Normative reference

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 61966-8, Multimedia systems and equipment - Colour measurement and management - Part 8:

Multimedia colour scanners

ISO 12233, Photography — Electronic still picture imaging — Resolution and spatial frequency responses

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
biometric verification
process of confirming a biometric claim through biometric comparison
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-37]
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3.2
biometric identification

process of searching against a biometric enrolment database to find and return the biometric reference

identifier(s) attributable to a single individual
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-37]
3.3
CCTV
closed-circuit television
video surveillance

system that sends television signals to a limited number of screens or other receivers, and is often used

in shops and public places to prevent crime
3.4
originally described digital cinema (4096 × 2160 px)

Note 1 to entry: Digital Cinema resolution is not often used in television, the term “4K” or “4K Ultra HD”

(3840 × 2160 px) was invented to achieve a 16 × 9 aspect ratio.
4 Abbreviated terms
ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation number One
CCTV closed-circuit television
CEN European Committee for Standardization

CIE International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage)

DCI Digital Cinema Initiatives consortium
DSLR Digital single-lens reflex camera
EU European Union
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
ISO International Organization for Standardization
JTC Joint Technical Committee
MP4 digital multimedia file format used to store video and audio
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
RGB Red Green Blue colour representation
SD Standard-definition television
WG Working Group
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5 Conformance

Conformity with this document requires compliance with the record format specification defined in

Clause 6.
6 Data structures
6.1 Body Tree concept

A full body photography system produces photographs for human examination and for automated full

body verification and identification.

Figure 1 — Example of biometric features for various processes provided by full body images

and videos

Standard poses help the parsing of the body tree. Parsing can be done using methods utilizing

algorithms which process the human body as an assembly of parts. Segmentation can be used as a pre-

processing step.
6.2 Camera images

It is recommended to take pictures using vertical camera orientation. The original camera image is

saved whenever possible without any additional cropping, rotation or other image processing. The full

body pose shall be between 60 % and 90 % of the vertical length of the image. The whole body width

shall be visible. The margin area around the human figure shall be at least 5 % of the image height.

To satisfy the requirements for minimum image size, the normative practice shall be to fill any

undefined set of pixels with sRGB middle grey (128, 128, 128). This process does not refer to the filling

of the background along the body contour line, which shall be avoided in full body images. The middle

grey is a tone that is perceptually about halfway between black and white on a lightness scale. The use

of grey is based on the assumption that human viewer is less distracted by the image fringe area when

grey is used if compared to white or black borders. In the sRGB colour space used widely in monitors

and photography, CIELAB middle grey is equivalent to 46,6 % brightness. Middle grey is typically

defined as 18 % reflectance in visible light.

For a level-51 image capture profile, the minimum number of pixels in the digital image shall be 2400

pixels in the horizontal direction by 3200 pixels in the vertical direction. Off-the-shelf 8 megapixel

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digital cameras satisfy this requirement. Most robust mobile phones are capable of taking level 51 or

higher level images.

Level 50 image size is compatible with 4K video format as shown in Table 1. 4K is typically a landscape

format when both level-50 and level-51/52 has been defined as portrait formats.

Image orientation is generally not a problem as JPEG Exif (Exchangeable image file format) metadata

shows the camera orientation. MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 (ISO/IEC 14496-10 MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced

Video Coding) implementations for video coding allow frame extraction for biometric sample

comparison processing to take place. MPEG-4 Part 14 or MP4 is a digital multimedia format most

commonly used to store video and audio. MPEG-4 Part 14 (formally ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003) is a

standard specified as a part of MPEG-4. MP4 is the related file format.
Table 1 — Comparison of image formats
Image format name (details) resolution aspect ratio pixels
Level-51/52 (profile) * 2400 × 3200 1:1.33 (3:4) 7,680,000
Level-50 (profile) * 3300 × 4400 1:1.33 (3:4) 14,520,000
DCI 4K (native resolution) 4096 × 2160 1,90:1 (19:10) 8,847,360

*ANSI/NIST has defined best practices for mugshots. These definitions are used as a baseline also for

full body images. For an ANSI/NIST level-50 [4] image capture profile, the minimum number of pixels in

the digital image shall be 3300 pixels in the horizontal direction by 4400 pixels in the vertical direction.

Off-the-shelf 15 (or more) megapixel digital cameras satisfy this requirement.
6.3 Metadata
6.3.1 General

It is required to include the pose angle as descriptive metadata. Pose angles are defined relative to the

frontal pose of the subject. See Figure 2 for the definition of the pose angle.
6.3.2 Pose Angle – Yaw

The yaw angle Y is the rotation in degrees about the y-axis (vertical axis) shown in Figure 2. Frontal

poses have a yaw angle of 0 degrees. Positive angles represent faces looking to their left (a counter-

clockwise rotation around the y-axis).
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Figure 2 —Definition of the yaw body pose angle. Pitch and Roll are not in use for the body

(0,0,0) (+45,0,0) (+90,0,0) (+135,0,0) (+180,0,0) (−135,0,0) (−90,0,0) (−45,0,0)

Figure 3 — Examples of pose angles applied for full body images in the same way as for facial

images
6.3.3 Pose angle encoding

Information exchange file in XML or ASN.1 format should contain proper pose angle data. Following

XML definition is similar to the Figure 3 facial image (−45,0,0) pose angle, image on the right:

< BodyInformation >
< PoseAngle >
< Yaw Uncertainty = ”0” > −45 < /Yaw >
< /PoseAngle >
< /BodyInformation >

Binary encoding enables the XML or ASN.1 usage in bandwidth or storage constrained environments.

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7 Recommendations for Full Body Photography Systems
7.1 Architecture

The aspects that could be considered by the definition of full body photography system architecture

are:
— biometric capture sub-process, carried out by a photographic capture unit;

— image formatting sub-process, carried out by a photographic application program;

— visualization of process and results, both for operator and the subject of biometric authentication

process;
— integrity of photography system;

— denial of service (system is supposed to be used only by authorized operator), what can be done

e.g. with biometric verification of operator;

— connection to other systems (databases, etc.) with the focus on protocols and the integrity of such

connection.

Only first two aspects are in the scope of this document. The other aspects are covered with the

documents in Bibliography and not in detail considered in this document.
7.2 Usability and accessibility

Accessible systems should be designed to be equitable in use for subjects who have permanent or

temporary physical or psychological inabilities. They should be easy to use and with a wide tolerance of

operation. For subjects that cannot use the biometric system alternative systems are necessary and

should be provided.

General guidance on these aspects is given in ISO/IEC/TR 24714-1:2008 [1]. Pictogram

recommendations can be found in ISO/IEC 24779 [8] standards.
7.3 Practical applications

In practice, full body images and walk through videos are taken from crime suspects and saved to

databases. The biometric capture process may involve a single biometric capture device (camera) or

several devices. Biometric features are extracted from high resolution samples. High resolution images

and 4K videos carry enough information for various biometric processes. Biometric reference is formed

as the stored biometric samples are attributed to a biometric data subject and used as the object of

biometric comparison.

Depending on the cultural requirements persons are photographed wearing clothing or near naked.

According to Interpol guidelines [2] photographic and video recording of bodies at the disaster site and

within the mortuary is important both for evidence and because it can help to establish the cause of the

incident.

State-of-the-art image recognition algorithms can be used to select images of people with almost no

useful identity information in the face. Recognition of the face alone in these cases are near chance level,

but recognition of the person based on larger part of the body is accurate, according to the research

work done at the University of Texas at Dallas [3]: “For twenty years, the assumption in the automatic

face recognition community has been that all important identity information is in the face. These results

should point us toward exploring new ways to improve automatic recognition.”
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Body images appear in video surveillance videos more often than clear face images. Faces and body

images are added to the watch lists from observation of behaviours in the video material. In order to

increase the international interoperability of the biometric samples, it was necessary to create a

standard describing the biometric sample formats for full body images.

SD video frame comparison with high quality reference images gives better results than comparing two

SD level images. At the moment 4K DSLRs capable of taking high resolution still images and 4K video

are available at a reasonable price. Video surveillance systems evolve from HD to 4K in the near future

and therefore the resolution level of still images should be high. A passport quality face image is

obtained by cropping the 4K full body frontal image of a person.

Data formats for biometrics in video surveillance systems (ISO/IEC 30137-3) [6] and high efficiency

coding (ISO/IEC 23008-12) [7] are standardized for data format integration work.
7.4 Photograph sets
7.4.1 General

The set of photographs shall include at least five photographs of the subject: (frontal, left full profile,

right full profile, left half profile and right half profile).

Gait recognition and full body recognition can be paired to form a multi-mode biometric process in

order to improve the performance of a biometric system. If the person's facial area is not visible or the

amount of pixels in a video surveillance or other security camera still image is too low then body

silhouette can be used for identification or verification purposes.
7.4.2 Gait recognition

A gait recognition silhouette is the image of a person represented as a solid shape of a single colour,

usually black. The edges of a silhouette match the outline of the subject. Gait recognition walk through

video recording is recommended to improve the performance of both gait recognition and full body

photometric recognition.

To ensure that the gait sequence captures the body movement in detail, it is recommended that the

sequence is captured at the rate of 30 frames per second. This is a typical frame rate used in gait

research databases such as the CMU MoBo database and USF HumanID gait database.

In order to capture all the details of a gait signature, minimum of one full gait cycle, i.e. two full steps,

shall be captured. Figure 4 illustrates the silhouettes of the phases of one full gait cycle.

In preparation.
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Key
a, b, e stance phases
b, d swing phases
Figure 4 — Illustration of the phases of a full gait cycle

Various automated methods have been developed for gait recognition. Some methods use the image

data as an input while others only use silhouettes. Also, automated methods can use either aligned

images or non-aligned images. The capture process should allow for any method to be used for

automated recognition, therefore the gait sequence should be captured with a stationary camera.

The side view is the most discriminative view of a gait sequence. The subject should be instructed to

walk on a straight line perpendicular to the camera line of sight as illustrated in Figure 5. When thread

mill is used for walking it is easier to maintain stationary view of the person in the middle of the fr

...

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