Soil quality - Determination of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water-retention characteristic - Wind's evaporation method (ISO 11275:2004)

EN-ISO 11275 specifies a laboratory method for the simultaneous determination in soils of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and of the soil water-retention characteristic. It is applicable only to measurement of the drying or desorption curve. Application of the method is restricted to soil samples which are, as far as possible, homogeneous. The range of the determination of the conductivity depends on the soil type.

Bodenbeschaffenheit - Bestimmung der ungesättigten hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit und des Wasserrückhaltevermögens - Evaporationsverfahren nach Wind (ISO 11275:2004)

Diese Internationale Norm legt ein Laborverfahren für die simultane Bestimmung der ungesättigten hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit und des Wasserrückhaltevermögens eines Bodens fest. Sie ist nur für die Ermittlung der Trocknungs- bzw. der Desorptionskurve anwendbar. Die Anwendung ist auf Bodenproben beschränkt, die so weit wie möglich homogen sind. Sie ist nicht anwendbar auf Böden, die innerhalb der folgenden Matrixhöhen schrumpfen können: hm = 0 cm bis hm = –800 cm.
Der Bestimmungsbereich der Leitfähigkeit hängt von der Bodenart ab. Er liegt zwischen Matrixhöhen von etwa hm = –50 cm bis hm = –700 cm.
Der Bestimmungsbereich des Wasserrückhaltevermögens liegt etwa zwischen hm = 0 cm bis hm = –800 cm.
ANMERKUNG 1   Zur Bestimmung der hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit nahe dem gesättigten Bereich kann ein Infiltrometerverfahren angewendet werden.
ANMERKUNG 2   ISO 11274 enthält Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Wasserrückhaltevermögens bei Matrixhöhen zwischen 0 cm bis –15 000 cm.

Qualité du sol - Détermination de la conductivité hydraulique en milieu non saturé et de la caractéristique de rétention en eau - Méthode par évaporation de Wind (ISO 11275:2004)

L'ISO 11275:2004 spécifie une méthode de laboratoire pour la détermination simultanée de la conductivité hydraulique en milieu non saturé et de la caractéristique de rétention en eau du sol. Elle est applicable uniquement au mesurage de la courbe de dessèchement ou de désorption. L'application de cette méthode est limitée à des échantillons de sol qui sont, autant que possible, homogènes. Cette méthode n'est pas applicable aux sols présentant un retrait dans la plage de charge matricielle comprise entre 0 cm et moins 800 cm.
La plage de détermination de la conductivité dépend du type de sol. Elle se situe entre des charges matricielles comprises environ entre moins 50 cm et moins 700 cm.
La plage de détermination de la caractéristique de rétention en eau se situe environ entre 0 cm et moins 800 cm.

Kakovost tal - Določanje hidravlične prevodnosti in karakteristik zadrževanja vode v nenasičenih tleh - Metoda izhlapevanja po Windu (ISO 11275:2004)

Standard EN-ISO 11275 določa laboratorijsko metodo za hkratno določanje hidravlične prevodnosti in karakteristik zadrževanja vode v nenasičenih tleh. Uporablja se samo za merjenje sušilne ali desorpcijske krivulje. Uporaba te metode je omejena na vzorce tal, ki so, kolikor je le mogoče, homogeni. Razpon določanja prevodnosti je odvisen od vrste tal.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Oct-2013
Publication Date
08-Apr-2014
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
31-Mar-2014
Due Date
05-Jun-2014
Completion Date
09-Apr-2014

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
01-maj-2014

.DNRYRVWWDO'RORþDQMHKLGUDYOLþQHSUHYRGQRVWLLQNDUDNWHULVWLN]DGUåHYDQMDYRGH

YQHQDVLþHQLKWOHK0HWRGDL]KODSHYDQMDSR:LQGX ,62

Soil quality - Determination of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and water-retention

characteristic - Wind's evaporation method (ISO 11275:2004)

Bodenbeschaffenheit - Bestimmung der ungesättigten hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit und

des Wasserrückhaltevermögens - Evaporationsverfahren nach Wind (ISO 11275:2004)

Qualité du sol - Détermination de la conductivité hydraulique en milieu non saturé et de

la caractéristique de rétention en eau - Méthode par évaporation de Wind (ISO
11275:2004)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 11275:2014
ICS:
13.080.40 Hidrološke lastnosti tal Hydrological properties of
soils
SIST EN ISO 11275:2014 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 11275
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2014
ICS 13.080.40
English Version
Soil quality - Determination of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity
and water-retention characteristic - Wind's evaporation method
(ISO 11275:2004)

Qualité du sol - Détermination de la conductivité Bodenbeschaffenheit - Bestimmung der ungesättigten

hydraulique en milieu non saturé et de la caractéristique de hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit und des

rétention en eau - Méthode par évaporation de Wind (ISO Wasserrückhaltevermögens - Verdunstungsverfahren nach

11275:2004) Wind (ISO 11275:2004)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 March 2014.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 11275:2014 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
EN ISO 11275:2014 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
EN ISO 11275:2014 (E)
Foreword

The text of ISO 11275:2004 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190 “Soil quality” of the

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 11275:2014 by

Technical Committee CEN/TC 345 “Characterization of soils” the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2014, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by September 2014.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 11275:2004 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 11275:2014 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11275
First edition
2004-07-01
Corrected version
2004-11-01
Soil quality — Determination of
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and
water-retention characteristic — Wind's
evaporation method
Qualité du sol — Détermination de la conductivité hydraulique en milieu
non saturé et de la caractéristique de rétention en eau — Méthode par
évaporation de Wind
Reference number
ISO 11275:2004(E)
ISO 2004
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
ISO 11275:2004(E)
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© ISO 2004

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electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
ISO 11275:2004(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols ................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Principle ................................................................................................................................................ 3

6 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................... 9

9 Accuracy ............................................................................................................................................... 9

10 Test report ............................................................................................................................................ 9

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................... 11

ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
ISO 11275:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 11275 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 5, Physical

methods.

This corrected version of ISO 11275:2004 incorporates the following corrections of inadvertent omissions:

a) in Equation (5) a minus sign has been added to the numerator on the right-hand side of the equation;

b) in Equation (9) a fourth term, ϕ� , has been added to the right-hand side of the equation.

i,j+1
iv ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
ISO 11275:2004(E)
Introduction

Soil water content and matric pressure are related to each other and determine the water-retention

characteristics of a soil. Soil water, which is in equilibrium with free water, is at zero matric pressure (or suction)

and either the soil is saturated or the gaseous phase occurs only as small bubbles. As a saturated soil dries, the

matric pressure decreases (i.e. becomes more negative), and the largest pores empty of water. Progressive

decreases in matric pressure will continue to empty finer pores until eventually water is held in only the finest

pores. Not only is water removed from soil pores, but the films of water held around soil particles are reduced in

[8],[9]

thickness. Therefore, a decreasing matric pressure is associated with decreasing soil water content .

Laboratory or field measurements of these two parameters can be made; and the relationship (which can be

reported graphically, in tabular form, or possibly as an equation) is called the soil water-retention characteristic.

The relationship extends from saturated soil to oven-dry soil (approximately 0 kPa to about −10 kPa matric

pressure).

The soil water-retention characteristic is different for each soil type. The shape and position of the curve relative

to the axes depend on soil properties such as texture, density and hysteresis associated with the wetting and

drying history. Individual points on the water-retention characteristic curve may be defined for specific purposes.

The hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the rate at which liquid water can move through the soil under the

influence of variations in matric pressure from point to point within the soil. The hydraulic conductivity of

unsaturated soil depends on the same factors as does the soil water-retention characteristic, also showing

hysteresis. As a saturated soil dries, the hydraulic conductivity decreases, and it is convenient to express the

hydraulic conductivity corresponding to the soil water-retention characteristic as a function of the decreasing

matrix pressure.
The results obtained using these methods can be used, for example:

— to provide an assessment of the equivalent pore-size distribution (e.g. identification of macro- and micro-

pores);

— to determine indices of plant-available water in the soil and to classify soil accordingly (e.g. for irrigation

purposes);

— to determine the drainable pore space (e.g. for drainage design, pollution risk assessments);

— to monitor changes in the structure of a soil (caused by e.g. tillage, compaction or addition of organic matter

or synthetic soil conditioners);

— to ascertain the relationship between the negative matric pressure and other soil physical properties (e.g.

hydraulic conductivity, thermal conductivity);

— to determine water content at specific negative matric pressures (e.g. for microbiological degradation

studies);
— to estimate other soil physical properties.
ISO 2004 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11275:2004(E)
Soil quality — Determination of unsaturated hydraulic
conductivity and water-retention characteristic — Wind's
evaporation method
1Scope

This International Standard specifies a laboratory method for the simultaneous determination in soils of the

unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and of the soil water-retention characteristic. It is applicable only to

measurement of the drying or desorption curve. Application of the method is restricted to soil samples which

are, as far as possible, homogeneous. The method is not applicable to soils which shrink in the range of matric

head h = 0cmto h =−800 cm.
m m

The range of the determination of the conductivity depends on the soil type. It lies between matric heads of

approximately h =−50 cmand h =−700 cm.
m m

The range of the determination of the water-retention characteristic lies between matric heads of approximately

h = 0cm and h =−800 cm.
m m

NOTE 1 An infiltrometer method can be used to determine hydraulic conductivities near saturation.

NOTE 2 ISO 11274 gives methods to determine the water-retention characteristic for matric heads between 0cm and

−15 000 cm.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10381-1, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes

ISO 10381-4, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 4: Guidance on the procedure for investigation of natural, near-

natural and cultivated sites

ISO 11274, Soil quality — Determination of the water-retention characteristic — Laboratory methods

ISO 11276, Soil quality — Determination of pore water pressure — Tensiometer method

ISO 11461, Soil quality — Determination of soil water content as a volume fraction using coring sleeves —

Gravimetric method
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
ISO 11275:2004(E)
3.1
hydraulic conductivity

factor of proportionality between the soil water flux density, v, and the hydraulic gradient ∇h in Darcy's

equation, assuming isotropic conditions, i.e.
v =−K∇h

NOTE For the purposes of this document, conductivity is used synonymously for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity.

3.2
soil water-retention characteristic
retention characteristic

relation between soil water content and soil matric head of a given soil (sample)

3.3
gravitational head

amount of work that must be done in order to transport reversibly and isothermally an infinitesimal quantity of

water, identical in composition to the soil water, from a pool at a specified elevation and at atmospheric

pressure, to a similar pool at the elevation of the point under consideration, divided by the mass of water

transported
3.4
matric head

amount of work that must be done in order to transport reversibly and isothermally an infinitesimal quantity of

water, identical in composition to the soil water, from a pool at the elevation and the external gas pressure of the

point under consideration, to the soil water at the point under consideration, divided by the mass of water

transported
3.5
pneumatic head

amount of work that must be done in order to transport reversibly and isothermally an infinitesimal quantity of

water, identical in composition to the soil water, from a pool at atmospheric pressure and at the elevation of the

point under consideration, to a similar pool at the external gas pressure of the point under consideration, divided

by the mass of water transported
3.6
pressure head
tensiometer head
sum of the matric and pneumatic heads

NOTE The pneumatic head is assumed to be zero for the purposes of this method. On this basis, the pressure head equals

the matric head.
3.7
hydraulic head
sum of the matric, pneumatic and gravitational heads
4 Symbols
a height, in centimetres;
h pneumatic head, in centimetres;
h = h +h +h
hydraulic head , in centimetres;
h a g m
h gravitational head, in centimetres;
h matric head, in centimetres;
2 ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11275:2014
ISO 11275:2004(E)
h pressure head = tensiometer head h +h , in centimetres;
p a m
i compartment and tensiometer index;
j time and measurement interval index;
k compartment index;
K unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, in centimetres per day (cm·d );
m mass, in kilograms;
m mass of soil sample at the end of the test, in kilograms;
t time, in days (d)
v soil water volume flux density, in centimetres per day (cm·d );
V volume, in cubic metres;
z vertical coordinate, in centimetres;
ϕ water content as volume fraction;
ρ density of water, in kilograms per cubic metre.
5 Principle

Undisturbed samples of soil are taken from the field in accordance with ISO 10381-1. Each soil sample is first

wetted to near saturation in the laboratory. Then the sample is allowed to dry by evaporation from the top

surface; at known times during this period, pressure heads are measured at different depths in the sample using

tensiometers, and the mass of the sample is measured. These measurements are continued until air enters any

of the tensiometers. This can take a few days to two weeks depending on the type of soil. At the end of the test,

after completing these measurements, the sample is dried and weighed, and its water content is calculated for

each of the measurement times.

The sample is considered as two or more compartments (sub-samples), one for each tensiometer. For each of

the measurement times, the water content of each compartment is calculated from the water content of the

whole sample and the tensiometer readings. The soil w
...

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