This document describes a test method for conservation materials which can evaluate their impact on cellulose as the main constituent of paper-based collections caused by emission of their volatile compounds. NOTE This test can be extended to museum artefacts. This document is applicable to papers and boards used for conservation and storage of cellulose based items. It is not applicable to parchment-based items. It does not evaluate the effects due to direct contact between the papers and boards used for conservation and the collections.

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This document provides a context for emergency planning, response and recovery for all types of an archive, library or museum collections in light of other existing plans. It provides responders and other stakeholders with an outline for planning, responding and recovering. This document does not address the causes of a critical event, but the consequences and wider impacts. This document outlines a cycle for developing, exercising and reviewing a plan, and how to present a plan. It aims to encourage responders to develop their capabilities in emergency preparedness and touches on some elements of response and recovery, where relevant, by highlighting indicators of good practice. It is not intended to be an operations manual as there is no single approach that meets the needs of every site, nor is there one single set of organizational arrangements that is appropriate to each and every type of emergency.

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This document provides information on recent discussions and changes in recommendations and guidance on environmental management within the cultural heritage field. Conservation research on preventive methodologies and passive control provided by specific construction methods and renovations, developments in technology for controlling the environment, and energy and climate change issues are included. This document is intended for archives and libraries and other institutions with large volumes of collections that are based on paper. Archives and libraries also have collections that include film, magnetic media, leather, and other organic, inorganic or composite materials. These institutions have a unique challenge of extending the lifespan of these materials for access and use in the present and for future generations. The environment plays a key role in extending the lifespan of all of these materials. This document is intended for use in preservation planning and ongoing environmental management of permanent storage conditions for archives and library collections and applies to all collections being permanently stored for an institution.

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ISO/TR 19814:2017 provides guidance and recommendations in the planning, implementation, maintenance and improvement of the preservation of archive and library collections through: - recommendations and guidance for preservation planning and ongoing management of physical collections in archives and libraries; - procedures for managing collections in the stacks, research and reading rooms, conservation facilities and while on exhibit and during transportation. - guidance and recommendations for appropriate enclosures and containers for archive and library collections. ISO/TR 19814:2017 applies to preservation of archive and library physical collections of institutions and volumes small and large. It applies to all collections housed by an institution; their own collections and deposits or loans from other institutions. Some information on digital collections, born digital and digitized, for conservation is included for reference. ISO/TR 19814:2017 also applies to collections that are being managed by governmental agencies. This guidance is intended for collections that are being preserved for long-term use. Collections intended for long-term use need to be managed to mitigate many risks that can cause loss, including catastrophic loss from fire and floods, risks of vandalism and theft, to instability of materials, including acetate film and acidic paper. Collections management addresses the risks from a holistic perspective. It is recognized that compromises are necessary based on, among other factors, the quantity of collections in archives and libraries. The compromises can be managed when the factors of use, significance, vulnerability of the collections and the expertise and best practices from several fields are included in the decision-making process. ISO/TR 19814:2017 covers specifically the operations required to manage the collections environment that are relevant to the preservation policy and plan of the institution. This includes the monitoring of climate stability, control of exposure to light, preventive cleanliness measures and cleaning of the collections storage areas. The conservation treatment of individual items within the collections is not covered in ISO/TR 19814:2017.

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ISO/TS 18344:2016 defines test methods and minimum requirements for paper deacidification processes regarding their effectiveness and consistency. It is applicable for all large scale processes which offer deacidification of acid documents made of printed or hand-written paper. Possible negative side effects of deacidification processes on the treated objects are not the subject of this Technical Specification. However, some general recommendations for how to cope with these side effects are given in Annex A. It is not specified either, which types of paper objects can be treated by large scale deacidification methods. Whatever currently available deacidification method is used, some objects might be excluded from treatment to avoid mechanical damage to paper and bindings or other unwanted side effects. The provider of the deacidification treatment should inform the customer about the limitations of the chosen method.

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ISO 11799:2015 specifies the characteristics of repositories used for the long-term storage of archive and library materials. It covers the siting and construction and renovation of the building and the installation and equipment to be used both within and around the building. It applies to all archive and library materials held in repositories, where mixed media may be stored together with paper-based materials. It does not preclude the establishment of separate areas or compartments within individual repositories, where the environment can be controlled to create conditions suitable for the needs of specific archive materials. In a number of fields, national or local building regulations may encompass such matters as construction, safety and security for public buildings and buildings in which valuable objects are stored (fire precautions, emergency exits, security against earthquakes, theft, burglary, terrorist acts, etc.), as well as services and equipment in professional use. This International Standard therefore avoids detailed rules and regulations in these fields, except when recommending what may be additions to these requirements.

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ISO 16245:2009 specifies requirements for boxes and file covers, made of cellulosic material, to be used for long term storage of documents on paper or parchment. ISO 16245:2009 is applicable to boxes made of solid or corrugated board and to file covers made of paper or board. ISO 16245:2009 can also be applicable to other types of enclosure for long term storage such as cases, portfolios, tubes and envelopes made of cellulosic material. ISO 16245:2009 is not applicable to storage of photographic materials. NOTE ISO 18902 contains requirements on storage materials for photographs.

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ISO 14416:2003 is applicable to the binding of books, periodicals and archive documents which have special requirements for durability and permanence. The use, as well as the wear and tear, of library and archive documents varies. The choice of binding method should therefore relate to the appropriate requirements of a specific library or archive. The quality as well as the price of the binding is dependent on this choice. It is applicable to the following general procedures: first-time hard-cover binding of published and unpublished materials, and any other documents requiring this type of protection; rebinding of hard-cover monographs, serials and any other documents. It is not intended for binding volumes identified by a customer as having high artifactual or historical value, or for any volumes that, because of their physical characteristics, cannot or should not be bound according to ISO 14416:2003. Arrangements for special treatments should be made separately.

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This International Standard specifies requirements and test methods for evaluation of the permanence and durability of writing, printing and copying on paper stored in libraries, archives and other protected environments for long periods of time. It is applicable to images on paper with the exception of documents within the scope of ISO/TC 42, Photography; multicoloured images. The information contents of multicoloured images should be retained but not necessarily the full artistic quality of the coloured image. Documents where the information contents are influenced by small colour changes are not covered by this International Standard. It does not apply to documents stored under harmful conditions, such as high humidity that may promote microbiological attack, excessive heat, radiation (e.g. light), high levels of pollutants, or the influence of water. Since documents may be kept in non-protected environments before being transferred to protected environments, resistance to water and light is, however, of importance; legal documentation, e.g. banking documents, where the authenticity is of primary interest.

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This International Standard specifies manufacturing methods and materials that will result in durable hard cover and soft cover binding for books manufactured in commercial quantities. It does not apply to hand bookbinding, individual casing or binding of archival matter. Nor does it apply to fine binding which does not serve its normal purpose of primarily protecting a book block (such as sculptural art formed around book-like material). This International Standard has two normative annexes and one annex with a set of guidelines, each specifying the requirements for its special category of binding. Category A binding (annex A) is intended — for books of permanent retention; — for books produced with a view to heavy use over prolonged periods, e.g. reference works; — for valuable volumes requiring lasting protection; — for items having lasting aesthetic value. Category B binding (annex B) is intended — for books and periodicals in soft cover and of permanent retention; — for books and periodicals produced with a view to heavy use over prolonged periods; — for valuable volumes requiring lasting protection; — for items having aesthetic value. Guidelines that specify recommended manufacturing methods and materials for soft cover and hard cover adhesive-bound books are given in annex C. Annex D contains information regarding the fields of application suggested for category A and B bindings and for adhesive-bound books.

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Contains requirements for unprinted archival paper intended for documents and publications required for permanent retention and frequent use. For these purposes paper of high performance and high durability is required.

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Specifies the requirements for permanent paper intended for documents given in terms of minimum strength measured by a tear test, minimum content of substance (such as calcium carbonate) that neutralize acid action measured by the alkali reserve, maximum content of easily oxidized material measured by the kappa number, maximum and minimum pH values of a cold water extract of the paper. Is applicable to unprinted papers. Is not applicable to boards.

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ISO 11799:2003 specifies the characteristics of general-purpose repositories used for the long-term storage of archive and library materials. It covers the sitting and construction of the building and the installation and equipment to be used. It applies to all archive and library materials held in general-purpose repositories, where mixed media may be stored together. It does not preclude the establishment of separate areas or compartments within individual repositories where the environment can be controlled to create conditions suiting the needs of specific archive materials. It does not cover special requirements for the long-term storage of not or not fully paper-based documents such as parchment or vellum, photographic documents or machine-readable documents. It also does not cover repository management procedures.

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