Health informatics - Syntax to represent the content of healthcare classification systems - Classification Markup Language (ClaML) (ISO 13120:2019)

The main purpose of ClaML is to formally represent the content and hierarchical structure of healthcare classification systems in a markup language for the safe exchange and distribution of data and structure between organizations and dissimilar software products.
The scope of healthcare classification systems covered by this document encompasses terminologies, and is constrained to traditional paper-based systems (like ICD-10) and systems built according to categorial structures and a cross thesaurus (like ICNP)[2]. ClaML is intended for representation of healthcare classification systems in which classes have textual definitions, hierarchical ordering, named hierarchical levels (such as "chapter", "section"), inclusion and exclusion criteria, and codes. It is not intended to cover any formal representation, neither for definition or composition of concepts, nor for specification of classification rules. Systems with such formal specifications can at best be partially represented using ClaML, and are hence out of scope. Most of the notes and examples in this document relate to ICD. This is because ICD is the most common classification system in the scope of this document. As a highly complex classification system it is an inexhaustible source for examples of nearly any kind. But all these notes and examples represent also other similar classification systems, if applicable, which are usually less complex. An overview of currently known classification systems using ClaML is provided in a separate document which is electronically available (see 7.3).
This document is not intended to:
a)    provide a normative syntax on how a healthcare classification system is to be constructed;
b)    define link types between elements in a healthcare classification system (this is left to the developers of healthcare classification systems);
c)    provide a representation for direct viewing or printing.

Medizinische Informatik - Syntax zur Darstellung des Inhalts von Klassifikationssystemen für das Gesundheitswesen - Klassifikationsauszeichnungssprache (ClaML) (ISO 13120:2019)

Der Hauptzweck der Klassifikationsauszeichnungsklasse (ClaML) ist die formale Darstellung des Inhalts und
der hierarchischen Struktur von Klassifikationssystemen der Gesundheitsversorgung in einer Auszeichnungssprache
(en: markup language), um den sicheren Austausch und die Verbreitung von Daten und
Struktur zwischen Organisationen und verschiedenen Softwareprodukten zu ermöglichen.
Der Anwendungsbereich von Klassifikationssystemen der Gesundheitsversorgung, welche durch dieses
Dokument abgedeckt werden, umfasst Terminologien und ist beschränkt auf traditionelle, papierbasierte
Systeme (wie z. B. die ICD-10) und Systeme, die nach kategorialen Strukturen und einem Cross-Thesaurus
aufgebaut sind (wie z. B. die ICNP) [2]. ClaML ist für die Darstellung von Klassifikationssystemen für die
Gesundheitsversorgung vorgesehen, deren Klassen Textdefinitionen, eine hierarchische Ordnung, benannte
hierarchische Ebenen (wie z. B. “Kapitel”, “Abschnitt”), Einschluss- bzw. Ausschlusskriterien und Codes
enthalten. Sie ist nicht zur Abdeckung jeglicher formaler Darstellungen vorgesehen, weder zur Definition
oder Zusammensetzung von Konzepten noch zur Festlegung von Klassifikationsregeln. Systeme mit derartigen
formalen Festlegungen können bestenfalls teilweise durch ClaML dargestellt werden und liegen
deshalb außerhalb des Anwendungsbereiches. Die meisten Anmerkungen und Beispiele in diesem Dokument
beziehen sich auf die ICD. Dies liegt daran, dass die ICD das gängigste Klassifikationssystem im
Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokument ist. Als hochkomplexes Klassifikationssystem ist sie eine
unerschöpfliche Quelle für Beispiele fast jeder Art. All diese Anmerkungen und Beispiele gelten jedoch,
sofern anwendbar, auch für andere vergleichbare Klassifikationssysteme, die allerdings meist weniger
komplex sind. Ein Überblick über die derzeit bekannten Klassifikationssysteme der Gesundheitsversorgung
auf Basis von ClaML wird in einem gesonderten Dokument bereitgestellt, das elektronisch verfügbar ist
(siehe 7.3).
Dieses Dokument ist nicht dafür gedacht:
a) eine normative Syntax hinsichtlich des Aufbaus eines Klassifikationssystems der Gesundheitsversorgung
bereitzustellen;
b) Zusammenhänge zwischen Elementen von Klassifikationssystemen der Gesundheitsversorgung zu
definieren (dies obliegt den Entwicklern von Klassifikationssystemen der Gesundheitsversorgung);
c) ein direktes Darstellungs- und Druckformat bereitzustellen.

Informatique de santé - Syntaxe de représentation du contenu des systèmes de classification des soins de santé - Langage de balisage de la classification (ClaML) (ISO 13120:2019)

Le langage de balisage de classification (ClaML) vise principalement à représenter de manière formelle le contenu et la structure hiérarchique des systèmes de classification des soins de santé dans un langage de balisage pour l'échange et la diffusion sécurisés des données et de la structure entre les organismes et les produits logiciels dissemblables.
Le domaine d'application des systèmes de classification des soins de santé couvert par le présent document comprend les terminologies et se limite aux systèmes papier traditionnels (par exemple CIM-10) et aux systèmes compositionnels élaborés selon des structures catégorielles et un thésaurus croisé (par exemple ICNP).[2] Le langage de balisage de classification ClaML est destiné à la représentation de systèmes de classification des soins de santé dont les classes comportent des définitions textuelles, une hiérarchisation, des niveaux hiérarchiques nommés [tels que «chapter» (chapitre), «section» (section)], des critères d'inclusion et d'exclusion ainsi que des codes. Il n'est pas destiné à couvrir la représentation formelle d'aucune sorte, ni la définition de concepts, ni la spécification des règles de classification. Les systèmes contenant ces spécifications formelles ne peuvent être au mieux que partiellement représentés à l'aide de ClaML et ne sont donc pas couverts par le domaine d'application. La plupart des notes et des exemples du présent document sont relatifs au système CIM. En effet, le système de classification CIM est le plus courant dans le domaine d'application du présent document. Ce système de classification étant d'une grande complexité, il constitue une source inépuisable d'exemples de toutes sortes ou presque. Cependant, l'ensemble de ces notes et exemples représentent également d'autres systèmes de classification similaires généralement moins complexes, le cas échéant. Une vue d'ensemble des systèmes de classification actuels utilisant ClaML est fournie dans un document séparé, disponible sous forme électronique (voir 7.3).
Le présent document n'a pas pour objet de:
a)    fournir une syntaxe normative sur la manière dont un système de classification des soins de santé doit être construit;
b)    définir les types de liens entre les éléments d'un système de classification des soins de santé. Cette tâche appartient aux concepteurs des systèmes de classification des soins de santé;
c)    fournir une représentation permettant une visualisation ou une impression directe.

Zdravstvena informatika - Sintaksa predstavitve vsebine klasifikacijskih sistemov v medicini - Označevalski jezik za klasifikacijo (ClaML) (ISO 13120:2019)

Glavni namen ClaML je, da formalno predstavlja vsebino in hierarhično strukturo klasifikacijskih sistemov na področju zdravstva z označevalskim jezikom za varno izmenjavo ter distribucijo podatkov in struktur med organizacijami ter različnimi programskimi izdelki.
Obseg klasifikacijskih sistemov na področju zdravstva, zajet v tem dokumentu, vključuje terminologije in je omejen na tradicionalne papirne sisteme (kot je ICD-10) ter sisteme, zgrajene v skladu s kategorijskimi strukturami in navzkrižnim tezavrom (kot ICNP) [2]. ClaML je namenjen predstavitvi klasifikacijskih sistemov na področju zdravstva, v katerih razredi vključujejo besedilne definicije, hierarhično urejanje po hierarhičnih ravneh (kot so »poglavje«, »razdelek«), merila za vključitev in izključitev ter šifre. Ni namenjen za kakršno koli formalno predstavitev, prav tako ne za opredelitev ali sestavo pojmov, niti za določitev klasifikacijskih pravil. Sistemi s takšnimi formalnimi specifikacijami so lahko s ClaML v najboljšem primeru delno predstavljeni in so torej zunaj področja uporabe. Večina opomb in primerov v tem dokumentu se nanaša na ICD. To je zato, ker je ICD najpogostejši klasifikacijski sistem na področju uporabe tega dokumenta. Kot zelo zapleten klasifikacijski sistem je neizčrpen vir primerov skoraj vseh vrst. Toda vsi ti napotki in primeri predstavljajo tudi druge podobne klasifikacijske sisteme, kot je ustrezno, ki so običajno manj zapleteni. Pregled trenutno znanih klasifikacijskih sistemov, ki uporabljajo ClaML, je podan v ločenem dokumentu, ki je na voljo v elektronski obliki (glej 7.3).
Namen tega dokumenta ni:
a) zagotoviti normativno sintakso o tem, kako naj bo zgrajen klasifikacijski sistem na področju zdravstva;
b) določiti vrste povezav med elementi v klasifikacijskem sistemu na področju zdravstva (to je prepuščeno razvijalcem klasifikacijskih sistemov na področju zdravstva);
c) zagotoviti predstavitev za neposreden ogled ali tiskanje.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-May-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
29-May-2019
Completion Date
29-May-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
01-september-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 13120:2013

Zdravstvena informatika - Sintaksa predstavitve vsebine klasifikacijskih sistemov

v medicini - Označevalski jezik za klasifikacijo (ClaML) (ISO 13120:2019)

Health informatics - Syntax to represent the content of healthcare classification systems -

Classification Markup Language (ClaML) (ISO 13120:2019)
Medizinische Informatik - Syntax zur Darstellung des Inhalts medizinischer
Klassifikationssysteme - Klassifikations-Auszeichnungssprache (ClaML) (ISO
13120:2019))
Informatique de santé - Syntaxe de représentation du contenu des systèmes de

classification des soins de santé - Langage de marquage de la classification (ClaML)

(ISO 13120:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 13120:2019
ICS:
35.060 Jeziki, ki se uporabljajo v Languages used in
informacijski tehniki in information technology
tehnologiji
35.240.80 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in health care
zdravstveni tehniki technology
SIST EN ISO 13120:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
EN ISO 13120
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 35.240.80 Supersedes EN ISO 13120:2013
English Version
Health informatics - Syntax to represent the content of
healthcare classification systems - Classification Markup
Language (ClaML) (ISO 13120:2019)

Informatique de santé - Syntaxe de représentation du Medizinische Informatik - Syntax zur Darstellung des

contenu des systèmes de classification des soins de Inhalts medizinischer Klassifikationssysteme -

santé - Langage de balisage de la classification (ClaML) Klassifikations-Auszeichnungssprache (ClaML) (ISO

(ISO 13120:2019) 13120:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 16 November 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 13120:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
EN ISO 13120:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
EN ISO 13120:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 13120:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 215 "Health

informatics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 251 “Health informatics” the

secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2019, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 13120:2013.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 13120:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 13120:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13120
Second edition
2019-04
Health informatics — Syntax to
represent the content of healthcare
classification systems — Classification
Markup Language (ClaML)
Informatique de santé — Syntaxe de représentation du contenu des
systèmes de classification des soins de santé — Langage de balisage
de la classification (ClaML)
Reference number
ISO 13120:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
ISO 13120:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
ISO 13120:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Conventions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Classification markup language ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

7.1 Basis of the syntax ................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

7.2 HTML inclusion ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7.3 Electronic inserts .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7.4 Informative addenda .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.5 ClaML implementation profile ......... .......................................................................................................................................... 4

7.6 XML Schema Definition.................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.7 Semantic description of the Classification Markup Language ....................................................................12

7.7.1 ClaML ......................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.7.2 Classification ....................................................................................................................................................................12

7.7.3 Meta .........................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.7.4 Identifier ..............................................................................................................................................................................16

7.7.5 Title ..........................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.7.6 Authors ..................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.7.7 Author ....................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.7.8 Variants .................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.7.9 Variant ....................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.7.10 ClassKinds ...................................................................... .....................................................................................................19

7.7.11 ClassKind .............................................................................................................................................................................20

7.7.12 UsageKinds ........................................................................................................................................................................20

7.7.13 UsageKind ...........................................................................................................................................................................21

7.7.14 Usage .......................................................................................................................................................................................21

7.7.15 RubricKinds .......................................................................................................................................................................22

7.7.16 RubricKind .........................................................................................................................................................................22

7.7.17 Display ...................................................................................................................................................................................23

7.7.18 Modifier ................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.7.19 ModifierClass ...................................................................................................................................................................25

7.7.20 Class .........................................................................................................................................................................................26

7.7.21 ModifiedBy .........................................................................................................................................................................27

7.7.22 ExcludeModifier ............................................................................................................................................................29

7.7.23 ValidModifierClass .......................................................................................................................................................30

7.7.24 Rubric .....................................................................................................................................................................................31

7.7.25 Label ........................................................................................................................................................................................32

7.7.26 Extended XHTML anchor element (a) ........................................................................................................33

7.7.27 History ...................................................................................................................................................................................35

7.7.28 SuperClass ..........................................................................................................................................................................35

7.7.29 SubClass ................................................................................................................................................................................36

7.7.30 Fragment ..............................................................................................................................................................................37

7.7.31 Include ...................................................................................................................................................................................38

7.7.32 IncludeDescendants ...................................................................................................................................................39

Annex A (informative) Examples of usage of ClaML ...........................................................................................................................41

Annex B (informative) Suggested usage of ClaML attribute values ...................................................................................45

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
ISO 13120:2019(E)

Annex C (informative) Different ways of modification ...................................................................................................................47

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................58

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
ISO 13120:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 215, Health informatics.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 13120:2013), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Alignment of the Classification Markup Language (ClaML) to HTML;

— Replacement of the format ‘Document Type Definition’ (DTD) by an ‘XML Schema Definition’

(XSD);

— Provision of XSD files and further informative Annexes on the ISO Standards Maintenance Portal;

— Addition of a new Annex C on ‘Different ways of modification’;
— Complete editorial revision.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
ISO 13120:2019(E)
Introduction

Healthcare classification systems are developed and distributed in a variety of informal formats, such

as MS Word, with little consistency in approach between developers. Exchanging data from these

systems or attempting to parse the informal text into a more formal structure, say for publishing

purposes, presents many challenges because mistakes are easily made and difficult to detect. For

example, the accidental deletion of a tab can transform a sibling rubric into a parent. Text files with

comma-separated value fields are another mechanism widely used for storing and transferring data,

but as a solution here are limited by insufficient formal structuring capabilities.

In the interests of safely exchanging and distributing the content and hierarchical structure of

healthcare classification systems, this document presents a simple XML specification, ClaML, for

exchange and distribution of healthcare classification systems. XML is the chosen format for this syntax

as: a) XML provides the necessary structuring elements, and b) there are many readily available XML

parsers in existence.
This document builds on EN 14463:2008 and ISO 13120:2013.

In this version of the syntax representing ClaML 3.0.0 there had been performed a lot of structural

and content-related changes to solve known problems with ClaML 2.0.0 according to experiences out of

practical use and to serve additional demands of classification developers and end users. Major changes

are the replacement of the DTD (Document Type Definition) by an XSD (XML Schema Definition) and

the alignment with HTML by inclusion of XHTML 1.1.

ClaML is intended to serve as the core representation from which all publication forms can be derived.

It contains information of a depth sufficient to uniquely identify and describe the structure and relevant

elements of healthcare classification systems. This document does not intend to prescribe to developers

how healthcare classification systems should be structured, nor does it define or explain the meaning

of the structuring elements. ClaML is not meant to be a direct format for viewing or printing the content

of a healthcare classification system. Views and prints are to be derived from this representation by

post processing.
ClaML is targeted at:
[1]

a) developers of first generation healthcare classification systems to assist in the construction,

maintenance and publication (both in paper and electronic formats) of their particular healthcare

classification systems;

b) developers of information systems to assist in the inclusion of mechanisms for unambiguous

loading of healthcare classification systems into their applications;
c) organizations responsible for updating healthcare classification systems;
d) institutions receiving updated healthcare classification systems.
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13120:2019(E)
Health informatics — Syntax to represent the content of
healthcare classification systems — Classification Markup
Language (ClaML)
1 Scope

The main purpose of ClaML is to formally represent the content and hierarchical structure of healthcare

classification systems in a markup language for the safe exchange and distribution of data and structure

between organizations and dissimilar software products.

The scope of healthcare classification systems covered by this document encompasses terminologies,

and is constrained to traditional paper-based systems (like ICD-10) and systems built according to

[2]

categorial structures and a cross thesaurus (like ICNP) . ClaML is intended for representation of

healthcare classification systems in which classes have textual definitions, hierarchical ordering,

named hierarchical levels (such as “chapter”, “section”), inclusion and exclusion criteria, and codes. It

is not intended to cover any formal representation, neither for definition or composition of concepts,

nor for specification of classification rules. Systems with such formal specifications can at best be

partially represented using ClaML, and are hence out of scope. Most of the notes and examples in this

document relate to ICD. This is because ICD is the most common classification system in the scope of

this document. As a highly complex classification system it is an inexhaustible source for examples of

nearly any kind. But all these notes and examples represent also other similar classification systems,

if applicable, which are usually less complex. An overview of currently known classification systems

using ClaML is provided in a separate document which is electronically available (see 7.3).

This document is not intended to:

a) provide a normative syntax on how a healthcare classification system is to be constructed;

b) define link types between elements in a healthcare classification system (this is left to the

developers of healthcare classification systems);
c) provide a representation for direct viewing or printing.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country codes

ISO 639-1, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code

3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
ISO 13120:2019(E)
4 Abbreviated terms
ClaML Classification Markup Language
DTD Document Type Definition
[4][5][6]
HTML HyperText Markup Language
ICD International Classification of Diseases
ICF International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health
ICNP International Classification for Nursing Practice
OPS “Operationen und Prozedurenschlüssel”, the German procedure classification
WHO World Health Organization
[4][5][7]
XHTML Extensible HyperText Markup Language
[3]
XML Extensible Markup Language 1.0
XSD XML Schema Definition
5 Conformance

The normative part of this document is written in the form of an XML Schema Definition (XSD). Many

commercially available XML tools provide facilities to test the conformance of an XML document with

an XSD. Users of ClaML are encouraged to perform such a test before distributing their healthcare

classification systems in the format of this document.
6 Conventions

The font Courier New is used to denote XSD or XML content of ClaML. XML examples in this document

are only a partial representation of a ClaML file. For reasons of readability parts are left out at “...”.

In descriptive parts of this document bold text is used to denote elements and attributes defined in the

XSD. For names of elements Upper CamelCase is used (i.e. a single string, consisting of multiple words

without spaces, each starting with a capital); for names of attributes lowercase is used. Italic text in

quotation marks is used to denote attribute values.
NOTE Names of externally defined XHTML 1.1 elements are in lowercase.
7 Classification markup language
7.1 Basis of the syntax

The basis of the syntax is to represent the content of healthcare classification systems. The syntax

defined in this document is called Classification Markup Language. It is defined here in the form of

an XSD. The reference to this syntax will be headed to ClaML in this document. The version of ClaML

described in this document is version 3.0.0.
7.2 HTML inclusion

In the previous ClaML 2.0.0 version internally defined elements were used for representation of textual

content of a healthcare classification system. These elements originated from the DocBook standard.

Experiences with this version raised the wish to align ClaML to HTML for various reasons (e.g. HTML

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SIST EN ISO 13120:2019
ISO 13120:2019(E)

is more common, it enables easier transformation between different formats and it contains in ClaML

so far missing features for accessibility demands). Therefore for this version these elements have been

removed and replaced by inclusion of externally defined equivalent content of HTML. The module-

[5][7]

based XHTML 1.1 definition appeared to be the most suitable candidate for integration as it allows

the inclusion of the model (xhtml11-model-1.xsd) and modules (xhtml11-modules-1.xsd) schema files

into the same namespace of ClaML. This enables the use of these elements in a ClaML file without a

prefix. Extensions by redefinition of XHTML modules allow keeping ClaML specific functions. This

[6]

XHTML 1.1 inclusion should as well cover functionality of the HTML 5 specification in its basics,

which is not available as XML Schema Definition file. However, this partial inclusion does not meet

the official criteria for XHTML Host Language Document Type Conformance or XHTML Integration

Set Conformance. ClaML may therefore not be called “XHTML Host Language Conforming” or “XHTML

[7]
Integration Set Conforming” .

For further information on the specific use of XHTML 1.1 elements in ClaML refer to the notes on the

Label element in 7.7.25.1 and the extended XHTML anchor element (a) in 7.7.26.
7.3 Electronic inserts

The following electronic inserts are located in the ISO Standards Maintenance Portal 13120 folder:

http: //standards .iso .org/iso/13120/ed -2/en
...

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