Printed electronics - Part 302-5: Equipment - Inkjet - Significant characteristics of Inkjet Printing

IEC TR 62899-302-5:2023 provides the significant characteristics, parameters and system properties that are relevant for functional inkjet printing for printed electronics. Where possible, existing measurement standards and specifications are cited.

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IEC TR 62899-302-5

Edition 1.0 2023-07

Printed electronics –
Part 302-5: Equipment – Inkjet – Significant characteristics of inkjet printing

IEC TR 62899-302-5:2023-07(en)

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IEC TR 62899-302-5


Edition 1.0 2023-07



Printed electronics –

Part 302-5: Equipment – Inkjet – Significant characteristics of inkjet printing




ICS 19.080; 37.100.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-7173-5

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission

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– 2 – IEC TR 62899-302-5:2023 © IEC 2023
1 Scope . 6
2 Normative references . 6
3 Terms and definitions . 6
4 Inkjet printing . 6
4.1 General . 6
4.2 Issues of functional printing . 7
4.3 Components of inkjet printer . 7
4.4 Characteristics of inkjet head . 7
4.4.1 General . 7
4.4.2 Static physical properties . 7
4.4.3 Dynamic physical properties . 9
4.5 Controlling inkjet head . 9
4.5.1 General . 9
4.5.2 Characteristics of the droplet . 10
4.6 Characteristics of substrate . 11
4.6.1 General . 11
4.6.2 Wettability . 12
4.6.3 Chemical resistance . 12
4.6.4 Surface homogeneity . 12
4.6.5 Surface flooding . 12
4.6.6 Thermal conductance . 12
4.6.7 Temperature (of substrate) . 12
4.7 Ink . 13
4.7.1 General . 13
4.7.2 Characteristics of ink . 13
4.7.3 Important considerations of ink . 14
5 Conclusion . 14
Bibliography . 15

Figure 1 – Example of inkjet printer configuration . 7
Figure 2 – Examples of nozzle layout . 8

Table 1 – Static physical properties of inkjet head . 8
Table 2 – Dynamic physical properties of inkjet head . 9
Table 3 – Parameters of controlling inkjet head. 10
Table 4 – Characteristics of droplet. 10
Table 5 – Characteristics of substrate . 12
Table 6 – Significant characteristics of ink . 13
Table 7 – Ink material measurement methods . 13

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IEC TR 62899-302-5:2023 © IEC 2023 – 3 –


Part 302-5: Equipment – Inkjet – Significant characteristics
of inkjet printing

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising
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IEC TR 62899-302-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 119: Printed Electronics.
It is a Technical Report.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
119/421/DTR 119/439/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in
the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.

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– 4 – IEC TR 62899-302-5:2023 © IEC 2023
This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in
accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available
at The main document types developed by IEC are
described in greater detail at
A list of all parts in the IEC 62899 series, published under the general title Printed electronics,
can be found on the IEC website.
The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the
stability date indicated on the IEC website under in the data related to the
specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

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IEC TR 62899-302-5:2023 © IEC 2023 – 5 –
Until recently, inkjet technologies were used only for imaging printing (conventional ‘graphic
printing’). However, the recent development of inkjet technologies, such as technologies for
inkjet print-head, functional ink, or print-head driving technologies, now makes it possible to
apply these technologies for another area called functional printing, such as printed electronics.
Unlike conventional imaging printing, functional printing requires to have a very precise ink drop
position so as to bring a functionality to what is produced. If the ink drop position is not exact,
the expected function cannot be realized because the electronic connection secured by the ink
drop position is vital for the electronic function of the final product. For example, when producing
2 000 imaging pixels by 1 000 imaging-pixels display, that display would have at least
2 000 × 1 000 = 2 000 000 active-matrix circuitries in order to show an image by that display.
In addition, and because of the complexity of the above-mentioned circuitries, functional printing
requires a higher resolution. Usually, an active-matrix circuitry consists of several active and
passive electrical components, such as transistors and capacitors. Each component is usually
made (or printed) using certain layers of different printed materials. Any printing defect in an
active-matrix circuitry will be catastrophic for the performance of the printed device, such as
shorted circuitry; when that display shows a uniform image, such as whole white or whole black
image, that image shown by a display with a defect would be pretty obvious for a viewer because
human eyes are very keen for a small number of detects in a uniform image. From that sense,
a defect in a complex circuitry would be a big issue for an entire printed electronics device.
On the other hand, for imaging printing, a dropped ink position would not affect the image quality
of that image as much as for functional printing, because usually a defect (for example, one dot
does not have a dropped ink at all in the whole black image) will not be so obvious for human
Another important difference between functional printing and imaging printing by inkjet printing
technologies is due to the fragmentation in the supply chain of the functional printing electronics
markets. For imaging printing, until recently a vendor would provide inks, printing equipment
including inkjet heads, and sometimes a printing substrate, paper. That means that the vendor
could directly control the quality of all these elements. However, for functional printing, the
functions come from inks, and inks usually come from ink vendors that are specialized for inks,
and inkjet heads come from an inkjet head vendor that is specialized in inkjet heads. Sometimes,
a printing equipment vendor makes their own printing equipment by using several inkjet heads.
Obviously, a substrate is not always paper, but can consist of several kinds of film, such as
plastic films, or metal foils, or both. That means vendors cannot control the whole process of
printing but have to work closely with other vendors. Thus, for inkjet printing especially for
printed electronics, it is extremely useful to have certain ways of evaluating functions of each
component that compose functional printing.
This document explores what kind of characteristics of inkjet printing will be considered to
obtain functionable printed electronics device(s), for example detailed characteristics of inkjet

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– 6 – IEC TR 62899-302-5:2023 © IEC 2023

Part 302-5: Equipment – Inkjet – Significant characteristics
of inkjet printing

1 Scope
This part of IEC 62899 provides the significant characteristics, parameters and system
properties that are relevant for functional inkjet printing for printed electronics. Where possible,
existing measurement standards and specifications are cited.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following
• IEC Electropedia: available at
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at
4 Inkjet printing
4.1 General
Generally, the purpose of printing is to put some material onto other materials. In that
sense, ”printing” is sometimes called ”deposition”.
For imaging purposes, ”printing” means putting pigments or dye, which can contain colour, onto
a substrate. A pigment and dye can reflect or sometimes emit light to form an image.
For electrically functional printing, ”printing” means putting electrically functional material onto
a substrate. A functional material can show function(s), somehow. For printed
electronics, ”printing” means putting electrically functional material(s) onto a substrate; for
1) an organic material that emits light when a correct electric current is applied,
2) a passive layer that protects the material under that layer, and
3) an insulating layer that electrically insulates between other materials or layers, or both.
Material put onto a substrate can realize function(s). In order to have (a) proper function(s) by
a printed material, the printed position of the material is very important

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IEC TR 62899-302-5:2023 © IEC 2023 – 7 –
4.2 Issues of functional printing
As stated in the introduction, functional printing will have highly accurate printed positions for
printed electronics applications. For example, a thin-film-transis

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