Application of fixed capacitors in electronic equipment - Part 1: Aluminium electrolytic capacitors

IEC TR 63362-1:2022(E) establishes guidelines for the application and use of aluminium electrolytic capacitors in electronic equipment.
The information given in this document applies to capacitors with non-solid electrolyte but can, in its appropriate clauses, apply to capacitors with solid electrolyte as well.
Electrolytic capacitors in general – and aluminium electrolytic capacitors in particular – are an exception in the capacitor field because of the components’ close interaction of physics and chemistry. Therefore, aluminium electrolytic capacitors show, in various aspects, a technical behaviour unaccustomed to the user. That could easily lead to misapplications and even to endangering of persons and goods. The aim of this document is to minimize these risks by providing detailed information on the specific peculiarities of the component.
This first edition cancels and replaces CLC/TR 50454 published in 2008. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:  
Complete technical revision, details of cleaning processes and failure modes added.
Inclusion of parts of JEITA RCR 2367D.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Feb-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Feb-2022
Ref Project

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IEC TR 63362-1
Edition 1.0 2022-02
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Application of fixed capacitors in electronic equipment –
Part 1: Aluminium electrolytic capacitors
IEC TR 63362-1:2022-02(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 63362-1
Edition 1.0 2022-02
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Application of fixed capacitors in electronic equipment –
Part 1: Aluminium electrolytic capacitors
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.060.50 ISBN 978-2-8322-1078-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 63362-1:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Protection measures – insulation ..................................................................................... 8

5 General application limits ................................................................................................ 9

5.1 Polarity – Reverse voltage ...................................................................................... 9

5.2 Voltage ................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Rated voltage .................................................................................................. 9

5.2.3 Surge voltage .................................................................................................. 9

5.2.4 Transient voltages ........................................................................................... 9

5.3 Temperature range ................................................................................................. 9

5.4 Ripple current ....................................................................................................... 10

5.5 Charge – Discharge .............................................................................................. 10

6 Storage, transportation, and operation ........................................................................... 10

7 External pressure (not relevant for capacitors with solid electrolyte) .............................. 11

7.1 Low air pressure ................................................................................................... 11

7.2 High air pressure .................................................................................................. 11

8 Self-recharge phenomenon (dielectric absorption) ......................................................... 11

9 Flammability (passive and active) .................................................................................. 11

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

9.2 Passive flammability ............................................................................................. 11

9.3 Active flammability ................................................................................................ 12

10 Internal pressure and pressure relief device .................................................................. 12

11 Working electrolytes and contact with an electrolyte ...................................................... 12

12 Parallel and series connection of capacitors .................................................................. 13

12.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

12.2 Voltage sharing between devices .......................................................................... 13

12.3 Circuit configuration .............................................................................................. 13

12.4 Balancing resistors for voltage sharing .................................................................. 14

12.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

12.4.2 Voltage sharing analysis ................................................................................ 15

12.4.3 Resistor tolerance ......................................................................................... 16

12.4.4 Choice of resistor value ................................................................................. 16

12.5 Component failure................................................................................................. 17

13 Clearance and creepage distances ................................................................................ 17

13.1 Distances inside the capacitor .............................................................................. 17

13.2 Distances outside the capacitor ............................................................................ 17

14 Capacitor mounting ....................................................................................................... 18

14.1 General conditions for mounting ........................................................................... 18

14.1.1 Mounting position .......................................................................................... 18

14.1.2 Polarity indication .......................................................................................... 18

14.1.3 Hole/pad distance .......................................................................................... 18

14.1.4 Position of the pressure relief device ............................................................. 18

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC TR 63362-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

14.1.5 Board holes under the insulation .................................................................... 19

14.1.6 Double-sided printed circuit boards ................................................................ 19

14.1.7 Case polarity ................................................................................................. 19

14.2 Component preparation......................................................................................... 19

14.3 Mounting ............................................................................................................... 19

14.3.1 Discharging ................................................................................................... 19

14.3.2 Ratings and polarity ....................................................................................... 19

14.3.3 Lead stress .................................................................................................... 19

14.3.4 Fixing torque ................................................................................................. 19

14.3.5 Capacitor fixing ............................................................................................. 20

14.4 Soldering .............................................................................................................. 20

14.4.1 Preheat temperature ...................................................................................... 20

14.4.2 Soldering temperature and duration ............................................................... 20

14.4.3 Care after soldering ....................................................................................... 20

14.5 Transport and handling of assembled devices ....................................................... 20

15 Cleaning solvents and processes ................................................................................... 20

15.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

15.2 Cleaning solvents ................................................................................................. 20

15.2.1 Halogenated solvents (e.g. CFC) ................................................................... 20

15.2.2 Halogenated hydrocarbons ............................................................................ 21

15.2.3 Aqueous solutions ......................................................................................... 21

15.2.4 Alcohols ........................................................................................................ 21

15.2.5 Alkaline solvents ............................................................................................ 21

15.2.6 Other cleaning solvents ................................................................................. 21

15.3 Cleaning of circuit board ....................................................................................... 21

15.3.1 Cleaning processes ....................................................................................... 21

15.3.2 Process control during cleaning ..................................................................... 22

15.3.3 Process control after cleaning ........................................................................ 22

15.3.4 Other precautions .......................................................................................... 22

16 Potting and gluing .......................................................................................................... 22

16.1 General ................................................................................................................. 22

16.2 Potting and gluing materials .................................................................................. 23

16.3 Curing process ...................................................................................................... 23

17 Selection of capacitors and failure mechanisms during overload .................................... 23

17.1 Selection ............................................................................................................... 23

17.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

17.1.2 Selection based on operating conditions ........................................................ 23

17.1.3 Selection based on shapes and assembly conditions ..................................... 23

17.2 Failure mechanisms during overload (especially details under overvoltage

load conditions) .................................................................................................... 24

17.2.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 24

17.2.2 Failure mechanisms - details ......................................................................... 24

18 Disposal of capacitors ................................................................................................... 25

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 26

Figure 1 – Individual balancing resistors ............................................................................... 13

Figure 2 – Common centre connection .................................................................................. 14

Figure 3 – Group-balancing resistors .................................................................................... 14

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– 4 – IEC TR 63362-1:2022 © IEC 2022

Figure 4 – Voltage sharing analysis ...................................................................................... 15

Figure 5 – Degradation mechanisms ..................................................................................... 24

Table 1 – Balancing examples .............................................................................................. 17

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IEC TR 63362-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
APPLICATION OF FIXED CAPACITORS IN ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT –
Part 1: Aluminium electrolytic capacitors
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC Publication(s)"). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TR 63362-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 40: Capacitors and resistors

for electronic equipment. It is a Technical Report.

This first edition cancels and replaces CLC/TR 50454 published in 2008. This edition constitutes

a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) Complete technical revision, details of cleaning processes and failure modes added.

b) Inclusion of parts of JEITA RCR 2367D.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TR 63362-1:2022 © IEC 2022
Draft Report on voting
40/2881/DTR 40/2908/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.

A list of all parts in the IEC 63362 series, published under the general title Application of fixed

capacitors in electronic equipment, can be found on the IEC website.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 63362-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
APPLICATION OF FIXED CAPACITORS IN ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT –
Part 1: Aluminium electrolytic capacitors
1 Scope

This document establishes guidelines for the application and use of aluminium electrolytic

capacitors in electronic equipment.

The information given in this document applies to capacitors with non-solid electrolyte but can,

in its appropriate clauses, apply to capacitors with solid electrolyte as well.

Electrolytic capacitors in general – and aluminium electrolytic capacitors in particular – are an

exception in the capacitor field because of the components’ close interaction of physics and

chemistry. Therefore, aluminium electrolytic capacitors show, in various aspects, a technical

behaviour unaccustomed to the user. That could easily lead to misapplications and even to

endangering of persons and goods. The aim of this document is to minimize these risks by

providing detailed information on the specific peculiarities of the component.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.

NOTE Further information about related standards can be found in Bibliography at the end of this document.

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
anode
positive electrode

aluminium (preferably aluminium foil) of extreme purity that is etched in most cases in order to

increase the electrode's surface and, consequently, the capacitor's capacitance yield

3.2
cathode
negative electrode
working electrolyte that is a conductive material

Note 1 to entry: Working electrolyte in the case of capacitors with solid electrolyte is a layer of manganese dioxide

MnO , conductive organic salt (e.g. TCNQ) or conductive polymer (e.g. polypyrrole, PEDOT).

Note 2 to entry: PEDOT is a thiophene-based doped polymer, which is used as a solid cathode in aluminium

electrolytic capacitors, often combined with an additional liquid electrolyte.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 63362-1:2022 © IEC 2022
3.3
dielectric

aluminium oxide (Al O ) which is formed on the anode’s surface by an anodizing process

2 3
3.4
contact element for the negative electrode

high-purity aluminium foil ("cathode foil") in the case of capacitors with non-solid electrolyte or

silver paste on graphite or other conductive connections in the case of capacitors with solid

electrolyte
3.5
separator

layers (preferably of special paper) that separate the anode foil from the "cathode foil" in the

case of capacitors with non-solid electrolyte

Note 1 to entry: The other purpose of the separators is to retain the working electrolyte.

3.6
polarity
polarized electrolytic capacitor

Note 1 to entry: For special purposes, so-called non-polar (bipolar) capacitors can be provided. Such special types

consist in principle of an internal back-to-back connection of two basically polarized elements.

3.7
sealing
polymer-based material to close the aluminium case

Note 1 to entry: The internal element of a non-solid electrolytic capacitor is normally encapsulated in an aluminium

case closed with a sealing material which is never perfectly gas-tight. Because of using a non-solid electrolyte, of

which, some constituents are slowly diffusing through the sealing, the electrical characteristics of the capacitor are

changing gradually over its entire life.
4 Protection measures – insulation

Capacitors can be either completely or partially covered with sleeving or coating, or not covered

at all. It should be noted that, in particular for capacitors with liquid electrolyte, the capacitor

case is not insulated from the cathode terminal. The case can be connected to the electrolyte

through the contact element for the negative electrode.

Axial leaded capacitors have a direct contact between the case and the cathode terminal. Radial

leaded capacitors have an undefined electrical contact through electrolyte or other parts inside

the case. Dummy pins are left potential-free or can be connected to the potential of the negative

terminal. Metal parts other than terminals should never make contact to conducting tracks or

metal parts of other components.

The standard sleeving must be considered as protection against contact only, and does not

offer any functional insulation. If electrical insulation is required, an additional insulation is

necessary.

Special care needs to be taken if the mounting requires electrical insulation, such as:

• other components are in touch with capacitors;
• unprotected live wires or PCB tracks are underneath the capacitors;
• capacitors are in contact with the enclosure;
• capacitors are mounted by metal clamps.

For such cases, the sleeving material needs to be agreed on case by case between the

manufacturer and the customer.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TR 63362-1:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –
The sleeving can deteriorate depending on the environmental conditions, e.g.:

• upon exposure to high temperature, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sleeving can become brittle

which could potentially lead to cracks;

• for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) based sleeving, exposure to high temperature and high

humidity can lead to hydrolysis.

Operating conditions for which sleeving deterioration is expected need to be agreed on case by

case between the manufacturer and the customer.
5 General application limits
5.1 Polarity – Reverse voltage
Electrolytic capacitors for DC applications require polarization.

The polarity of each capacitor is checked both in circuit design and in mounting. Polarity is

clearly indicated on the capacitor. For short periods, a limited reverse voltage can be allowed

as specified in the relevant specification by the manufacturer. Exceeding the specified reverse

voltage can induce damage by causing overheating, over-pressure and dielectric breakdown

and can be associated with open circuit or short-circuit conditions – it is the most severe failure

mechanism with aluminium electrolytic capacitors. There could even be a destruction of the

capacitor. Protections need to be used if there are reverse voltage risks (see Clause 10).

5.2 Voltage
5.2.1 General

Exceeding the capacitors' specified voltage limits can cause premature damage (e.g. by

breakdown with open or short circuit) affecting the useful life. Even destruction of the capacitor

can be the consequence.
5.2.2 Rated voltage

The rated voltage U given in the relevant specification or by the manufacturer is the value

permitted for continuous operation in the rated temperature range.
5.2.3 Surge voltage

For short periods, the voltage can be increased up to the surge voltage value in accordance

with IEC 60384-4, IEC 60384-18, IEC 60384-25, IEC 60384-26 and to the manufacturer's

specification.
5.2.4 Transient voltages

The surge voltage value can be exceeded for very short periods or short pulses if allowed by

the manufacturer and when in accordance with the relevant specification or detailed

specification by the manufacturer. A test method is given in IEC 60384-4, IEC 60384-18,

IEC 60384-25, IEC 60384-26.

Such special operating conditions need to be agreed on case by case between the customer

and the manufacturer.
5.3 Temperature range

The capacitors are to be used within the specified temperature range (category temperature

range).
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC TR 63362-1:2022 © IEC 2022

Applicable temperature ranges are given in the relevant specifications and/or in manufacturer’s

data. A general principle is that lower ambient temperature means longer life. Therefore,

electrolytic capacitors should be placed at the coolest positions wherever possible.

Exceeding the permitted temperature causes overheating and over-pressure, which can affect

the useful life and induce damage. Even destruction of the capacitor can be the consequence.

5.4 Ripple current

The sum of DC voltage and superimposed ripple voltage is specified to be within rated voltage

and 0 V at any time.

Electrolytic capacitors are not normally designed for AC application (see Clauses 1 and 17).

No excessive ripple current is allowed to pass. Exceeding the ripple current specification

reduces life and can induce overheating and over-pressure. Even destruction of the capacitor

can be the consequence.

The useful life of the capacitor is a function of the r.m.s. ripple current. Temperature, frequency

and cooling conditions as well as applied DC voltage are other factors influencing the useful

life.
5.5 Charge – Discharge

Under the conditions defined in IEC 60384-4, IEC 60384-18, IEC 60384-25, IEC 60384-26, or

in the manufacturer’s specifications, frequent charge/discharge operation is allowed.

Exceeding charge/discharge frequency leads to a high ripple current and induces damage by

overheating and overpressure or breakdown with open circuit or short circuit, leading to a

reverse voltage risk (see 5.1). Even destruction of the capacitor can be the consequence.

Rapid charge/discharge operating conditions in applications such as robotics or servo drives

need to be agreed on case by case between customer and manufacturer.
6 Storage, transportation, and operation
It is recommended to
...

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