Information technology -- Sensor networks: Sensor Network Reference Architecture (SNRA) -- Part 5: Interface definitions

ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013 provides the definitions and requirements of sensor network (SN) interfaces of the entities in the Sensor Network Reference Architecture and covers the following aspects: - interfaces between functional layers to provide service access for the modules in the upper layer to exchange messages with modules in the lower layer; - interfaces between entities introduced in the Sensor Network Reference Architecture enabling sensor network services and applications.

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28-Jul-2013
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 29182-5
First edition
2013-08-01
Information technology — Sensor
networks: Sensor Network Reference
Architecture (SNRA) —
Part 5:
Interface definitions
Technologies de l’information — Réseaux de capteurs: Architecture de
référence pour réseaux de capteurs —
Partie 5: Définitions des interfaces
Reference number
ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013(E)
ISO/IEC 2013
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ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

5 SN interfaces overview ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Interfaces between different functional layers .................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Interface - SNHL / BFL ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Interface - BFL /SL ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4 Interface - SL / AL ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.5 Interface - CLM / (AL-SL-BFL) ................................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Interfaces between entities enabling SN services and applications ...............................................................7

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Interface 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3 Interface 2 ................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4 Interface 3 ................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Interface 4 ................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.6 Interface 5 ................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 29182 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Sensor

networks: Sensor Network Reference Architecture (SNRA):
— Part 1: General overview and requirements
— Part 2: Vocabulary and terminology
— Part 3: Reference architecture views
— Part 4: Entity models
— Part 5: Interface definitions
— Part 7: Interoperability guidelines
The following part is under preparation:
— Part 6: Applications
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ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013(E)
Introduction

A wide range of applications has been proposed for sensor networks. In practice, however, sensor

networks have been built and deployed for a relatively small number of applications. This is partly due

to the lack of a business case for certain applications and partly due to technical challenges in building

a non-trivial sensor network of reasonable complexity. The main reason for this impediment is multi-

disciplinary expertise – such as sensors, communications and networking, signal processing, electronics,

computing, and cyber security – is required to design a sensor network. Presently, the design process

is so complex that one can leverage little from one sensor network design to another. It appears as if

one has to start from almost scratch every time one wishes to design and deploy a sensor network. Yet,

upon closer inspection, there are many commonalities in instantiations of sensor networks that realize

various applications. These commonalities include similarities in the choice of network architecture and

the entities/functional blocks that are used in the architecture.
The purpose of the ISO/IEC 29182 series is to
— provide guidance to facilitate the design and development of sensor networks,
— improve interoperability of sensor networks, and

— make sensor networks plug-and-play, so that it becomes fairly easy to add/remove sensor nodes

to/from an existing sensor network.

The ISO/IEC 29182 series can be used by sensor network designers, software developers, and service

providers to meet customer requirements, including any applicable interoperability requirements.

The ISO/IEC 29182 series comprises seven parts. Brief descriptions of these parts are given next.

ISO/IEC 29182-1 provides a general overview and the requirements for the sensor network reference

architecture.

ISO/IEC 29182-2 provides definitions for the terminology and vocabulary used in the reference

architecture.

ISO/IEC 29182-3 presents the reference architecture from various viewpoints, such as business,

operational, system, technical, functional, and logical views.

ISO/IEC 29182-4 categorizes the entities comprising the reference architecture into two classes of

physical and functional entities and presents models for the entities.

This part of ISO/IEC 29182 provides detailed information on the interfaces among various entities in the

reference architecture.

ISO/IEC 29182-6 provides detailed information on the development of International Standardized Profiles.

ISO/IEC 29182-7 provides design principles for the reference architecture that take the interoperability

requirements into account.

There are no requirements for compliance in the ISO/IEC 29182 series. Users should ensure that

the sensor nodes, and the related sensor network, are compliant with the application or deployment

governing body.
© ISO/IEC 2013 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013(E)
Information technology — Sensor networks: Sensor
Network Reference Architecture (SNRA) —
Part 5:
Interface definitions
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 29182 provides the definitions and requirements of sensor network (SN) interfaces

of the entities in the Sensor Network Reference Architecture and covers the following aspects:

— interfaces between functional layers to provide service access for the modules in the upper layer to

exchange messages with modules in the lower layer;

— interfaces between entities introduced in the Sensor Network Reference Architecture enabling

sensor network services and applications.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 29182-2, Information technology — Sensor networks: Sensor Network Reference Architecture

(SNRA) — Part 2: Vocabulary and terminology
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 29182-2 apply.

4 Abbreviated terms
SN Sensor Network
SNRA Sensor Network Reference Architecture
API Application Programming Interface

I/F SNHL/BFL Interface between Sensor Node Hardware Layer and Basic Functions Layer

I/F BFL/SL Interface between Basic Functions Layer and Service Layer
I/F SL/AL Interface between Service Layer and Application Layer

I/F CLM/AL-SL-BFL Interface between Cross-Layer Management and Application Layer, Service

Layer, and Basic Functions Layer
I/F CLM/AL Interface between Cross-Layer Management and Application Layer
I/F CLM/SL Interface between Cross-Layer Management and Service Layer
I/F CLM/BFL Interface between Cross-Layer Management and Basic Functions Layer
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ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013(E)
QoS Quality of Service
HLME-SAP Hardware Layer Management Entity-Service Access Point
HLDE-SAP Hardware Layer Data Entity-Service Access Point
BFME-SAP Basic Functions Layer Management Entity-Service Access Point
BFDE-SAP Basic Functions Layer Data Entity-Service Access Point
SLME-SAP Service Layer Management Entity-Service Access Point
SLDE-SAP Service Layer Data Entity-Service Access Point
ALME-SAP Application Layer Management Entity-Service Access Point
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect
USB Universal Serial Bus
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
GSM Global System for Mobile communications
TD-LTE Time Division-Long Term Evolution
UWB Ultra Wide Band
5 SN interfaces overview

A sensor network (SN) is a system consisting of interconnected (via wireless or wired) and spatially

distributed sensor nodes to acquire, process, transfer, and provide information from the physical world

and optionally react to the physical world by using an actuator or actuators.

Sensor networks have many different applications in a variety of domains such as environment

monitoring, logistics management, industrial automation, intelligent highway system, and perimeter

protection. From one SN application domain to another, significant differences exist in service

requirements, service types, processing functions, interfaces, operational attributes and so on. These

significant differences influence the structure, construction and performance of a SN.

An interface is the shared border between two interactive entities or modules, so interface definition

depends on the entities or modules on both sides. An interface can be described in physical or logical form.

The purpose of developing generic and generalized definitions for SN interfaces is to promote the

interoperability among modules within a sensor node, between sensor nodes, and other entities. Defining

a set of standard interfaces for SN is one of the most efficient approaches to bring the interoperability

to sensor networks.

To provide service and implement application in sensor network, sensor nodes and other entities

have to exchange messages containing sensor data or command. The messages pass through different

functional layers in each entity, and pass from one entity to another. Interfaces between different layers

and interfaces between peer modules in functional layers of different entities (e.g. sensor node or senor

network gateway) are used to enable sensor network applications and services. Figure 1 illustrates

three classes of sensor networks architectures defined in ISO/IEC 29182-1 and gives an overview of

interfaces enabling sensor network services and applications. Interfaces between functional layers in a

sensor node or gateway, and interfaces between physical entities are shown in the Figure 1.

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ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013(E)

This standard describes common interfaces which need to be considered when building an SN

infrastructure of SN. Specific interface standards and detailed interface implementations such as

message format and exchanging mechanism are out of the scope of this standard.

Figure 1 — Overview of interfaces enabling sensor network services and applications

6 Interfaces between different functional layers
6.1 General

From the node’s architectural point of view, there are five kinds of functional layers shown in

Figure 1. They are:
— Sensor Node Hardware Layer (SNHL);
— Basic Functions Layer (BFL);
— Service Layer (SL);
— Application Layer (AL);
— Cross-Layer Management(CLM)

Sensor nodes and gateways are likely to have similar layers, but modules in each layer may be largely

different. For example, sensor node may integrate different sensors in its SNHL, while a gateway’s

hardware layer will not contain any sensors.

Communication between functional modules in layer is implemented by the interface between these

layers, which provides data and management service points. A data entity SAP and management entity

SAP are defined in each of interface between layers.
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ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013(E)

Figure 2 — Interfaces definition between functional layers enabling sensor network services

and applications

Figure 2 shows the four primary interfaces between the functional layers, and the abbreviation of each

interface is included separately. They are:

— Interface between sensor node hardware layer and basic functions layer (I/F SNHL / BFL);

— Interface between basic functions layer and service layer (I/F BFL / SL);
— Interface between service layer and application layer (I/F SL / AL);

— A set of interfaces between cross-layer management and application layer, service layer, and basic

function layer (I/F CLM / AL-SL-BFL), namely CLM/AL, CLM/SL and CLM/BFL.

Cross-layer management can manage hardware in sensor node hardware layerthrough CLM/BFL

and SNHL/BFL.

Figure 2 illustrates some function modules in each layer. It is not possible to list all of the function

modules in this figure. The modules shown in Figure 2 are common and are defined in ISO/IEC 29182-4.

Logically, sensor node design should follow this structure, but due to detailed application requirements

differences exist. The designer can choose some of the layers and relative interfaces to build sensor

network according to their application scenarios.
6.2 Interface - SNHL / BFL

I/F SNHL/BFL is an interface between the sensor node hardware layer and the basic functions layer

which contains the physical (hardware) and logical (software) component in a node. Through this

interface, functional models in the basic functions layer interact with the sensor node hardware layer.

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ISO/IEC 29182-5:2013(E)
Figure 3 — Service access point provided by I/F HL/BFL

The sensor node hardware layers supplies the infrastructure including a processor, memory,

communication device, power supply and other additional hardware. The interface SNHL / BFL provides

interconnecting service for the basic functions layer to access and utilize sensor node hardware.

The sensor node hardware layer provides two kinds of services to basic function layer. One is hardware

layer data service through the hardware layer data entity SAP (HLDE-SAP). The other is hardware layer

management service through the hardware layer management entity SAP (HLME-SAP).The two SAPs

are shown in Figure 3. The functional modules in the basic functions layer can use these two SAPs

to support the transport of data unit in the basic functions layer between peer functional modules of

layers. Modules in the basic functions layer access the data in hardware layer (such as sensor data) by

HLDE-SAP, and modules in the basic functions layer manage the hardware modules in hardware layer

(such as actuator) by HLME-SAP.

Due to diversity of sensors and their applications, sensor manufacturers define and implement their own

physical sensor interfaces. These manufacturer-defined interfaces are rarely compatible with each other

hindering interconnectivity and interoperability. Data types and data formats must also be defined in

order to achieve interconnectivity and interoperability of data/information from dissimilar sensors.

This interface is described in terms of the mechanical, electrical and logical signals at the interface

and the protocol for sequencing them (sometimes called signalling). The requirements to define the

interface SNHL/BFL are described below:

— Information exchange mechanisms, primitives and message formats in HLDE-SAP and HLME-SAP

between the sensor node hardware layer and different functional modules in the basic functions

layer should be defined and developed according to the requirement of the basic functions layer.

— Characteristics of node hardware that are used for upper applications need to be described in the

hardware’s metadata.

— Interface standard should be developed and consolidated for the basic functions layer to access the

sensor node hardware layer based on the node metadata (such as sensor type, measurement unit

type), and physical hardware connection types(such as PCI, USB).
6.3 Interface - BFL /SL

I/F BFL/SL is a logical interface between the basic the functions layer and the service layer. The basic

functions layer provides basic functions to service layer via I/F BFL/SL. Service layer provi

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