Amendment 1 - Environmental testing - Part 2-74: Tests - Test Xc: Fluid contamination

Amendement 1 - Essais d’environnement - Partie 2-74: Essais - Essai Xc: Contamination par des fluides

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IEC 60068-2-74:1999/AMD1:2018 - Amendment 1 - Environmental testing - Part 2-74: Tests - Test Xc: Fluid contamination
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IEC 60068-2-74
Edition 1.0 2018-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BA SIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PU BLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
AMENDMENT 1
AMENDEMENT 1
Environmental testing –
Part 2-74: Tests – Test Xc: Fluid contamination
Essais d’environnement –
Partie 2-74: Essais – Essai Xc: Contamination par des fluides
IEC 60068-2-74:1999-06/AMD1:2018-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-74
Edition 1.0 2018-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BA SIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PU BLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
AMENDMENT 1
AMENDEMENT 1
Environmental testing –
Part 2-74: Tests – Test Xc: Fluid contamination
Essais d’environnement –
Partie 2-74: Essais – Essai Xc: Contamination par des fluides
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 19.040 ISBN 978-2-8322-5628-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60068-2-74:1999/AMD1:2018
© IEC 2018
FOREWORD
This amendment has been prepared by IEC technical committee 104: Environmental
conditions, classification and methods of test.
The text of this amendment is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
104/739/CDV 104/791/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this amendment can be found in the report

on voting indicated in the above table.

The committee has decided that the contents of this amendment and the base publication will

remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC website under

"http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the

publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
_____________
2 Normative references
Replace the reference to ISO 1817:1985 with the following new reference:

ISO 1817:2015, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic – Determination of the effect of liquids

3.1 Specification of test fluid
Replace the existing text with the following new text:

The relevant specification (see Clause 12) shall specify the required test fluids which shall

wherever possible be selected from the list given in Table 1. Each fluid has been specified as

being representative of a group of fluids. (See Clause A.2.) The actual composition of some of

the fluids specified in Table 1 are provided for information in Table 2 and Table 3.

The relevant specification shall also specify any additional fluids not listed in Table 1 for

which a test is required.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-74:1999/AMD1:2018 – 3 –
© IEC 2018
3.2 Precaution
Table 1 – Major contaminant fluid groups and test fluids
Replace Table 1 with the following new Table 1:
Table 1 – Major contaminant fluid groups and test fluids
d e
Contaminant fluid group Test fluid Test fluid Test
(See Annex A for description of reference temperature
contamination fluids including (± 2 °C)
environmental and toxicological
aspects.)
Kerosene
ISO 1817:2015, Test liquid F
(turbine) fuel a
(a) 70
(see Table 2)
Fuels Diesel fuel
Gasoline (piston ISO 1817:2015, Test liquid B
(b) 40
engine) fuel (see Table 2)
NATO H-520 (ON-18)
Mineral oil based (c) 70
(or as an alternative NATO H-515)
Phosphate ester
ISO 1817:2015, Test liquid 103
based (d) 70
(see Table 3)
Hydraulic fluids (synthetic)
Dimethyl silicone fluid grade 10
(10 mm /s (cSt) at 25 °C)
Silicone based (e) 70
NATO S-1714 (Joint Service designation
ZX-42)
SAE 10W/30
Mineral based (f) NATO O-1176 (Joint Service designation 70
OMD 90)
Lubricating oils
Ester based ISO 1817:2015, Test liquid 101
(g) 150
(synthetic) (see Table 3)
Propan-2-ol (isopropyl alcohol);
(h) CAS No 67-63-0, 50
(BS 1595-1, ASTM D770 and DIN 53245)
Solvents and cleaning fluids
(i) Denatured alcohol (methylated spirits) 23
(j) Detergent 23
Inhibited ethanediol (ethylene glycol) CAS
(k) No 107-21-1 with a volume fraction of 23
80 % in water
De-icing and antifreeze fluids
Inhibited ethanediol (ethylene glycol) CAS
(l) No 107-21-1 with a volume fraction of 23
50 % in water
Ethylene glycol CAS No 107-21-1
(m) 23
(25 % urea / 25 % ethylene glycol in
Runway de-icers water)
Potassium acetate CAS No 127-822-2
(n) 23
50 % inhibited potassium acetate in water
Dichlorvos (DDVP) pyrethrum based,
CAS No 62-73-7
(o) 23
(2 % solution in kerosene CAS No 8008-
20-6)
Insecticides
D – phenothrin CAS No 26002-80-2
(p) 2 % solution in kerosene CAS No 8008- 23
20-6
Silicate ester dielectric heat transfer fluid
Coolant dielectric fluids (q) 70
TM b
(commercial product “Coolanol 25R ” )
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60068-2-74:1999/AMD1:2018
© IEC 2018
d e
Contaminant fluid group Test fluid Test fluid Test
(See Annex A for description of reference temperature
contamination fluids including (± 2 °C)
environmental and toxicological
aspects.)
Fluoroprotein foam
(r) 23
(NATO Stock #4210 99 224 6854)
Fire extinguishants
Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)
(s) 23
containing fluorochemical surfactants
The indicated temperature exceeds the critical flash point temperature.
b TM

Coolanol 25R is the tradename of a product supplied by ExxonMobil. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by IEC of the product

named. Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

See Clauses 8, 9, 10 and A.7.

Wherever possible the fluid given is specified in an international standard or is described by its constituent

chemicals. In some cases a NATO identification has been used in preference to a commercial identification.

Reference to the relevant commercial literature can correlate to the NATO number with commercially

available fluids.
CAS No. refers to Chemical Abstracts Service Number (www.cas.org).
Add, after Table 1, the following new Table 2 and Table 3:
Table 2 – Standard simulated fuels
Content
ISO 1817:2015 CAS Registry
Liquid constituents % (by Application
Test fluid Number
volume)
2,2,4-trimethylpentane 70 540-84-1 Liquid B is intended to
simulate petroleum-
derived fuels without
toluene 30 108-88-3
oxygen compounds.
straight-chain paraffins Liquid F is intended to
80 68476-34-6
(C12 to C18) simulate diesel fuel,
F domestic heating oils
and similar light
1-methylnaphthalene 20 90-12-0
furnace oils.
Table 3 – Simulated service liquids
ISO 1817:2015, Content CAS Registry
Liquid constituents Application
Test fluid % (by mass) Number
di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate 99,5 122-62-3 Intended to simulate
101 synthetic diester-type
phenothiazine 0,5 92-84-2
lubricating oils.
Intended to simulate
phosphate-ester
103 tri-n-butyl phosphate 100 126-73-8
hydraulic oils used in
aircraft.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-74:1999/AMD1:2018 – 5 –
© IEC 2018
Annex A
A.2 Contaminating fluids and their effects
Replace Clause A.2 with the following new Clause A.2:
A.2 Contaminating fluids and their effects
A.2.1 General

Components and equipment may be subject to contamination by fluids, either through normal

operation, accidental spillage or through leakage, for example from faulty pipes or pipe joints.

The contaminating fluid may not be at an elevated temperature, but a component or

equipment may become contaminated whilst it is at its elevated working temperature or it may

attain such a temperature after having been contaminated. Any effect may thus depend upon

the behaviour of the contaminant at elevated temperature, for example if it is volatile it may

disappear rapidly. If it is non-volatile and oxidizes slowly, a hard residue may remain.

Effects which may occur include packaging failure, crazing or swelling of plastics and rubbers,

leaching of anti-oxidants and other soluble materials, seal failure, adhesion failures, paint

legend removal and corrosion.

A number of standards exist which, although not referred to in this part of IEC 60068 in a

normative capacity, may be used in an informative capacity by specification writers (see

Clause A.10).
A.2.2 Fuels

Fuels vary widely in composition even within the same grade and from the same source.

Hydrocarbon-based fuels will, for the most part, be of the gasoline or kerosene type. The

grade of gasoline is improved by adding aromatic or oxygen-containing compounds, but these

additives increase the effect of fuels on normally fuel-resistant material. The composition

varies with the situation on the gasoline market, with the geographical area and can change

rapidly. Gasoline may be expected to evaporate rapidly, possibly with few permanently

harmful effects. However, kerosene may be more persistent and damage elastomers,

particularly at elevated temperatures. Fuels do not normally affect paints and most plastics,

but silicone resin bonded boards may tend to de-laminate after prolonged exposure. Some

fuels may have additives to inhibit icing or to dissipate static charges. Where there is reason

to believe that these additives may increase the severity of the test, they may be included.

The standard fuels historically used for contamination test purposes are test liquids B and F

of ISO 1817:2015, representing gasoline and diesel/kerosene respectively. ISO 1817:2015

recommends several test liquids of which those in ISO 1817:2015, Table A.1 represent fuels

without oxygen compounds and those of ISO 1817:2015, Table A.2 represent fuels with

oxygen compounds. Analytical reagent quality materials should be used in making up the test

liquids. Test liquids containing alcohol should not be used if the fuels involved are known to

be free of alcohol.

Fuels and oils can ignite and, under certain circumstances, will cause explosion. The flash

points of kerosene and gasoline are 46 °C and -18 °C respectively. The open burning of fuel

and oils will produce environmental pollution. Fuel and oils, when in contact with skin, can

promote de-fatting. Spillage of fuel and oils may result in contamination of waterways and

underground water supplies. Three hundred litres of gasoline has the capacity to produce a

surface film over 1 km of water. Carcinogenic chemicals such as benzene are present in

fuels; oils often contain other toxic elements. Spillage can cause toxic pollution of waterways

and underground water supplies.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60068-2-74:1999/AMD1:2018
© IEC 2018
A.2.3 Hydraulic fluids

Commonly used hydraulic fluids may be of the natural or synthetic types, see A.2.4 for the

former; and may be at elevated temperatures in their working states. Phosphate ester based

hydraulic fluids are especially damaging to these materials and to paint finishes. The

hydraulic fluids used for contamination test purposes encompass mineral oil based (using

NATO H-520 or NATO H-515), phosphate ester based synthetic fluids (using test liquid 103

from ISO 1817:2015 – see ISO 1817:2015, Table A.3) and silicone based synthetic fluids

(using NATO S-1714 which are dimethyl silicone based). The latest issue of ASTM D471

indicates that some constituents of hydraulic test fluids, common to ISO 1817:2015, are no

longer available and suggests alternatives.
A.2.4 Lubricating oils

Mineral or synthetic-based lubricating oils may be at elevated temperatures in their working

states. Mineral oil is damaging to natural rubber but less so to synthetics such as

polychloroprene, chloro-sulphonated polyethylene and silicone rubber. Synthetic lubricants

are extremely damaging to plastics such as PVC as well as many elastomers. The lubricating

oils used for contamination test purposes encompass mineral oil (NATO O-1176) and

synthetic oil (using ester based test liquid 101 of ISO 1817:2015).
A.2.5 Solvents and cleaning fluids

Many areas of aircraft or vehicles may require dirt or grease removal before servicing can

begin. The test fluids given in Table 1 are representative of the solvents and cleaning fluids

utilized which can encompass denatured alcohol, isopropyl alcohol (specifically propan-2-ol)

and trans-1-2 dichloroethylene (which is a replacement for trichloroethane which has been

withdrawn because of its safety and environmental concerns). The solvents and cleaning

fluids used for contamination testing purposes also encompass a detergent cleaning

compound used on aircraft surfaces.

Propan-2-ol is flammable. Denatured alcohol is both toxic and flammable. It consists of a

mixture of approximately 95 % ethyl alcohol, 5 % methyl alcohol and minor ingredients such

as pyridine. Detergent manufactured from biodegradable phosphates, sodium sulphate and

sodium carboxy methyl cellulose is a conventional laundry substance. However, untreated

discharge of such substances into waterways may be prohibited by national regulations.

A.2.6 De-icing and anti-freeze fluids

De-icing and anti-freeze fluids may be applied, often at elevated temperatures, to the leading

edges, intakes, etc., of aircraft and may penetrate areas where they can contaminate

components and equipment. Runway de-icers are used on runways and other areas to lower

the freezing point of water. They may penetrate undercarriage and equipment bays of aircraft

as a fine mist. Such de-icing and anti-freeze fluids are based, typically, on inhibited ethylene

glycols. This document does not encompass de-icing fluids arising from the use of salt (NaCl),

for example as used on roads, because appropriate test procedures can be found in

IEC 60068-2-52:2017.

All aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol are toxic and the inclusion of urea will promote the

growth of algae. A 50 % inhibited aqueous potassium acetate solution is commercially

marketed and reputed to be a completely safe alternative to the ethylene glycols. However, its

interaction with aluminium alloys is less than satisfactory.
A.2.7 Insecticides

In the tropics equipment may be treated with insecticide sprays as a routine precaution. This

can include aircraft flying in and through the tropics. While it is unlikely that these will have a

directly adverse effect on components or equipment, it may be necessary to make exploratory

tests using a proprietary insecticide. The insecticides used for test purposes are: DDVP

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60068-2-74:1999/AMD1:2018 – 7 –
© IEC 2018

(dichlorvos pyrethrum based, 2 % solution in kerosene) and d-phenothrin 2 % solution in

kerosene.

Most insecticides may be considered toxic to man. If the delivery medium for the insecticide is

a kerosene type (fuel/oil) spray or mist, many of the features referred to for fuels above will

also apply.
A.2.8 Coolant dielectric fluids

Coolant dielectric fluids are used as thermal transfer liquids to assist cooling of certain

equipment. They are usually based on silicate ester materials, and their effects on materials

may be considered to be similar to the phosphate ester hydraulic fluids, although not quite as

severe. The coolant dielectric fluid historically used for contamination eval
...

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