Environmental conditions - Vibration and shock of electrotechnical equipment - Part 2: Equipment transported in fixed wing jet aircraft

IEC/TR 62131-2:2011(E) reviews the available dynamic data relating to electrotechnical equipment transported in fixed wing jet transport aircraft. The intent is that from all the available data an environmental description will be generated and compared to that set out in IEC 60721.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Feb-2011
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
24-Feb-2011
Completion Date
24-Feb-2011
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Technical report
IEC TR 62131-2:2011 - Environmental conditions - Vibration and shock of electrotechnical equipment - Part 2: Equipment transported in fixed wing jet aircraft
English language
40 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC/TR 62131-2
Edition 1.0 2011-02
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Environmental conditions – Vibration and shock of electrotechnical equipment –
Part 2: Equipment transported in fixed wing jet aircraft
IEC/TR 62131-2:2011(E)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2011 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by

any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either IEC or

IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester.

If you have any questions about IEC copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication,

please contact the address below or your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite

ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie

et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de la CEI ou du Comité national de la CEI du pays du demandeur.

Si vous avez des questions sur le copyright de la CEI ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette

publication, utilisez les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de la CEI de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office
3, rue de Varembé
CH-1211 Geneva 20
Switzerland
Email: inmail@iec.ch
Web: www.iec.ch
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been published.
 Catalogue of IEC publications: www.iec.ch/searchpub

The IEC on-line Catalogue enables you to search by a variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical committee,…).

It also gives information on projects, withdrawn and replaced publications.
 IEC Just Published: www.iec.ch/online_news/justpub

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published details twice a month all new publications released. Available

on-line and also by email.
 Electropedia: www.electropedia.org

The world's leading online dictionary of electronic and electrical terms containing more than 20 000 terms and definitions

in English and French, with equivalent terms in additional languages. Also known as the International Electrotechnical

Vocabulary online.
 Customer Service Centre: www.iec.ch/webstore/custserv

If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or need further assistance, please visit the Customer Service

Centre FAQ or contact us:
Email: csc@iec.ch
Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
Fax: +41 22 919 03 00
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/TR 62131-2
Edition 1.0 2011-02
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Environmental conditions – Vibration and shock of electrotechnical equipment –
Part 2: Equipment transported in fixed wing jet aircraft
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
PRICE CODE
ICS 19.040 ISBN 978-2-88912-383-4
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – TR 62131-2 © IEC:2011(E)
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 6

3 Data source and quality .................................................................................................... 7

3.1 Lockheed Tristar KC Mk 1 ....................................................................................... 7

3.2 BAe VC10 K ............................................................................................................ 7

3.3 Boeing 747 Combi (freight and passengers) ............................................................ 8

3.4 Supplementary data .............................................................................................. 10

3.4.1 McDonnell Douglas DC8 cargo .................................................................. 10

3.4.2 Lockheed C5A (Galaxy), Lockheed C-141 (Starlifter) and Boeing NC-

135 (707) ................................................................................................... 10

4 Intra data source comparison ......................................................................................... 10

4.1 General remark ..................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Lockheed Tristar KC Mk 1 ..................................................................................... 10

4.2.1 Relative severity of flight conditions ........................................................... 10

4.2.2 Position within the cargo hold .................................................................... 11

4.2.3 Relative severity of measurement axes ...................................................... 11

4.3 BAe VC10 K .......................................................................................................... 11

4.3.1 Relative severity of flight conditions ........................................................... 11

4.3.2 Position within the cargo hold .................................................................... 11

4.3.3 Relative severity of measurement axes ...................................................... 12

4.4 Boeing 747 Combi (freight and passengers) .......................................................... 12

4.4.1 Relative severity of measurement axes ...................................................... 12

4.4.2 Relative severity of flight conditions ........................................................... 12

5 Inter data source comparison ......................................................................................... 12

6 Environmental description .............................................................................................. 13

6.1 Lockheed Tristar KC Mk 1 ..................................................................................... 13

6.2 BAe VC10 K .......................................................................................................... 13

6.3 Boeing 747 Combi (freight and passengers) .......................................................... 13

7 Supplementary data ....................................................................................................... 13

7.1 McDonnell Douglas DC8 Cargo ............................................................................. 13

7.2 Lockheed C5A (Galaxy), Lockheed C-141 (Starlifter) and Boeing NC-135

(707) ..................................................................................................................... 14

8 Comparison with IEC 60721 ........................................................................................... 14

9 Recommendations .......................................................................................................... 15

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 40

Figure 1 – Schematic of Tristar aircraft ................................................................................. 17

Figure 2 – Tristar noise measurements ................................................................................. 18

Figure 3 – Tristar vibration measurements – Take-off, power and roll ................................... 18

Figure 4 – Tristar vibration measurements – Low altitude climb ............................................ 19

Figure 5 – Tristar vibration measurements – High altitude cruise .......................................... 19

Figure 6 – Tristar vibration measurements – Landing ............................................................ 20

Figure 7 – Tristar vibration measurements – Low altitude decent .......................................... 20

Figure 8 – Tristar vibration measurements – C of G Take-off/climb ....................................... 21

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
TR 62131-2 © IEC:2011(E) – 3 –

Figure 9 – Tristar vibration measurements – Forward take-off/climb ...................................... 21

Figure 10 – Tristar vibration measurements – Centre of gravity cruise .................................. 22

Figure 11 – Tristar vibration measurements – Forward cruise ............................................... 22

Figure 12 – Tristar vibration measurements – Centre of gravity landing ................................ 23

Figure 13 – Tristar vibration measurements – Forward landing ............................................. 23

Figure 14 – Tristar vibration measurements – Cruise environment ........................................ 24

Figure 15 – Tristar vibration measurements – Take-off/landing environment ......................... 24

Figure 16 – Schematic of VC10 aircraft ................................................................................. 25

Figure 17 – VC10 vibration measurements – Cruise .............................................................. 27

Figure 18 – VC10 vibration measurements – Maximum airframe severity .............................. 27

Figure 19 – VC10 vibration measurement – Forward container during reverse thrust ............ 28

Figure 20 – VC10 vibration measurement – Rear container during reverse thrust ................. 28

Figure 21 – VC10 measurements – Overlaid worst case spectra ........................................... 29

Figure 22 – Vibration Measurements on a pallet in a Boeing 747 Combi aircraft

(transducer V1) ..................................................................................................................... 31

Figure 23 – Vibration measurements on a pallet in a Boeing 747 Combi aircraft

(Transducer V2) .................................................................................................................... 31

Figure 24 – DC8 vibration measurements reverse thrust ....................................................... 32

Figure 25 – DC8 vibration measurements acceleration and take-off ...................................... 33

Figure 26 – DC8 vibration measurements cruise ................................................................... 33

Figure 27 – Foley representation of environment for NC-135, C-141 and C-5A aircraft.......... 34

Figure 28 – Foley landing shock environment ....................................................................... 34

Figure 29 – Foley test severity for take-off/landing ................................................................ 35

Figure 30 – Foley test severity for cruise .............................................................................. 36

Figure 31 – IEC 60721-3-2 (1997) – Stationary vibration random .......................................... 37

Figure 32 – IEC 60721-3-2 (1997) – Non-stationary vibration including shock ....................... 37

Figure 33 – Test severities – ASTM D 4728-91 ..................................................................... 38

Figure 34 – Test severities – Mil Std 810 issue F and G........................................................ 38

Figure 35 – Test severities – AECTP 400 (Edition 2 & 3) ...................................................... 39

Figure 36 – Test severity – Def Stan 00-35, issue 3 & 4 ........................................................ 39

Table 1 – Tristar flight conditions and measured r.m.s. values .............................................. 17

Table 2 – VC10 flight conditions ........................................................................................... 25

Table 2a – VC10 measurement locations .............................................................................. 25

Table 3 – Overall g r.m.s. (3,25 Hz to 2 000 Hz) for VC10 airframe/container ....................... 26

Table 4 – Overall g r.m.s. (3,25 Hz to 399 Hz) for VC 10 container measurements ............... 26

Table 5 – Summary of 747 air transport data ........................................................................ 30

Table 6 – Summary of 747 acceleration levels (g) expected to be exceeded for 1 % of

the time of the trial ................................................................................................................ 30

Table 7 – Summary of DC8 air data ...................................................................................... 32

Table 8 – Foley test severity for take-off/landing – Sine components .................................... 35

Table 9 – Foley test severity for cruise – Sine components ................................................... 36

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – TR 62131-2 © IEC:2011(E)
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS –
VIBRATION AND SHOCK OF ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT –
Part 2: Equipment transported in fixed wing jet aircraft
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a technical report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC/TR 62131-2, which is a technical report, has been prepared by IEC technical committee

104: Environmental conditions, classification and methods of test.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TR 62131-2 © IEC:2011(E) – 5 –
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
104/507/DTR 104/536/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 62131 series, under the general title Environmental conditions

– Vibration and shock of electrotechnical equipment, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this standard may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – TR 62131-2 © IEC:2011(E)
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS –
VIBRATION AND SHOCK OF ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT –
Part 2: Equipment transported in fixed wing jet aircraft
1 Scope

IEC/TR 62131-2, which is a technical report, reviews the available dynamic data relating to

electrotechnical equipment transported in fixed wing jet transport aircraft. The intent is that

from all the available data an environmental description will be generated and compared to

that set out in IEC 60721.

For each of the sources identified the quality of the data is reviewed and checked for self

consistency. The process used to undertake this check of data quality and that used to

intrinsically categorize the various data sources is set out in IEC/TR 62131-1.

This technical report primarily addresses data extracted from a number of different sources

for which reasonable confidence exist as to their quality and validity. The report also presents

data for which the quality and validity cannot realistically be reviewed. These data are

included to facilitate validation of information from other sources. The report clearly indicates

when it utilizes information in this latter category.

This technical report addresses data from several different transport aircraft . Although one

of these aircraft is no longer used commercially, data from it are included to facilitate

validation of information from other sources.

Relatively little of the data reviewed has been made available in electronic form. To permit

comparison, a quantity of the original (non-electronic) data have been manually digitized in

this technical report.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
IEC 60721 (all parts), Classification of environmental conditions

IEC 60721-3-2:1997, Classification of environmental conditions – Part 3: Classification of

groups of environmental parameters and their severities – Section 2: Transportation

___________

Lockheed Tristar KC Mk 1, Lockheed Tristar L-1011, BAe VC10 K, Boeing 747 Combi, McDonnel Douglas DC8

Cargo, Lockheed C5A (Galaxy), Lockheed C-141 (Starlifter), Boeing NC-135 (707) are the trade names of

products supplied by Lockheed, BAe, McDonnel Douglas and Boeing, respectively. This information is given for

the convenience of users of this technical report and does not constitute anendorsement by IEC of the products

named.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
TR 62131-2 © IEC:2011(E) – 7 –
3 Data source and quality
3.1 Lockheed Tristar KC Mk 1

The vibration data for the Lockheed Tristar KC Mk 1 aircraft are been taken from a Lockheed

report [1] on a flight test carried out in support of a US DoD program. Reference [1] reports

on a single flight of a Lockheed Tristar L-1011 wide body commercial aircraft which had been

undertaken to record vibration data. Measurements were recorded at two positions within the

aircraft for a comprehensive range of flight conditions which are set out in Table 1.

The trial aircraft was fully fitted out. Although photographic evidence is poor quality, it

indicates that the aircraft had seating and [1] indicates that it had internal fixtures and fittings

and was not a bare shell. The aircraft’s gross weight for the data flight was between

190 000 Kg (at take-off) and 165 000 Kg (on landing).

Measurements were made at two positions on the Lockheed aircraft as illustrated in Figure 1.

The transducer positions were close to the centreline of the aircraft at fuselage stations 804

and 1 218. The centre of gravity (c of g) transducer positions are on the structure supporting

the cargo bay floor whereas the forward transducers are in the roof of the cabin attached via a

bracket to the aircraft structure.

The data contained in [1] seems of good quality, however, the poor quality photocopy of the

original report has resulted in poor definition of some of the spectra. The electrical noise from

the aircraft systems was recorded and shown to be at an acceptably low level. Bibliographic

reference [1] reports that a variety of no signal data were taken to provide a measure of the

noise floor of the entire instrumentation system. The noise measurement is shown in Figure 2

were made with the aircraft powered by the auxiliary power unit only.

For a number of flight conditions, (Numbers 2, 3, 7, 9 and 10 in Table 1), up to four separate

recordings were taken. The set of PSDs (Figures 3 to 7) were then further reduced by

presenting their average and maximum curves on one plot. This successfully demonstrated

that the variation in vibration response between the separate flight recordings is small. The

root mean square (r.m.s.) values computed for such cases correspond to the maximum PSD

curve.

Bibliographic reference [1] states that the analysis time for each power spectral density (PSD)

was at least 45 s and the analysis bandwidth was 1,272 5 Hz. These values produce a

normalized random error of 13 which is generally satisfactory. Also it was reported that all the

instrumentation was calibrated.

To enable the vibration responses to be overlaid on a single figure,the original data plots have

been manually digitizd using up to 80 points. Where the copy of the plots was poorly defined

those was simply enveloped to ensure that all the major peak responses were included in the

digitizd version.

For the purposes of comparison,the data for the flight conditions were grouped into take-off

and landing as well as cruise. The environment of take-off and landing includes flight

conditions 2, 3, 9 and 10 (from Table 1) which are take-off, power and roll, low altitude climb,

low altitude descent and touchdown. The cruise environment includes flight condition 7, high

altitude cruise.
3.2 BAe VC10 K

Bibliographic reference [2] presents an assessment of vibration and shock data obtained from

a flight trial carried out during April, 1985. The flight trial involved the transport of two

container assemblies within a VC10 aircraft. Data gathered during the trial included

___________
References in square brackets refer to the bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – TR 62131-2 © IEC:2011(E)

measurements made at the base of the containers. The flight trial requirements and its

analysis are presented in [1], [1], [5] and [6].

The trials not only included the usual benign conditions such as cruise at altitude, but also

several conditions relating to emergency situations, e.g. one engine inoperative, firm

landings, etc. although the scope for such emergency situations is very limited on the VC10.

The full list of the various flight conditions covered during the flight is presented in Table 2.

The load configuration for the flight is shown diagrammatically in Figure 16. The payload

consisted of two 1 800 Kg container assemblies. For the flight the loads were secured under

normal procedures and involved lashing the load containers to the appropriate aircraft tie-

down points.

Flight instrumentation consisted of 11 accelerometers, used to measure cargo hold vibration

both adjacent to the airframe and at the bases of the transported containers. The airframe

measurements were made on cargo floor tie-down fixtures. These being suitably firm

mounting locations and available at key positions in the cargo bay. The container

measurements were made at suitably rigid positions around the base of the containers, so

providing a measure of vibration input. The vibration measurement sites are indicated in

Figure 16.

The nature of the vibration environment is, in general, broad band random. The maximum

vibration amplitudes measured at the cargo hold floor tend to occur within the 200 Hz to

600 Hz bandwidth. Consequently, the flight data have been produced in acceleration power

spectral density (APSD) and acceleration-time history formats. APSD plots have been

produced over the frequency range 3,25 Hz to 2000 Hz. Amplitudes from the APSDs are the

result of averaging throughout a particular flight condition. Results are threfore valid for those

conditions when the average properties of the data are invariant with respect to time, e.g.

straight and level flight. The results of the data processing carried out are contained in [2], [1]

and [1].

A statement on the accuracy of the airframe/container measuring instrumentation states that

the overall tolerance is ±5,9 % with a typical value in the range ±4,0 %. The analysis

resolution bandwidth was 3,25 Hz and the variance error in the range 3 % to 12 %.

To enable the vibration responses to be overlaid on a single figure the original data plots have

been hand digitized using up to 80 points. Where the copy of the plots was poorly defined the

poorly defined portion was simply enveloped to ensure that all the major peak responses were

included in the digitized version.

No discernible shocks were observed during either normal or ‘touch-and-go' landings ([1]

contains a figure demonstrating this but it is not reproducible).

Although the VC10 was originally designed and operated as a commercial passenger and

freight aircraft, it is no longer operated commercially. The only known current operator is the

UK military. Vibration information for this aircraft is included in this assessment because it has

the potential to support the validity of data from other sources.
3.3 Boeing 747 Combi (freight and passengers)

A field study was conducted on board a Boeing 747 Combi (freight and passenger) aircraft on

the route Stockholm (Arianda) via Oslo (Gardermoen) to New York (John F. Kennedy Airport)

and return to Stockholm (Arianda). Shock and vibration acting on the cargo during air

transportation were measured and analysed.

The study encompassed all phases of the flight, including taxiing, climbing, cruising during

both calm and turbulent conditions, descent and approach, landing (including touchdown and

taxiing to apron). The phases considered to be the most interesting as regards cargo-

influencing vibrations and which were analysed from the field trials are as follows:

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
TR 62131-2 © IEC:2011(E) – 9 –
i) taxiing;
ii) take-off;
iii) initial climb;
iv) cruise, normal conditions;
v) cruise, gusts or air pockets;
vi) descent and approach;
vii) landing (touchdown, braking and roll-out);
viii) taxiing to apron.

The field data, reported in [7], were analysed by conventional frequency analysis and

modelling techniques. In order to generalize the results, flight recorder data from the field trial

and from other flights are included.

The fixture with the tri-axial accelerometer test set-up was mounted on the pallet with double

sided tape and was placed approximately midway of the length of the pallet, about 0,5 m from

the pallet edge. A fourth, separate, vertical accelerometer was mounted near the end of the

pallet, approximately 0,5 m from the corner. Mounting the transducers on the pallet rather

than on the aircraft deck meant that the accelerations to which the pallet was exposed, i.e.

input to the cargo, wer
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.