Wood — Sampling methods and general requirements for physical and mechanical testing of small clear wood specimens

Bois — Méthodes d'échantillonnage et conditions générales pour les essais physiques et mécaniques de petites éprouvettes de bois net

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Second edition
Wood — Sampling methods and general
requirements for physical and mechanical
testing of small clear wood specimens
Bois — Méthodes d’échantillonnage et conditions générales pour les
essais physiques et mécaniques de petites éprouvettes de bois net
Reference number
ISO 3129:2012(E)
ISO 2012

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ISO 3129:2012(E)
© ISO 2012
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ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved

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ISO 3129:2012(E)
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies
(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO
technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been
established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and
non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards
adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an
International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
ISO 3129 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 218, Timber.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 3129:1975), which has been technically revised.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii

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Wood — Sampling methods and general requirements for
physical and mechanical testing of small clear wood specimens
1 Scope
This International Standard specifies methods for the extensive and limited sampling of wood, conditioning
and preparation of test pieces. It also specifies the general requirements for physical and mechanical testing
of small clear wood specimens. The sampling guidance provided in this International Standard can be applied
for timber taken from either trees, logs, or pieces of ungraded/graded/presorted sawn timber for non-structural
applications, such as furniture, windows, doors, etc., only.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document
(including any amendments) applies.
ISO 3130, Wood — Determination of moisture content for physical and mechanical tests
ISO 3131, Wood — Determination of density for physical and mechanical tests
ISO 3132, Wood — Testing in compression perpendicular to grain
ISO 3133, Wood — Determination of ultimate strength in static bending
ISO 3345, Wood — Determination of ultimate tensile stress parallel to grain
ISO 3346, Wood — Determination of ultimate tensile stress perpendicular to grain
ISO 3348, Wood — Determination of impact bending strength
ISO 3349, Wood — Determination of modulus of elasticity in static bending
ISO 3350, Wood — Determination of static hardness
ISO 3351, Wood — Determination of resistance to impact indentation
ISO 4469, Wood — Determination of radial and tangential shrinkage
ISO 4858, Wood — Determination of volumetric shrinkage
ISO 4859, Wood — Determination of radial and tangential swelling
ISO 4860, Wood — Determination of volumetric swelling
ISO 8905, Sawn timber — Test methods — Determination of ultimate strength in shearing parallel to grain
ISO 24294, Round and sawn timber — Vocabulary
EN 1534, Wood flooring ― Determination of resistance to indentation ― Test method
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 24294 apply.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1

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ISO 3129:2012(E)
4 General principles
This International Standard covers procedures of sampling for obtaining small clear specimens which, when
tested in accordance with methods prescribed under relevant International Standards, may provide information
on the influence on mechanical properties of such factors as moisture content, density, position in cross-
section, height in the tree and locality of growth.
NOTE These International Standards (ISO 3130, ISO 3131, ISO 3132, ISO 3133, ISO 3345, ISO 3346, ISO 3348,
ISO 3349, ISO 3350, ISO 3351, ISO 4469, ISO 4858, ISO 4859 and ISO 4860) are currently being revised.
5 Sampling
5.1 Selection of material
The material intended for physical and mechanical tests shall be selected taking into account the purpose of
the test, as well as the requirements to ensure that the properties obtained from the test pieces represent the
sample population.
5.2 Sampling of wood material
The material selected shall be in the form of either logs or sawn timbers.
5.2.1 Logs
Trees or logs shall be selected to represent the population. For each species to be tested, at least five trees or
logs representative of that species or species group shall be selected.
A heart plank shall be cut from a log of acceptable diameter. For a log having an eccentric structure, the heart
plank shall cover the geometrical centre (Figure 1). In the case of a log having a diameter of 180 mm or less,
the heart plank shall be cut in the direction of two mutually perpendicular diameters (Figure 2).
In the case of an eccentric structure, the plank shall include the pith and not the geometrical centre.
The thickness of the heart plank shall be at least 60 mm, except for logs with a diameter of 180 mm or less,
where the thickness shall be 40 mm. In this case, to obtain test pieces with a cross-sectional dimension greater
than 30 mm, a disc that is at least 100 mm thick shall be cut from one end of the log prior to sawing out heart
planks. This disc may be used for the hardness test.
5.2.2 Matching for test of dry material
If one purpose of the sampling is to provide comparison of green and dry properties, provisions may be made
for matching of specimens within the tree. The collection of the material has been arranged to provide for tests
of both green and dry specimens that are closely matched by selection from adjacent parts of the same tree.
To afford matching, the sticks of one heart plank shall be interchanged with the other sticks from the next
adjacent heart plank from the same tree to form two composite heart planks, each being complete and made
of equal portions of the adjacent heart planks. The sticks from one of these composite heart planks shall be
tested green and those from the other shall be tested after drying. Thus, the sticks of each composite heart
plank shall be regarded as if they were from the same heart plank.
This procedure provides for end-to-end matching (end matching) of sticks to be tested dry with those to be
tested green, which is to be preferred when practicable. If, because of the nature of the material, end matching
is not practicable, side matching may be used.
5.2.3 Sawn timber
In sampling of sawn timber, sticks shall be cut parallel to the direction of the grain. A sufficient number of sticks
shall be cut to ensure that the sample and its statistical properties are representative of the population. The
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ISO 3129:2012(E)
sticks shall be not less than 35 mm thick with sides in radial and tangential directions. Sticks containing pith
shall be discarded.
6 Conditioning of material
6.1 Test pieces with a standardized moisture content (dry specimens)
Before conversion into test pieces, the wood shall be thoroughly dried (at a temperature lower than 60 °C) to a
moisture content close to that of the equilibrium state and shall be conditioned at a temperature of (20 ± 2) °C
and a relative humidity of (65 ± 3) % to bring the moisture content of the wood to that of equilibrium. It is
desirable that the ends of the test pieces be covered with a moisture-protective substance to prevent splitting.
6.2 Test pieces with moisture content of equal to or above fibre saturation point (green
Prior to cutting into test pieces, the sticks shall be kept under controlled conditions to prevent further
drying of the wood.
Dimensions in millimetres
≥ 60
Figure 1 — General cutting pattern of heart plank from a log of diameter >180 mm
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ISO 3129:2012(E)
Dimensions in millimetres

Figure 2 — General cutting pattern of heart planks from a log of diameter ≤180 mm
7 Preparation of test pieces

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