This document defines terms related to round and sawn timber. It applies to identification of a tree and its components, stages of processing in round and sawn forms, and timber grading, dimensions, anatomical structure, features, moisture content and conditions relating to stain, fungal and insect attack. It does not apply to terms related to strength properties of wood, engineered timber products or timber structures.

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This document defines terms relating to rattan source plants, materials, intermediate rattan products and rattan products. This document is applicable to rattan materials and products in production and trade.

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This document defines terms related to bamboo, intermediate bamboo and bamboo products. This document is applicable to bamboo, intermediate bamboo and bamboo products in production and trade.

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This European Standard specifies the minimum performance requirements in biological tests for products for curative uses against specific wood destroying organisms. It specifies the biological tests required together with the efficacy criteria to be achieved in each test.
Chemicals against insects can act according to their specific properties within a short time (fast acting) or only after a long period (slow acting or with a deferred effect). Different tests and efficacy requirements are needed for these various types of curative wood preservatives.
This European Standard is applicable to all wood preservative products supplied for application in liquid form for curative uses against attack by wood boring beetles. This European Standard is also applicable for products applied to prevent the growth of the dry rot fungus through masonry.
This European Standard is also applicable to products for curative uses supplied for application as pastes, solids or in capsule form but only where appropriate biological methods of test exist as published European Standards or as normative annexes to this European Standard.
NOTE 1   For re-testing after making variations in product formulation, guidance is given in Annex A.
NOTE 2   This standard is used as a reference document for the evaluation of efficacy of biocidal products PT8 (wood preservatives) in the framework of the European Regulation on Biocidal Products (EU) No 528/2012 (BPR).
This European Standard is not applicable to products used as fumigants.
This European Standard is also not applicable for determining whether specific curative products, used alone or in combination, are effective in conferring long-term protection against attack by wood destroying organisms. Preventive effectiveness can be determined using EN 599-1 but only for products that can be tested using the methods and interpretative procedures defined in EN 599-1.
Annex A (informative) contains a guidance on re-testing after making variations in product formulation.
Annex B (informative) contains some test recommendations for specific curative products against other insect species than Hylotrupes bajulus and Anobium punctatum.
Annex C (informative) contains a guidance for physical chemical properties.

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  • Standard
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This document specifies the minimum performance requirements in biological tests for products for curative uses against specific wood destroying organisms. It specifies the biological tests required together with the efficacy criteria to be achieved in each test.
Chemicals against insects can act according to their specific properties within a short time (fast acting) or only after a long period (slow acting or with a deferred effect). Different tests and efficacy requirements are needed for these various types of curative wood preservatives.
This document is applicable to all wood preservative products supplied for application in liquid form for curative uses against attack by wood boring beetles. This document is also applicable for products applied to prevent the growth of the dry rot fungus through masonry.
This document is also applicable to products for curative uses supplied for application as pastes, solids or in capsule form but only where appropriate biological methods of test exist as published European Standards.
NOTE   This standard is used as a reference document for the evaluation of efficacy of biocidal products PT8 (wood preservatives) in the framework of the European Regulation on Biocidal Products (EU) No 528/2012 (BPR).
This document is not applicable to products used as fumigants.
This document is also not applicable for determining whether specific curative products, used alone or in combination, are effective in conferring long-term protection against attack by wood destroying organisms. Preventive effectiveness can be determined using EN 599-1 but only for products that can be tested using the methods and interpretative procedures defined in EN 599-1.
Annex A (informative) contains a guidance on re-testing after making variations in product formulation.
Annex B (informative) contains some test recommendations for specific curative products against other insect species than Hylotrupes bajulus and Anobium punctatum.

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This document specifies a method for determining the strength in compression perpendicular to grain of wood.

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This document specifies methods for the extensive and limited sampling of wood, conditioning and preparation of test pieces. It also specifies the general requirements for physical and mechanical testing of small clear wood specimens. The sampling guidance provided in this document can be applied for timber taken from either trees, logs, or pieces of ungraded/graded/presorted sawn timber for non-structural applications, such as furniture, windows, doors, etc., only.

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This European Standard defines general terms relating to sawn timber and round timber used in European Standards.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections either visual or machine graded, shaped by sawing, planning or other methods and with cross-sectional dimensions complying with EN 336 (referred to as structural timber in the following clauses).
This European Standard includes provisions for test methods, Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance and marking of structural timber.
NOTE 1   For machine strength graded timber additional provisions for type testing (TT) are given in EN 14081-2 and for factory production control (FPC) in EN 14081-3.
NOTE 2   An acceptance procedure for verification of a lot is given in EN 14358 which may be used for a delivery of structural timber.
This European Standard identifies characteristics for which limits have to be given in visual grading standards.
This European Standard covers structural timber, untreated or treated against biological attack.
This European Standard does not cover:
-   timber treated by fire retardant products to improve its fire performance;
-   thermally and/or chemically modified timber;
-   structural finger jointed timber.

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This European Standard defines general terms relating to sawn timber and round timber used in European Standards.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections either visual or machine graded, shaped by sawing, planning or other methods and with cross-sectional dimensions complying with EN 336 (referred to as structural timber in the following clauses).
This European Standard includes provisions for test methods, Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance and marking of structural timber.
NOTE 1   For machine strength graded timber additional provisions for type testing (TT) are given in EN 14081-2 and for factory production control (FPC) in EN 14081-3.
NOTE 2   An acceptance procedure for verification of a lot is given in EN 14358 which may be used for a delivery of structural timber.
This European Standard identifies characteristics for which limits have to be given in visual grading standards.
This European Standard covers structural timber, untreated or treated against biological attack.
This European Standard does not cover:
-   timber treated by fire retardant products to improve its fire performance;
-   thermally and/or chemically modified timber;
-   structural finger jointed timber.

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This document specifies test procedures for specimens obtained from round bamboo culms. The data obtained from the test methods can be used to establish characteristic physical or mechanical properties to be used in structural engineering design or for other scientific purposes. This document provides methods for evaluating the following physical and strength properties: moisture content, density, mass per unit length; strength properties parallel to the fibre direction, compression, tension and bending, and strength properties perpendicular to the fibre direction, tension and bending. It also provides methods to estimate moduli of elasticity in bending, compression and tension parallel to fibres, and bending perpendicular to fibres. The test methods reported in this document are intended for commercial testing applications. The test methods reported in this document are intended for commercial testing applications and can also be adopted as benchmark methods for scientific research. This document is organized to provide requirements for standard tests to be carried out to determine the material properties of full-culm bamboo as a structural material.

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This European Standard gives a method for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density, for defined populations of visual grades and/or strength classes of machine graded structural timber. Additionally it covers the stages of sampling, testing, analysis and presentation of the data.
The standard provides methods to derive strength, stiffness and density properties for structural timber from tests with defect-free specimen.
The values determined in accordance with this standard for mechanical properties and density are suitable for assigning grades and species to the strength classes of EN 338.
NOTE 1   For assigning grades and species to the strength classes in EN 338 only three properties, i.e. bending or tension strength, modulus of elasticity parallel to grain in bending or tension and density need to be determined from test data, other properties can be calculated according to Table 2.
NOTE 2   EN 1912 gives examples of established visual grades assigned to strength classes.

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This European Standard specifies requirements additional to those given in EN 14081-1 for factory production control of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336.

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This European Standard specifies requirements, additional to those in EN 14081-1, for type testing of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336. This includes requirements for strength grading machines.

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This European Standard gives a method for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density, for defined populations of visual grades and/or strength classes of machine graded structural timber. Additionally it covers the stages of sampling, testing, analysis and presentation of the data.
The standard provides methods to derive strength, stiffness and density properties for structural timber from tests with defect-free specimen.
The values determined in accordance with this standard for mechanical properties and density are suitable for assigning grades and species to the strength classes of EN 338.
NOTE 1   For assigning grades and species to the strength classes in EN 338 only three properties, i.e. bending or tension strength, modulus of elasticity parallel to grain in bending or tension and density need to be determined from test data, other properties can be calculated according to Table 2.
NOTE 2   EN 1912 gives examples of established visual grades assigned to strength classes.

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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the water uptake and the effectiveness of the drying process of solid wood, wood based materials or coated wood by means of water absorption and water vapour desorption. This European Standard lays down a method to assess the moisture dynamics of wooden products and indirectly their susceptibility to wood rot.

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This European Standard specifies requirements additional to those given in EN 14081-1 for factory production control of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336.

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This document specifies requirements, additional to those of EN 14081-1, for type testing of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planning or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336. This includes requirements for strength grading machines.

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This document establishes the basic principles for rules and procedures governing the visual sorting of timber for use in structural applications.

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CCMC - addition of superseding note in the European Foreword

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ISO 19474:2018 defines requirements to methods of determination of visual characteristics of round timber.

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This Technical Specification describes a laboratory method for obtaining water samples from preservative treated wood exposed out of ground contact (wood held in the storage yard after treatment and which has been in conditions designed to simulate outdoor, out of ground contact situations), at increasing time intervals after exposure.

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This European Standard specifies the methodology for measurement of features - in relation to wood structure, biological agencies and other damage - taken into account in the visual grading:
a)   for appearance - of sawn, processed and round timber;
b)   for serviceability - of sawn and processed timber (identified in EN 1611-1 as the integrity of the timber).
When the standard is applied the methodology of measurement used shall be stated.
It is not applicable to structural timber for which strength grading in accordance with EN 14081-1 is required.
This standard applies to hardwood and softwood sawn timber, both square edged and un-edged, to processed timber and to round timber.
It does not apply to tropical timber.

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This European Standard specifies the methodology for measurement of features - in relation to wood structure, biological agencies and other damage - taken into account in the visual grading:
a)   for appearance - of sawn, processed and round timber;
b)   for serviceability - of sawn and processed timber (identified in EN 1611-1 as the integrity of the timber).
When the standard is applied the methodology of measurement used shall be stated.
It is not applicable to structural timber for which strength grading in accordance with EN 14081-1 is required.
This standard applies to hardwood and softwood sawn timber, both square edged and un-edged, to processed timber and to round timber.
It does not apply to tropical timber.

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This European Standard defines a method of assessment of drying quality. It applies to a lot of dried sawn timber (surfaced or not). It applies to both softwood and hardwood with a thickness not greater than 100 mm.
The quality of drying is expressed in terms of target and average moisture content of the lot as well as defining the moisture content variation between individual pieces expressed as allowable upper and lower limits.
An option for specifying the degree of case-hardening is included.
NOTE 1   Other features related to drying, e.g. checking, distortions, stain, etc., are specified in documents for visual grading of sawn timber or in product specifications and are not covered by this document.
NOTE 2   In the following the term "sawn timber" is used for all dried timber covered by this the scope.

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ISO 13912:2017 establishes the basic principles for rules and procedures governing the machine sorting of timber for use in structural applications. This applies to conventional bending type strength-grading machines as well as more recent machines that use other properties for strength-grading purposes.

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This European Standard describes the characteristics that fire-retardant treated wood products should exhibit in order that its fire-retardant properties will persist undiminished throughout the desired service life in the anticipated conditions of use.
The Standard prescribes the classification requirements for the durability of the reaction to fire performance of fire-retardant treated wood products to be used in interior and exterior end use conditions. The products shall initially meet required reaction to fire classification. For interior and exterior use, limited hygroscopicity shall be verified. In addition, products for exterior use shall meet the minimum durability of reaction to fire performance requirements specific to the end use.
The requirements are applicable to wood which has been treated during a production process with fire retardant product applied either by a penetration process or by a superficial process, such as with a film forming or intumescent fire retardant coating. The fire-retardant treated products may be coated with an ordinary paint.
Mechanical properties and biological durability of fire-retardant treated wood products are not covered by this European Standard.
Paints, coatings and varnishes intended to improve the reaction to fire performance of a construction product when incorporated in situ in the construction works, are covered by ETAG 028 [19].
This Standard may be used as a basis for an approval system.

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ISO 13061-10:2017 specifies a method for determining the impact bending strength of wood.

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ISO 13061-11:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the resistance of wood to impact indentation by a steel ball.

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ISO 13061-17:2017 specifies a method for determining the ultimate stress in compression parallel to grain of wood.

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  • Standard
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ISO 13061-12:2017 specifies a method for determining of the static hardness of wood by measuring resistance of a test piece to the penetration of a plunger under gradually increasing load.

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  • Standard
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This European Standard defines a method of assessment of drying quality. It applies to a lot of dried sawn timber (surfaced or not). It applies to both softwood and hardwood with a thickness not greater than 100 mm.
The quality of drying is expressed in terms of moisture content: target, average of the lot and variation between the pieces of the lot.
An option for specifying the degree of case-hardening is included.
NOTE 1   Other features related to drying, e.g. check, shake, warp, stain, etc., are specified in documents for visual grading of sawn timber or in product specifications and are not covered by this document.
NOTE 2   In the following the term "sawn timber" is used for all dried timber covered by this scope.

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ISO 13061-15:2017 specifies a method for the determination of linear swelling in the radial and tangential directions of wood.

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ISO 13061-16:2017 specifies methods for the determination of volumetric swelling of wood.

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This European Standard gives guidance on methods for determining and classifying the durability of wood against biological wood-destroying agents, its permeability to water and its performance in use.
The methods can be applied either to individual wood species, batches of wood and wood-based materials.
This standard is not intended to test the efficacy of biocides.
The wood-destroying agents considered under in this standard are:
-   wood-destroying fungi (basidiomycete and soft-rot fungi);
-   beetles capable of attacking dry wood;
-   termites;
-   marine organisms.
Data on the biological durability of selected wood species considered of economic importance in European countries are presented in Annex B (informative), which also provides information relating to their geographical origin, density, sapwood width and treatability.
NOTE 1   The guidance on the durability classification appropriate for a particular use class is given in the EN 460 standard.
NOTE 2   Annex C (informative) provides a methodology allowing the classification of wood treatability
Wood durability is an important factor that influences service life of a wood product. This standard provides input to service life prediction of wood and wood-based products as it ranks durability against wood-destroying organisms of various wood species thereby allowing species of appropriate durability to be selected for a particular use class. It shall however be emphasized that the biological durability rating of wood species given in Annex B cannot be regarded as any guarantee of performance in service.
NOTE 3   There are many other factors influencing service life of a wood product, such as principles of good design, use conditions, climate, maintenance (…) and should be taken into consideration.

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This draft European Standard provides guidelines for safeguarding waterlogged wood on terrestrial sites of archaeological or historical significance. It deals with the protection of archaeological and historical waterlogged wood, from the time of exposure during and after excavation, until it reaches the conservation laboratory. The standard cannot be applied to the management of underwater sites, controlled reburial, in situ preservation, or long term post excavation storage. Composite artefacts of wood and other materials are also excluded from the standard.

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ISO 13061-13:2016 specifies a method for the determination of linear shrinkage in the radial and tangential directions of wood.

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ISO 13061-14:2016 specifies methods for the determination of volumetric shrinkage of wood.

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This European standard provides guidelines for safeguarding waterlogged wood on terrestrial sites of archaeological or historical significance. It deals with the protection of archaeological and historical waterlogged wood, from the time of exposure during and after excavation, until it reaches the conservation laboratory. The standard cannot be applied to the management of  controlled reburial, in situ preservation, long term post excavation storage or excavations under water. Composite artefacts, and other waterlogged materials are specifically excluded from this standard.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for labelling wood preservative products according to their efficacy and suitability for use, for each of the five use classes defined in EN 335.
This European Standard is applicable to all wood preservative products supplied for application in liquid form for the preventive treatment of timbers (structural and non-structural) against wood-attacking fungi, wood-attacking insects and marine organisms as described in EN 1001-2 and EN 335. It is applicable to products for preventive treatments against fungi causing disfigurement (blue stain) of wood in service, only if this forms part of the overall preventive effectiveness of the product.
This European Standard is not applicable to wood preservative products supplied for application as pastes, solids or in capsule form because they cannot be tested without modification of the biological tests demanded in this standard. It does not apply either to wood preservative products for remedial (curative) treatments or to those applied to prevent fungi causing sap stain on green (unseasoned) timber.

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This European Standard gives guidance on methods for determining and classifying the durability of wood and wood-based materials against biological wood-destroying agents.
The methods can be applied either to individual wood species, batches of wood and processed wood-based materials, including heat-treated, preservative-treated wood and modified wood. However, this standard is not intended to replace testing of the efficacy of biocides.
The wood-destroying agents considered in this standard are:
—   wood-decay fungi (basidiomycete and soft-rot fungi);
—   beetles capable of attacking dry wood;
—   termites;
—   marine organisms capable of attacking wood in service.
Data on the biological durability of selected wood species considered of economic importance in European countries are presented in Annex B (informative), which also provides information relating to their geographical origin, density, sapwood width and treatability.
NOTE   Treatability, durability to disfiguring fungi, permeability to water and performance in use of wood and wood-based materials are also important issues. However, because standardized methods aiming to assess and classify these factors do not exist and/or have not been extensively experienced yet, preliminary guidance is given in Annex C (informative) for the classification of wood treatability with aqueous wood preservatives, Annex D (informative) for the classification of the permeability to water, Annex E (informative) for the durability to disfiguring fungi, and Annex F (informative) for the classification of performance.

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This standard gives statistical methods for the determination of characteristic values from test results on a sample drawn from a clearly defined reference population of e.g. solid wood, fasteners, connectors and wood-based products. The characteristic value is an estimate of the property of the reference population and can be based on a 5-percentile value of strength, resistance or density as well as on a mean value for stiffness.
Parametric methods are given for the determination of lower and upper 5-percentiles. The upper 5-percentile is the 95-percentile.
This standard is suitable for use with any structural product in the frame of type testing as well as factory production control.
Sampling is not covered by this document, but reference is made to the relevant product standards.
This standard also provides the acceptance procedure for verification of a lot.
Depending on the product, characteristic values determined in accordance with this standard may be used directly or may need additional adjustments specified in the relevant product standards.
Note:   For example, in the case of solid timber, specific adjustment factors for calculation of characteristic values are given in EN 384.

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This document specifies a method of strength grading tropical harwood visually for structural use. This method is only suitable for pieces of timber with rectangular cross'section that is constant along their length.

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This European Standard specifies a method of strength grading tropical hardwood visually for structural use.
The permissible limits of characteristics for a single visual strength grade of timber are specified, designated “Structural Tropical Hardwood” (STH) grade.
The method is only suitable for pieces of timber with a rectangular cross-section that is constant along their lengths.
Characteristics related to durability are not covered in this standard. For some end uses, additional requirements may be specified at the time of grading, e.g. sapwood exclusion.

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This European Standard establishes a system of strength classes for general use in design codes.
It gives characteristic strength and stiffness properties and density values for each class to which EN 14081-1 refers.
This standard is applicable to all softwood and hardwood timber for structural use.

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