Information technology -- Learning, education and training -- Metadata for learning resources

ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017 provides guidance in the form of rules and heuristics for the development of a conversion script from an IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 (LOM) record to an MLR data element set. Not all of LOM can be mapped to the MLR. As more parts are added to the ISO/IEC 19788 series, future version of this document is expected to provide a better coverage of the LOM metadata.

Technologies de l'information -- Apprentissage, éducation et formation -- Métadonnées pour ressources d'apprentissage

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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TR
REPORT 19788-11
First edition
2017-04
Information technology — Learning,
education and training — Metadata
for learning resources —
Part 11:
Migration from LOM to MLR
Technologies de l’information — Apprentissage, éducation et
formation — Métadonnées pour ressources d’apprentissage —
Partie 11: Migration du LOM vers le MLR
Reference number
ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
ISO/IEC 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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copyright@iso.org
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ii © ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Naming resources in MLR............................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 From Learning Object Metadata to MLR data elements (informative) ........................................................3

6.1 General category .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1.1 LOM data element general ..................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1.2 LOM to MLR mapping example ........................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Lifecycle category ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.1 LOM data element lifeCycle ................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 LOM to MLR mapping example ........................................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Meta-metadata category ..............................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 LOM data element metaMetadata ...............................................................................................................11

6.3.2 LOM to MLR mapping example ........................................................................................................................11

6.4 Technical category ............................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.1 LOM data element technical ..............................................................................................................................15

6.4.2 LOM to MLR mapping example ........................................................................................................................15

6.5 Educational category ......................................................................................................................................................................19

6.5.1 LOM data element educational .......................................................................................................................19

6.5.2 LOM to MLR mapping example ........................................................................................................................19

6.6 Rights category ....................................................................................................................................................................................23

6.6.1 LOM data element rights ......................................................................................................................................23

6.6.2 LOM to MLR mapping example ........................................................................................................................23

6.7 Relation category ...............................................................................................................................................................................25

6.7.1 LOM data element relation .................................................................................................................................25

6.7.2 LOM to MLR mapping example ........................................................................................................................25

6.8 Annotation category ........................................................................................................................................................................27

6.8.1 LOM data element annotation .........................................................................................................................27

6.8.2 LOM to MLR mapping example ........................................................................................................................28

6.9 Classification category ...................................................................................................................................................................31

6.9.1 LOM data element classification ...................................................................................................................31

6.9.2 LOM to MLR mapping example ........................................................................................................................32

7 Consideration of LOM data element with list of values (informative) .......................................................33

7.1 Data elements: Trees vs. Graphs ...........................................................................................................................................33

7.2 Representing LOM ordered list of items (values or resources) in the MLR ....................................34

7.3 Ordered LOM data element to MLR mapping example .....................................................................................35

7.3.1 LOM instance excerpt ...............................................................................................................................................35

7.3.2 MLR data elements (Turtle syntax) ..............................................................................................................37

8 MLR records and mutable MLR records (informative) ..............................................................................................38

8.1 Encoding of MLR Records ...........................................................................................................................................................38

8.2 Representation of MLR records and mutable MLR records ..........................................................................38

8.3 Examples of representations ...................................................................................................................................................39

8.3.1 Explicit use of property “has representation” .....................................................................................39

8.3.2 Web architecture and implicit use of property “has representation” .............................40

8.4 Resources denoted by HTTP IRIs and Web architecture .................................................................................40

Annex A (informative) Globally unique identifiers for resources .......................................................................................41

Annex B (informative) LOM instance examples .....................................................................................................................................43

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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)

Annex C (informative) An MLR record for LOM instance “Example 3” ...........................................................................54

Annex D (informative) Representation of some LOM entities as structured literals ......................................58

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................68

iv © ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL:

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, Subcommittee SC36, Information

technology for learning, education and training.
A list of parts in the ISO/IEC 19788 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
Introduction
The primary purpose of ISO/IEC 19788 series is to facilitate

— the description of a learning resource by providing a standards-based approach to the identification

and specification of data elements required to describe a learning resource, and

— the search, discovery, acquisition, evaluation, and use of learning resources, for instance by learners,

instructors or automated software processes.

The primary purpose of ISO/IEC 19788 series is to specify metadata elements and their attributes

for the description of learning resources. This includes the rules governing the identification of data

elements and the specification of their attributes.

ISO/IEC 19788 provides data elements for the description of learning resources and resources directly

related to learning resources.

ISO/IEC 19788 provides principles, rules and structures for the specification of the description of a

learning resource; it identifies and specifies the attributes of a data element as well as the rules

governing their use. The key principles stated in ISO/IEC 19788-1 are informed by a user requirements-

driven context with the aim of supporting multilingual and cultural adaptability requirements from a

global perspective.

ISO/IEC 19788-1 is information technology neutral and defines a set of common approaches, i.e.

methodologies and constructs, which apply to the development of the subsequent Parts of ISO/IEC 19788

The introduction to ISO/IEC 19788-1 (MLR Framework) states “ISO/IEC 19788 aims to specify data

elements relating to learning resources to be expressed in a range of established formats, providing

optimal compatibility with IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 […]”.

This document aims at setting best practices for a (partial) migration path from the IEEE 1484.12.1-

2002 (LOM) to the ISO/IEC 19788 series.

This document does not provide a MLR application profile, but rules and heuristics for a crosswalk

from the LOM to MLR. As MLR provides many other features, including the use of resource classes as

domain and codomain, organizations that want to develop their own MLR application profile should

instead review all published Type 1 parts (specifying data elements) in order to fully benefit from all

MLR particularities. The MLR approach can be used independently of any MLR application profile.

This work is partly based on the LOM to MLR crosswalk tables appearing in ISO/IEC 19788 Type 1 parts

(specifying data elements) that are already published or in preparation. As new parts of ISO/IEC 19788

are developed, this document will be updated to reflect the new data element specifications made

available, such as a possible part “Data elements for Classifications”.

This document illustrates how a significant number of aggregate and simple LOM data elements can be

expressed in MLR.

There are many differences between the ISO/IEC 19788 series and the IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 (LOM).

Whereas the MLR approach is based on a flat data model based on resource classes and properties, the

LOM uses a hierarchical data model (categories, aggregate and simple data elements).

The MLR data elements corresponding to LOM aggregate or simple data elements are expressed using

the MLR abstract syntax (see ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 7.1) and using the Turtle concrete syntax for the

RDF representation of the MLR data elements as per ISO/IEC 19788-7 (Bindings).

For this LOM to MLR crosswalk, for both the MLR abstract syntax and the Turtle concrete syntax, there

is a need to associate a MLR literal value to some LOM aggregate data elements and to LOM Vocabulary

datatype items. Those literals are constructed as (linguistic) structured MLR strings.

vi © ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
Some examples are as follows.

— Related to the “1.1 Identifier” (with “1.1.1 Catalog” and “1.1.2 Entry” sub-elements), “3.1 Identifier”

(with “3.1.1 Catalog” and “3.1.2 Entry” sub-elements) and “7.2.1 Identifier” (with “7.2.1.1 Catalog”

and “7.2.1.2 Entry” sub-elements) aggregate LOM data elements one may use structured MLR

strings such as:
— (catalog: URI, entry: urn: isbn: 84 -7432 -834 -9)
— (catalog: ISBN-10, entry: 0-262-68093-9)

— Related to LOM Vocabulary datatype items, one may use structured MLR strings such as:

— (source: LOMv1.0, value: creator)
— (source: LOMFRv1.0, valeur: niveau de compétence)
— (source: ht tp : / ww w. no rmet ic. or g/vd ex/t ype ress ourc ev1 _2. xml,
value: scénario pédagogique)

For LOM instance examples, see Annex B and Annex C. For a detailed presentation of structured MLR

strings as used in this document, see Annex D.
© ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved vii
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
Information technology — Learning, education and
training — Metadata for learning resources —
Part 11:
Migration from LOM to MLR
1 Scope

This document provides guidance in the form of rules and heuristics for the development of a conversion

script from an IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 (LOM) record to an MLR data element set.

Not all of LOM can be mapped to the MLR. As more parts are added to the ISO/IEC 19788 series, future

version of this document is expected to provide a better coverage of the LOM metadata.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011,

ISO/IEC 19788-1/Amd 1:2014 and the following apply.
3.1
MLR dataset
set of data elements

Note 1 to entry: The data elements in an MLR dataset need not be related to a single learning resource.

Note 2 to entry: Data elements is as defined in ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 3.11.
3.2
RDF dataset
collection of RDF graphs, and comprises

— exactly one default graph, being an RDF graph: the default graph does not have a name and may be

empty, and

— zero or more named graphs: each named graph is a pair consisting of an IRI or a blank node (the graph

name), and an RDF graph. Graph names are unique within an RDF dataset.
[SOURCE: Bibliography [28]]
© ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
3.3
content negotiation

practice of providing multiple representations available via the same URI

Note 1 to entry: Which representation is served depends on negotiation between the requesting agent and the

agent serving the representations.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015, E.2.1]
3.4
information resource

resource which has the property that all of its essential characteristics can be

conveyed in a message

EXAMPLE The information content of the book “Turtle, Termites, and Traffic Jams” by Mitchel Resnick (ISBN

0-262-18162-2) is an information resource. However, the physical object “Turtle, Termites, and Traffic Jams” book

owned by Gilles Gauthier is not an information resource.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015, E.2.2]
3.5
representation
data that encodes information about resource state

Note 1 to entry: A resource may have more than one representation: The information resource (3.4) “Turtle,

Termites, and Traffic Jams” by Mitchel Resnick (ISBN 0-262-18162-2) could have textual representations [plain

text, html, epub, portable document format (pdf), Microsoft Word, Braille, etc.], representations in various

languages (English, French, etc.), audio representations, etc.

Note 2 to entry: Metadata such as character encoding (e.g. UTF-8, UTF-16, US-ASCII, ISO-8859-1) or content

encoding (e.g. XML, HTML, JPEG video, JSON file) may be provided.
Note 3 to entry: Data is as defined in ISO/IEC 11179-1.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015, E.2.4, modified]
4 Abbreviated terms
DES data element specification
IRI internationalized resource identifier
RC resource class
MLR metadata for learning resource
URI uniform resource identifier
5 Naming resources in MLR

In the ISO/IEC 19788 series, all resources shall be denoted/named by IRIs. When a learning resource

(or a related resource) under description is not denoted by an IRI, one needs to provide an IRI to name

the learning resource or related resources.

For more information about how one can provide such a globally unique identifier, see Annex A.

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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
6 From Learning Object Metadata to MLR data elements (informative)
6.1 General category
6.1.1 LOM data element general
LOM MLR
Canonical identifier(s) Property name(s)
1. General
ISO_IEC_19788-2::DES1000
1.1 Identifier identifier
1.1.1 Catalog
1.1.2 Entry
ISO_IEC_19788-2::DES0100
1.2 Title title
ISO_IEC_19788-2::DES1200
1.3 Language language
ISO_IEC_19788-2::DES0400
1.4 Description description
ISO_IEC_19788-2::DES0300
1.5 Keyword subject
ISO_IEC_19788-2::DES1400
1.6 Coverage coverage
1.7 Structure
1.8 Aggregation
Level

NOTE The use of italics indicates that the MLR data element has domain Learning Resource (ISO_IEC_19788-1::RC0002).

6.1.2 LOM to MLR mapping example
6.1.2.1 LOM instance excerpt
The LOM instance under consideration is the LOM instance “Example 1” (see B.1).
Excerpt from the LOM instance:
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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
In table form:
LOM Data element value
1. General
1.1 Identifier
1.1.1 Catalog “ISBN-10”
1.1.2 Entry “0-262-68093-9”
1.2 Title (“en”, “Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams: Explorations
in Massively Parallel Microworlds”)
(“es”, “Tortugas, Termitas y Atascos de Trafico: Explora-
ciones Sobre Micromundos Masivamente Paralelos”)
1.3 Language “eng”
1.4 Description (“en”, “Using the massively parallel programming lan-
guage called StarLogo, Mitchel Resnick shows how the
actions and interactions of thousands of artificial ‘crea-
tures’ can be controlled on the computer screen.”)
1.5 Keyword (“en”, “StarLogo”)
(“fr”, “StarLogo”)
1.5 Keyword (“en”, “microworld”)
(“fr”, “micromonde”)
1.5 Keyword (“en”, “computer science”)
(“fr”, “informatique”)
1.5 Keyword (“en”, “decentralized systems”)
(“fr”, “systèmes décentralisés”)
1.5 Keyword (“en”, “self-organization”)
(“fr”, “auto-organisation”)
1.6 Coverage
1.7 Structure
1.8 Aggregation (“LOMv1.0”, “3”)
Level
As a LOM XML snippet:


ISBN-10
0-262-68093-9

</br> <string language="en">Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams:</br> Explorations in Massively Parallel Microworlds</string></br> <string language="es">Tortugas, Termitas y Atascos de Trafico:</br> Exploraciones Sobre Micromundos Masivamente Paralelos</string></br>
eng

Using the massively parallel programming
language called StarLogo, Mitchel Resnick shows how the actions
and interactions of thousands of artificial 'creatures' can be
controlled on the computer screen.


StarLogo


microworld
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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)


computer science


decentralized systems


self-organization


LOMv1.0
3

6.1.2.2 Global identifiers for the learning resource and other related resources

The learning resource described by the LOM instance is the learning resource denoted by the URI

urn: isbn: 0 -262 -68093 -9.
Other related MLR resource instances: None
6.1.2.3 MLR data elements (abstract MLR syntax)

Using the information technology neutral syntax of ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, 7.1, the excerpt in 6.1.2.1

may be mapped to the following set (data elements not ordered):
"(catalog: ISBN-10, entry: 0-262-68093-9)">

"Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams: Explorations in Massively Parallel Microworlds", en>

"Tortugas, Termitas y Atascos de Trafico: Exploraciones Sobre Micromundos Masivamente

Paralelos", es>

"Using the massively parallel programming language called StarLogo, Mitchel Resnick shows

how the actions and interactions of thousands of artificial 'creatures' can be controlled

on the computer screen.", en>




6.1.2.4 MLR data elements (Turtle syntax)
6.1.2.4.1 Using canonical IRIs

Using the canonical IRIs for DESs and RCs, the excerpt in 6.1.2.3 may be mapped to the following set

(data elements not ordered):
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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)

The symbol ↵ is used to indicate a change of line for the sake of the presentation only (in code below,

in many occasions, its use is implicit). A file containing the code above would not use this symbol and

would not provide a line change where this symbol appears.
6.1.2.4.2 Using English linguistic IRIs

Using the linguistic (English) IRIs for DESs and RCs, the excerpt in 6.1.2.4.1 may be mapped to the

following set (data elements not ordered):

The character · used in the names of MLR data elements (e.g. mlr: Learning _Resource·identifier)

is the unreserved (iunreserved, RFC 3987) Unicode character U+00B7 MIDDLE DOT.
6 © ISO/IEC 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
6.2 Lifecycle category
6.2.1 LOM data element lifeCycle
LOM MLR
Canonical identifier(s) Property name(s)
2. Life Cycle
2.1 Version
2.2 Status
ISO_IEC_19788-5::DES1700
2.3 Contribute has contribution
ISO_IEC_19788-5::DES0800
2.3.1 Role contributor role
(with role
value either
“author” or
“validator”
2.3.2 Entity ISO_IEC_19788-5::DES1800 / has contributor /
ISO_IEC_19788-9::DES0500 / contact information /
ISO_IEC_19788-9::DES0600 vCard text
ISO_IEC_19788-5::DES0700
2.3.3 Date contribution date

This restriction is needed because of the terms available from the MLR vocabulary ISO_IEC_19788-5::VA.1 “Agent

role” (see ISO/IEC 19788-5:2012, A.1). Either, in a future edition of ISO/IEC 19788-5, the vocabulary “Agent role” should be

extended, or one could use an extended vocabulary.

NOTE 1 The use of italics indicates that the MLR data element has domain Learning Resource (ISO_IEC_19788-1::RC0002).

NOTE 2 The operator / (also used in tables below) indicates the composition of the two relations associated with the DESs.

Let R and S be two relations: x is R/S related to z if and only if there exists y, such that x is R related to y and y is S related to

z. The operator / is used to indicate a sequence path of properties.
6.2.2 LOM to MLR mapping example
6.2.2.1 LOM instance excerpt
The LOM instance under consideration is the LOM instance “Example 2” (see B.2).
Excerpt from the LOM instance:
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ISO/IEC TR 19788-11:2017(E)
In table form:
LOM Data element value
2. Life cycle
2.1 Version
2.2 Status
2.3 Contribute
2.3.1 Role (“LOMv1.0”, “author” )
2.3.2 Entity “BEGIN: VCARD
V ER SION: 3 . 0
FN:Dr. John Doe
N:Doe;John;;Dr.;Ph.D.
END: VCARD”
2.3.2 Entity “BEGIN: VCARD
V ER SION: 3 . 0
FN;LANGUAGE=ko:홍길동
N:홍;길동;;;
END: VCARD”
2.3.3 Date “2012-03-25T12:34:45.23”
“Gregorian calendar: 348th day of 2011”
As a LOM XML snippet:



LOMv1.0
author

BEGIN: VCARD
VERSION: 3 .0
FN:Dr. John Doe
N:Doe;John;;Dr.;Ph.D.
END: VCARD
BEGIN: VCARD
VERSION: 3 .0
FN;LANGUAGE=ko:홍길동
N:홍;길동;;;
END: VCARD

2012-03-25T12:34:45.23

...

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