Road vehicles -- Engine EGR cooler -- Heat dissipation test methods

This document defines the methodology for the measurement of heat dissipation and pressure loss of liquid cooled engine EGR coolers in internal combustion engines for road vehicles. The principles of this document are valid for clean and fouled EGR coolers.

Véhicules routiers -- Refroidisseur de la vanne EGR -- Méthodes d'essais de dissipation de chaleur

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Oct-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
11-Sep-2019
Completion Date
10-Oct-2019
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 21441:2019 - Road vehicles -- Engine EGR cooler -- Heat dissipation test methods
English language
23 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21441
First edition
2019-10
Road vehicles — Engine EGR cooler —
Heat dissipation test methods
Véhicules routiers — Refroidisseur de la vanne EGR — Méthodes
d'essais de dissipation de chaleur
Reference number
ISO 21441:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21441:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21441:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Test items ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Test setup ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Test conditions ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.2 Test equipment ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.1 General test equipment .............................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.2 Test gas circuit equipment ...................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.3 Cooling liquid circuit equipment ....................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Measuring instruments ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Test and measurement methods .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 Test methods ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1.1 Test with heat dissipation ........................................................................................................................................ 7

6.1.2 Test without heat dissipation ............................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Measurement method ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.1 Flow rate measurement ............................................................................................................................................. 9

6.2.2 Temperature measurement .................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.3 Pressure measurement .............................................................................................................................................. 9

7 Calculation method .........................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 Items to be calculated ....................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1.1 EGR cooler heat dissipation amount ...........................................................................................................10

7.1.2 EGR gas temperature effectiveness...............................................................................................................10

7.2 Calculation formula ..........................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.1 Mass flow rate .................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.2 EGR gas and EGR cooler heat dissipation amounts ........................................................................11

7.2.3 EGR gas temperature effectiveness...............................................................................................................13

7.2.4 EGR gas pressure loss ...............................................................................................................................................13

7.2.5 Cooling liquid pressure loss ................................................................................................................................14

8 Test report preparation .............................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 21441:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 34,

Propulsion, powertrain and powertrain fluids.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 21441:2019(E)
Introduction

Internal combustion engines used in regulated environments are fitted with cooled exhaust gas

recirculation (EGR) to reduce NOx and improve fuel consumption. The EGR cooler receives gas from

the exhaust system and gas is cooled by cooling liquid. This document provides manufacturers with a

standardized method of measuring heat dissipation performance of the EGR cooler.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21441:2019(E)
Road vehicles — Engine EGR cooler — Heat dissipation
test methods
1 Scope

This document defines the methodology for the measurement of heat dissipation and pressure loss of

liquid cooled engine EGR coolers in internal combustion engines for road vehicles. The principles of this

document are valid for clean and fouled EGR coolers.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
EGR

technology that recirculates a portion of an engine's exhaust gas back into the intake to control the

concentration of oxygen taken into the engine
3.2
EGR gas

gas that has been extracted from the exhaust gas and is passed through the EGR cooler (3.5) core (3.14)

3.3
test gas

pressurized air or exhaust gas made by burners used in place of real EGR gas (3.2) during the heat

dissipation performance test and when measuring EGR gas pressure loss (3.10)
3.4
cooling liquid

water or coolant mixture during the heat dissipation performance test and when measuring cooling

liquid pressure loss (3.11)
3.5
EGR cooler
liquid cooled heat exchanger for cooling the EGR gas (3.2)
3.6
EGR gas heat dissipation amount

amount of heat lost by the test gas (3.3) during the heat dissipation performance test

Note 1 to entry: The EGR gas heat dissipation amount is expressed in kilowatts (kW).

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 21441:2019(E)
3.7
EGR cooler heat dissipation amount

amount of heat lost after the EGR gas heat dissipation amount (3.6) is corrected for the inlet temperature

difference between both fluids (3.8) as defined upon the agreement by the parties concerned

Note 1 to entry: The EGR cooler heat dissipation amount is expressed in kilowatts (kW).

3.8
inlet temperature difference between both fluids

difference between the inlet temperature of the test gas (3.3) and the cooling liquid (3.4) that pass

through the EGR cooler (3.5) core (3.14)

Note 1 to entry: The inlet temperature difference between both fluids is expressed in Kelvin (K).

3.9
EGR gas temperature effectiveness

ratio of the temperature difference of the test gas (3.3) between the EGR cooler (3.5) outlet and inlet

with respect to the difference of the inlet temperature between both fluids

Note 1 to entry: The EGR gas temperature effectiveness is expressed as a percentage (%).

3.10
EGR gas pressure loss

static pressure difference of the test gas (3.3) between the EGR cooler (3.5) outlet and inlet during heat

dissipation or no heat dissipation
Note 1 to entry: The EGR gas pressure loss is expressed in kilopascals (kPa).

Note 2 to entry: Total pressure difference can be used behalf of static pressure difference in case of measurement

conditions are agreed by the parties concerned.
3.11
cooling liquid pressure loss

static pressure difference of the cooling liquid (3.4) between the EGR cooler (3.5) outlet and inlet

Note 1 to entry: The cooling liquid pressure loss is expressed in kilopascals (kPa).

Note 2 to entry: Total pressure difference can be used behalf of static pressure difference in case of measurement

conditions are agreed by the parties concerned.
3.12
EGR gas mass flow rate

mass flow rate of the test gas (3.3) that passes through the EGR cooler (3.5) core (3.14)

Note 1 to entry: The EGR gas mass flow rate is expressed in kilograms per second (kg/s).

3.13
cooling liquid mass flow rate

mass flow rate of the cooling liquid (3.4) that passes through the EGR cooler (3.5) core (3.14)

Note 1 to entry: The cooling liquid mass flow rate is expressed in kilograms per second (kg/s).

3.14
core

part at which heat is exchanged between the EGR gas (3.2) and the cooling liquid (3.4)

4 Test items
This test evaluates the following items:
a) EGR gas heat dissipation amount or EGR gas temperature effectiveness;
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 21441:2019(E)
b) EGR gas pressure loss;
c) cooling liquid pressure loss.
5 Test setup
5.1 Test conditions

The EGR cooler, test gas, cooling liquid, and test location conditions are shown as follows.

In the case of measurement with the fouled EGR cooler, test conditions should be agreed by the parties

concerned.
a) EGR cooler:

The EGR cooler consists of main components such as the core, tank, flanges, and pipes, as well as

supplementary parts. An example is shown in Figure 1.
Key
1 flange
2 tank
3 pipe
4 core

NOTE The inlet and outlet flange can have a different flow through the cross-sectional area.

Figure 1 — EGR cooler (example)
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 21441:2019(E)
b) Test gas:

Tests shall be run with a test gas inlet temperature, an inlet pressure and a mass flow rate that are

defined upon the agreement by the parties concerned.
c) Cooling liquid:

Water used in the cooling liquid should be demineralized or treated. In the case of using a coolant

mixture as the cooling liquid, the coolant type and properties of the mixture should be documented.

The used fluid shall be regularly checked to confirm that the coolant mixture or properties haven’t

changed.
d) Test location:

Unless otherwise specified, the test location shall be kept at room temperature (5 °C to 35 °C) and

normal relative humidity (20 % to 85 %).
5.2 Test equipment
5.2.1 General test equipment

The test equipment shall be set up so that it can accurately measure the measurement items in 6.1. From

the perspective of the test gas side structure, the test equipment can be roughly divided into two types:

open type and sealed type. Both types consist of test gas and cooling liquid circuits. For sealed type test

equipment, the test gas inlet pressure shall be set upon the agreement by the parties concerned.

4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 21441:2019(E)
Key
1 EGR cooler
2 flow meter
3 thermometer
4 pressure gauge
5 differential pressure gauge
6 pump
7 flow control valve
8 temperature controller
9 pressure control valve
10 heater
11 blower
12 hot water tank
Cooling liquid side.
Test gas side.
Test gas.
Open to atmospheric air.
Figure 2 — Test equipment (open type)
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 21441:2019(E)
Key
1 EGR cooler
2 flow meter
3 thermometer
4 pressure gauge
5 differential pressure gauge
6 pump
7 flow control valve
8 temperature controller
9 pressure regulator
10 heater
11 blower
12 compressor
13 hot water tank
Cooling liquid side.
Test gas side.
Figure 3 — Test equipment (sealed type)
5.2.2 Test gas circuit equipment
The test gas circuit equipment shall be set up as follows.

a) The mass flow rate of the test gas that passes through the EGR cooler shall be adjustable.

b) The test gas inlet temperature shall be adjustable over the entire range of the test.

c) The measuring instrument of the test gas inlet pressure and the test gas differential pressure

between the outlet and the inlet shall not be affected by the dynamic pressure and shall be

connected so as not to disturb the flow of the test gas as much as possible.
5.2.3 Cooling liquid circuit equipment
The cooling liquid circuit equipment shall be set up as follows.

a) The mass flow rate of the cooling liquid that passes through the EGR cooler shall be adjustable.

6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 21441:2019(E)

b) The cooling liquid circuit piping and hot liquid tank shall be designed not to take in any air or steam,

or there should be a separation tank.
c) The cooling liquid pump shall be designed so that cavitation does not occur.

d) The cooling liquid circuit shall be able to dissipate the amount of heat it receives over the entire

range of the EGR cooler heat dissipation.
e) Excessive heating temperatures that may degrade the coolant shall be avoided.
5.3 Measuring instruments

Errors of the measuring instruments used in the test shall be within the values shown in Table 1 for

both the test gas side and the cooling liquid side. Calibration shall be carried out prior to testing.

Table 1 — Measuring instrument error
Measuring instrument Instrumental error
Test gas flow meter ±2 % of the measured value
Cooling liquid flow meter ±2 % of the measured value
Test gas inlet thermometer ±(0,3 + 0,005 × measured temperature) K
Test gas outlet thermometer ±1,5 K
Cooling liquid thermometer ±0,3 K
Differential pressure gauge ±5 % of the measured value
Pressure gauge ±3 % of the measured value
6 Test and measurement methods
6.1 Test methods

In the same manner as the examples of the test equipment shown in Figures 2 and 3, the EGR cooler

should be connected to both the test gas circuit and the cooling liquid circuit. The test and measurement

methods are shown as follows. Test conditions shall be decided upon the agreement by the parties

concerned.
6.1.1 Test with heat dissipation

Measurement of the mass flow rate, temperature, and pressure for both fluids that is required to

calculate both the EGR cooler heat dissipation and the pressure loss for both fluids shall be carried out

while the EGR cooler is in a state where it is dissipating heat. Items to be measured during the test are

shown in Table 2.

Table 2 — Items to be measured (EGR cooler heat dissipation amount, EGR gas pressure loss

and cooling liquid pressure loss)
Measurement item Unit
Atmospheric pressure kPa abs
Test laboratory temperature °C
Test gas humi
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.