Space systems -- Electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts

This document addresses the key elements for an EEE parts management programme for space systems and is written in general terms as a baseline for developing, implementing, validating, and evaluating a space parts management programme. The family of EEE parts includes electro-optical parts.

Systèmes spatiaux -- Composants électriques, électroniques et électromécaniques (EEE)

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Published
Publication Date
27-May-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
09-May-2019
Completion Date
28-May-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14621-1
Second edition
2019-05
Space systems — Electrical, electronic
and electromechanical (EEE) parts —
Part 1:
Parts management
Systèmes spatiaux — Composants électriques, électroniques et
électromécaniques (EEE) —
Partie 1: Gestion des composants
Reference number
ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

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below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 EEE parts management programme ................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 EEE parts management process............................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.2 Design process ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.3 Design margin .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1.4 Life cycle cost ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1.5 Technology insertion strategy .............................................................................................................................. 8

4.1.6 Technical support ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.1.7 System engineering support ...............................................................................................................................10

4.1.8 Parts selection .................................................................................................................................................................11

4.1.9 Obsolescence management .................................................................................................................................12

4.2 Supplier management ....................................................................................................................................................................12

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.2.2 Management processes ...........................................................................................................................................12

4.2.3 Information management .....................................................................................................................................14

4.2.4 Internal controls ...................................................................... ......................................................................................15

4.3 Shared data guidance .....................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Radiation effects .......................................................................................................................................................17

Annex B (informative) Parts selection checklist ...................................................................................................................................20

Annex C (informative) Subcontractor/supplier management checklist ......................................................................21

Annex D (informative) Shared database ........................................................................................................................................................35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14621-1:2003), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Introduction and definitions have been revised,
— consistency has been checked with ISO 14621-2, and

— the document has been aligned with the ISO/IEC Directives Part 2, 2018 edition.

A list of all parts in the ISO 14621 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
Introduction

ISO 14621-1 and ISO 14621-2 are designed to jointly assist the user and supplier communities in

developing and executing an effective process for the design, selection and application of electrical,

electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) space parts throughout the life cycle of the programme.

NOTE In both ISO 14621-1 and ISO 14621-2, the family of EEE parts includes electro-optical parts.

The strategy represented in the ISO 14621 series is:

— for ISO 14621-1 a system approach to managing risk throughout the life cycle of the programme, by

developing, selecting and properly applying the right EEE part for its intended application;

— for ISO 14621-2 a framework for developing and documenting an EEE parts control programme

to assure that the parts used in space flight hardware have acceptable risk, i.e. possess adequate

functional, radiation and reliability characteristics to meet the system requirements.

Both ISO 14621-1 and ISO 14621-2 should be tailored to meet the specific needs of each individual

programme, i.e. to address the applicable system performance requirements, risk tolerance, budget,

mission duration, operating environment, and schedule. Tailoring should result in a set of planned

activities that are not only capable of achieving all contractual EEE parts related requirements, but

also commensurate with the space system’s unit-value/mission-criticality and life cycle technical data

product requirements.

NOTE This type of planning is sometimes referred to as capability-based Safety, Dependability, and Quality

Assurance (SD&QA) programme tailoring; and the guidance for performing it is provided in ISO/TS 18667.

ISO 14621-1 and ISO 14621-2 are relevant to all users and customers of space systems, and the suppliers

and vendors that furnish space flight hardware. However, to utilize these documents to their fullest

potential, it is necessary to understand the commercial space business environment which has unique

cost and schedule constraint challenges.

This document discusses the following key elements that support an effective EEE parts management

programme:

— Part obsolescence management — perform early assessment of part availability risk for the entire

space system, develop and implement risk mitigation activities that will prevent or minimize

programme disruption due to part shortages, and ensure long-term supportability throughout the

programme life cycle.

— Supplier management — plan and execute techniques for verifying that the practices and products

of suppliers and vendors comply with:
— contractual requirements;

— their documented internal business practices (also known as command media), which should

be consistent with the commercial consensus on technical best practices.

— Cost management — minimize the costs, including verifying parts suppliers and vendors can provide

the rationale why they set different costs for parts that are functionally identical, e.g. identify the

cost of special processing applied to parts that are designed for a specific space environment or

mission.

— Technology insertion — focus on creating a technology road map, which minimizes risk of

obsolescence and develops a strategy for technology insertion during the entire system life cycle.

— Space parts community alert exchange — have a forum focused on managing peer to peer

communication among space industry participants seeking to reduce or eliminate expenditures of

resources on common problems, by sharing EEE parts related problem information collected during

research, design, development, production, and operational phases of the programme.

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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)

— Process control — ensure the user’s and supplier’s approaches for controlling EEE parts risks, and

risks of other critical items and processes, are documented, formally approved, and validated.

— Systems engineering — encourage parts engineering participation in all phases of the product

life cycle.

— Training — provide effectively trained resources on the various processes required to develop,

select, and properly apply the right EEE part for the its intended application, as well as to establish

awareness of the parts management programme throughout all levels of the user and supplier

communities.

Those specific elements or opportunities are presented in descriptive terms and illustrated in graphic

flow charts. There is no intent to provide detailed descriptions of “how to” in this document. It may be

cited as a basic guideline within a statement of work and/or for assessing proposals and contractor

performance. All levels of contractual relationships (acquiring activities, primes, subcontractors and

suppliers) may use this document. It is the responsibility of the user community to establish, define,

and administer those tasks based on the programme goals and objectives and thus provide the “what”

elements envisioned and establish their appropriate criteria for their programme.

Although this document was written with the intent of covering EEE parts, the concept established

is a system approach for developing an EEE parts programme with reference to specific material and

mechanical processes that make up EEE parts.
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
Space systems — Electrical, electronic and
electromechanical (EEE) parts —
Part 1:
Parts management
1 Scope

This document addresses the key elements for an EEE parts management programme for space systems

and is written in general terms as a baseline for developing, implementing, validating, and evaluating a

space parts management programme. The family of EEE parts includes electro-optical parts.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14621-2, Space systems — Electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts — Part 2: Control

Programme Requirements
ISO 17666, Space systems — Risk management
3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
best practice

documented process or product developed by the user community, consisting of suppliers and

customers, teaming for the purpose of establishing industry guidelines
3.1.2
electronic, electrical, or electromechanical part
EEE part

device that performs an electronic, electrical, or electromechanical (EEE) function, including electro-

optical devices, and consists of one or more elements so joined together that they cannot normally be

disassembled without destroying the functionality of the device
3.1.3
integrated product team
IPT

integrated product team consisting of members selected from the appropriate disciplines

EXAMPLE Engineering, manufacturing, quality, suppliers or customers, as appropriate.

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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
3.1.4
manufacturer
company or organization that transfers raw material into a product
3.1.5
performance specification

document that defines what the customer desires as a product, its operational environments and all

required performance characteristics
3.1.6
product specification

document that defines the end item(s) the supplier intends to provide to satisfy all the performance

specification (3.1.5) requirements
3.1.7
reliability engineering

integral part of the system engineering requirements definition and analysis function

Note 1 to entry: The tasks are to conduct cost/benefit trade-offs and to analyse and determine alternative design

and procurement solutions.
3.1.8
systems engineering

interdisciplinary approach governing the total technical and managerial effort required to transform

a set of stakeholder needs, expectations, and constraints into a solution and to support that solution

throughout its life
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24748-1:2018, 3.57]
3.1.9
technology insertion strategy

decision making process to assess current and future part availability and trends, which leads to a

decision regarding emerging or new technology insertion

Note 1 to entry: This process is used in the concept development phase, but also impacts the production and field

support phases.
3.1.10
validation

confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that the requirements for a specific intended

use or application have been fulfilled

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.8.13, modified — Notes 1, 2, and 3 to entry have been deleted.]

3.1.11
vendor
seller of parts, products, or commodities

Note 1 to entry: This term can be interchangeable with manufacturer (3.1.4), depending on the application

3.1.12
verification

confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that specified requirements have been

fulfilled

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.8.12, modified — Notes 1, 2, and 3 to entry have been deleted.]

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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
3.2 Abbreviated terms
ARN anticipated reliability number
ASIC application specific integrated circuit
BOM bill of materials
CAM computer-aided manufacturing
Cpk process capability
DEMP discharge electromagnetic pulse
DIC digital integrated circuit
DM design margin
DMSMS diminishing manufacturing sources and material shortages
DoE design of experiments
DPA destructive physical analysis
EEE electronic, electrical and electromechanical
EMC electro-magnetic compatibility
EMP electromagnetic pulse
EPI epitaxial
ESD electrostatic discharge
FMECA failure modes and effects criticality analysis
F I form, fit, function interfaces
FRACAS failure reporting, analysis, and corrective action system
HAST highly accelerated stress test
HEMP high altitude electromagnetic pulse
IPD integrated product design
MPU micro processing unit
NDI non-developmental item
OEM original equipment manufacturer
PEM plastic encapsulated microcircuit
PWB printed wiring board
QML qualified manufacturers list
QPL qualified parts list
RH relative humidity
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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
SEB single event burnout
SEE single event effects
SEGR single event gate rupture
SEL single event latchup
SEU single event upset
SGEMP system-generated electromagnetic pulse
SPC statistical process control
4 EEE parts management programme
4.1 EEE parts management process
4.1.1 General

The EEE parts management process defined in this document is designed to assist in dealing

more proactively with critical parts management issues and to provide guidance for developing

comprehensive strategies to manage EEE parts related performance, cost, and schedule risk via an

integrated product team (IPT) process (Figure 1). The main aspects of the EEE parts management

process are design process, supplier management, and shared data. The design process includes,

but is not limited to, design margins, life cycle cost, technology insertion, technical support, system

engineering support, parts selection, obsolescence management and validation/verification. The

emphasis should be on concurrent rather than sequential consideration of these factors in design.

Space systems users shall systematically select and proactively monitor their parts supplier base, while

information collected from the EEE parts manufacturing and supplier communities shall be organized

in a database and shared with IPT members.
Figure 1 — Parts management IPT overview
4.1.2 Design process

The flow diagram (Figure 2) illustrates the interrelationships of the critical key elements that shall be

addressed concurrently by engineering and supplier management (B) (see 4.2), to achieve the “best

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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)

practice” selection of EEE parts and documentation required for the initial design. The results obtained

from this analysis should be made available as shared data (A) (see 4.3). The following paragraphs

describe the principles embodying the ten key elements. Refer to the Introduction.

4.1.3 Design margin

The objective of developing a design margin is to assist integrated product teams with critical analyses

resulting in a robust design and minimized life cycle cost. The availability of computer-based analysis

and simulation tools presents the opportunity to validate in detail those aspects of design prior to

manufacturing/qualification commitment. Creating a design margin analysis based on actual conditions

will provide a comprehensive description of EEE part characteristics with simulation results, thereby

enhancing system performance. The design margin process (Figure 3) describes a minimum set of

design analyses needed to maximize design robustness and identifies control limits and corrective

action procedures. Metrics to validate the process include, but are not limited to, the following:

a) comparisons of actual design margins to established baselines;
b) quality of engineering design changes;
c) qualification test performance (failures);
d) prediction analysis yield;
e) manufacturing/production yields.
Associated elements are parts selection (4.1.8) and technical support (4.1.6).
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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
Key
linked to shared data (see 4.3)
linked to supplier management (see 4.2)
Figure 2 — Systems engineering IPT product
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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
Figure 3 — Design margin process
4.1.4 Life cycle cost

In establishing life cycle cost for EEE parts, the following methods should be employed: identify

technology assessment techniques and the mitigation of parts failure risk and utilize procedures

that minimize programme disruptions due to parts obsolescence, unavailability, and other unwanted

conditions. Life cycle cost analysis should include, as well as define, the EEE parts management

programme’s baseline and support a programmatic risk management methodology to control cost as

well as reduce schedule disruptions throughout the life cycle of the programme (Figure 4).

Standardization techniques are becoming increasingly dependent on the available supplier base and

market trends. A new and innovative process being implemented moves away from part number

standardization to commodity/technology/family standardization. This concept should provide a lower

cost/higher benefit approach as the demand for commercial EEE parts increases.

Factors to be considered include technology maturity, market base, material cost, ease of manufacture,

performance management, logistics costs, standardization, and form, fit, function interfaces (F I).

Initial nonrecurring costs should be de-emphasized and rationalized with long-term cost savings to

provide the best value to the customer.

Through the implementation of technology assessments, strategic supplier relationships, technology

leapfrogging, and creative risk mitigation techniques, programme continuity and integrity can be

maintained, and life cycle costs can be minimized.

Validation of the life cycle cost objectives can be accomplished through the use of the following methods:

a) design-to-cost trade studies documenting parts selected during the design phase including all

elements of cost;

b) periodic programme assessment of life cycle ratings, part technology, and part obsolescence;

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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)

c) periodic price trend analyses for “road map” technologies to validate that costs are declining as the

technologies move from introduction and growth to production maturity in the market;

d) associated elements are:
1) technology insertion strategy (4.1.5),
2) parts selection (4.1.8), and
3) obsolescence management (4.1.9).
4.1.5 Technology insertion strategy

The objective of the technology insertion strategy is to create a technology road map, which minimizes

the risk of obsolescence and develops a strategy for technology insertion during the entire life cycle

(Figure 5). The commercial industry is driving new technology development of EEE parts. The market

dynamics of the industry (availability, functionality, performance, characteristics, and packaging) affect

the way parts are used in the design. Technology road maps subdivide technologies into functions,

which provide the required visibility to resolve future obsolescence and standardization issues. Use of

technology road maps is the key element of the parts selection process. Technology road maps shall be

assessed over the life cycle of the programme to validate their effectiveness.
Associated elements are:
a) design margin (4.1.3),
b) life cycle costs (4.1.4),
c) parts selection (4.1.8), and
d) obsolescence management (4.1.9).
4.1.6 Technical support

Technical support is an all-encompassing activity established to provide a method of obtaining data

to facilitate reliability analysis, monitor applications, identify risk issues, and suggest mitigation

paths associated with the selected parts (Figure 6). Technical support requires a total commitment

by all disciplines and levels of management to ensure success. Specifically, the user shall define

his/her reliability requirements. The responsibility for reliability engineering activities shall be

established early in the programme in order to minimize the cost of unscheduled redesign, rework, or

remanufacture, as well as potential safety problems. Accomplishment of the performance objectives

will be enhanced through the application of user and field reliability information from shared data. The

shared data and supplier management information should be used in support of the IPT for evaluating

sourcing, performance, packaging, and availability. Associated elements of reliability models are

a) design margin (4.1.3),
b) parts selection (4.1.8), and
c) shared data (4.3).
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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
Figure 4 — Life cycle cost process
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 14621-1:2019(E)
Figure 5 — Technology insertion strategy (road map)
4.1.7 System engineering support

The major engineering disciplines involved in evaluating reliability processes are shown in Table 1.

Reliability engineering is just one of the many disciplines required to assess programme development

and implementation. Reliability concepts should be developed early in the programme in order to ensure

adequate verification techniques are defined. Qualification and verification testing are an integral part

of determining system performance characteristics. Failure analysis is a proactive tool for updating

reliability models and ensuring system lifetime performance. Reliability growth and pre-qualification

testing provide opportunities to reveal design and process deficiencies when they are the least costly to

fix or repair or to change the product. Verification testing is equally important in achieving programme

reliability goals as well as production processes. Materials and vendors are constantly changing;

therefore, the understanding of specific failure modes, fault tree analyses and field performance data

should provide a means to identify and correct most reliability problems. During design evaluation,

parts manufacturers should identify the use of simulation data [application specific integrated circuits

(ASIC’s)], interface data, mechanical/thermal robustness, and radiation sen
...

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