Information technology — Future Network — Problem statement and requirements — Part 1: Overall aspects

ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012 describes the definition, general concept, problems and requirements for Future Network (FN). It also discusses a milestone for standardization on FN. The scope of ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012 includes: motivation of FN; definition, general concept, and terminologies of FN; services and applications in FN; problems with current networks; design goals and high-level requirements for FN; milestones for standardization on FN.

Technologies de l'information — Réseaux du futur — Énoncé du problème et exigences — Partie 1: Aspects généraux

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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC
REPORT TR
29181-1
First edition
2012-09-15
Information technology — Future
Network — Problem statement and
requirements —
Part 1:
Overall aspects
Technologies de l'information — Réseaux du futur — Énoncé du
problème et exigences —
Partie 1: Aspects généraux
Reference number
ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)
ISO/IEC 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2012

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ii © ISO/IEC 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ vi

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

4  Abbreviations ......................................................................................................................................... 3

5  Overview ................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1  Needs to research and standardize FN ............................................................................................... 4

5.2  Value and vision of FN .......................................................................................................................... 4

6  Services and applications in FN .......................................................................................................... 5

7  Problem statement ................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1  Basic problems ...................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1.1  Routing failures and scalability ........................................................................................................... 6

7.1.2  Insecurity ................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.1.3  Mobility ................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1.4  Quality of service ................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1.5  Heterogeneous physical layers, applications and architecture ....................................................... 7

7.1.6  Network management ........................................................................................................................... 7

7.1.7  Congestive collapse .............................................................................................................................. 7

7.1.8  Opportunistic communications ........................................................................................................... 7

7.1.9  Fast long-distance communications ................................................................................................... 7

7.1.10  Lack of efficient media distribution ..................................................................................................... 7

7.1.11  Customizability ...................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1.12  Economy and policy .............................................................................................................................. 8

7.2  Problems with fundamental design principles of current Internet .................................................. 8

7.2.1  Packet switching ................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2  Models of the end-to-end principle ...................................................................................................... 8

7.2.3  Layering .................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.2.4  Naming and addressing ........................................................................................................................ 9

8  General requirements for FN ................................................................................................................ 9

8.1  Scalability ............................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2  Naming and addressing scheme ......................................................................................................... 9

8.3  Security .................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.3.1  Privacy .................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3.2  Mobility ................................................................................................................................................. 10

8.3.3  Peer ....................................................................................................................................................... 10

8.3.4  Resource .............................................................................................................................................. 10

8.3.5  Heterogeneity ....................................................................................................................................... 10

8.3.6  Attack .................................................................................................................................................... 10

8.4  Mobility ................................................................................................................................................. 10

8.4.1  Context-awareness .............................................................................................................................. 11

8.4.2  Multi-homing and seamless flow switching ..................................................................................... 11

8.4.3  Heterogeneity ....................................................................................................................................... 11

8.5  Customizable quality of service ......................................................................................................... 11

8.6  Heterogeneity and network virtualization ......................................................................................... 12

8.6.1  Application/service heterogeneity ..................................................................................................... 12

8.6.2  Device heterogeneity .......................................................................................................................... 12

8.6.3  Physical media heterogeneity ............................................................................................................ 12

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ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)

8.6.4  Network virtualization .........................................................................................................................12

8.7  Service awareness ...............................................................................................................................12

8.7.1  Service discovery ................................................................................................................................13

8.7.2  Service composition ............................................................................................................................13

8.7.3  Self-organizing service .......................................................................................................................13

8.7.4  Context-awareness ..............................................................................................................................14

8.7.5  Service QoE ..........................................................................................................................................14

8.8  Media transport ....................................................................................................................................14

8.9  New layered architecture ....................................................................................................................14

8.10  Management .........................................................................................................................................15

8.10.1  Robustness ..........................................................................................................................................15

8.10.2  Autonomy .............................................................................................................................................15

8.11  Energy efficiency .................................................................................................................................15

8.12  Economic incentives ...........................................................................................................................15

8.12.1  Quality of service/experience .............................................................................................................15

8.12.2  Manageability .......................................................................................................................................15

8.12.3  Customizability ....................................................................................................................................15

8.12.4  AAA and security .................................................................................................................................15

8.12.5  Operational aspect...............................................................................................................................15

9  Milestone for standardization on FN..................................................................................................16

9.1  Overall work plan .................................................................................................................................16

9.2  Architectures of FN .............................................................................................................................16

9.2.1  FN architecture: services/network model and functional architecture ..........................................17

9.2.2  FN architecture: naming and addressing ..........................................................................................18

9.2.3  FN architecture : switching and routing ............................................................................................18

9.2.4  FN architecture: mobility ....................................................................................................................18

9.2.5  FN architecture: security ....................................................................................................................18

9.2.6  FN architecture : media transport ......................................................................................................19

9.2.7  FN architecture : service composition ..............................................................................................19

9.2.8  FN architecture : federation ................................................................................................................19

9.2.9  Protocols for FN ...................................................................................................................................19

Annex A (informative) General concept of FN ................................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Gap analysis ................................................................................................................22

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................25

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ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when the joint technical committee has collected data of a different kind from

that which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide to

publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely informative in nature and shall be subject to review

every five years in the same manner as an International Standard.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC TR 29181-1 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 6, Telecommunications and information exchange between systems.

ISO/IEC TR 29181 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology ― Future

Network ― Problem statement and requirements:
 Part 1: Overall aspects
The following parts are under preparation:
 Part 2: Naming and addressing
 Part 3: Switching and routing
 Part 4: Mobility
 Part 5: Security
 Part 6: Media distribution
 Part 7: Service composition
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)
Introduction

The current Internet has become an essential communication infrastructure, not only for data transfer but also

for social applications such as e-government, energy/traffic controls, finance, learning, health, etc.

Even though the current Internet is such an essential infrastructure, we see that there are many concerns

about the following technical aspects of the current Internet, including IP based networks: scalability, ubiquity,

security, robustness, mobility, heterogeneity, Quality of Service (QoS), re-configurability, context-awareness,

manageability, economics, etc. Also, the advancement of mass storage units, high speed computing devices,

and ultra broadband transport technologies (e.g., peta/exa/zeta bps) enables many emerging devices such as

sensors, tiny devices, vehicles, etc. The resultant new shape of ICT architecture and huge number of new

services cannot be well supported with current network technologies.

The Future Network (FN), which is anticipated to provide functionalities and services beyond the limitations of

current networking technology, has been studied by researchers in the field of communication network and

services worldwide. FN technologies have now been widely and deeply studied in many research

organizations and standardization bodies.

This part of ISO/IEC TR 29181 describes overall aspects for FN including definition, general concept,

problems and requirements. Also, it discusses a milestone for standardization on FN.

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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)
Information technology — Future Network — Problem
statement and requirements —
Part 1:
Overall aspects
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC TR 29181 describes the definition, general concept, problems and requirements for

Future Network (FN). It also discusses a milestone for standardization on FN. The scope of this part of

ISO/IEC TR 29181 includes:
 motivation of FN;
 definition, general concept, and terminologies of FN;
 services and applications in FN;
 problems with current networks;
 design goals and high-level requirements for FN;
 milestones for standardization on FN.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
Future Network

network of the future which is made on clean-slate design approach as well as incremental design approach; it

should provide futuristic capabilities and services beyond the limitations of the current network, including the

Internet
3.2
clean-slate design approach

approach where a system and network are designed from scratch, based on a long-term, revolutionary

approach

NOTE In clean-slate design approach, the backward compatibility may not be required [1],[2].

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ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)
3.3
network virtualization

technology that enables the creation of logically isolated network partitions over shared physical network

infrastructures so that multiple heterogeneous virtual networks can simultaneously coexist over the shared

infrastructures

NOTE Network virtualization allows the aggregation of multiple resources and makes the aggregated resources

appear as a single resource [3],[4].
3.4
cross-layer communication

technology that enables to create new interfaces between layers, redefine the layer boundaries, design

protocol at a layer based on the details of how another layer is designed, joint tuning of parameters across

layers, or create complete new abstraction
3.5
autonomous service

service that enables users or services in motion to configure autonomously and to mange networks

3.6
context-awareness service

service that enables applications or services to adapt their behaviour based on their physical environment

3.7
content-centric networking

technology that enables to support routing based on contents rather than physical location

3.8
service composition

technology that supports the composition of those activities required to combine and link existing services

(atomic and, even composite services) to create new processes; i.e., the customizability of the services

provided to the end users
3.9
customizable QoS/QoE

technology that enables to support preference setting and service composition/re-composition accordingly

3.10
economic incentives

encouragement, rewards and compensation which motivates the parties (components/participants)

economically to contribute for networking and/or services and/or to provide their resources

3.11
Building Blocks (BB) approach

technique for development of a set of standards by creating some basic modules or elements that may be

added together so as to obtain an overall architecture or entire operations

NOTE This approach may be used to develop a new challenging technology, such as Future Network, in which many

of the basic associated elements have not been identified at the current stage.
[Note] The definitions of Internet and NGN:

 Internet: A collection of interconnected networks using the Internet Protocol which allows them to

function as a single, large virtual network [5].The Internet: a global system of interconnected

computer networks that interchange data by packet switching using the standardized Internet

Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of private and public,

academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper

wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies [5].
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)

 Next Generation Network (NGN): A packet-based network able to provide telecommunication

services and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in

which service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies. It

enables unfettered access for users to networks and to competing service providers and/or services

of their choice. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision

of services to users [6].
4 Abbreviations
AAA Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
BB Building Blocks
DNS Domain Name System
FA Functional Architecture
FI Future Internet
FIRE Future Internet Research and Experiments
FN Future Network
FP7 Framework Program 7
GENI Global Environment for Network Innovations
ICT Information Communication Technology
IoT Internet of Things
IP Internet Protocol
IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4
IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6
ISP Internet Service Provider
NAT Network Address Translation
NGN Next Generation Networks
NwGN New Generation Network
P2P Peer-to-Peer
PI Provider Independent
QoE Quality of Experience
QoS Quality of Service
SOA Service Oriented Architecture
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)
5 Overview
5.1 Needs to research and standardize FN

The current IP-based technology has significant deficiencies that need to be solved before it can be become a

unified global communication infrastructure. Particularly, there are problems with a large number of hosts,

such as sensors, the various wireless and mobile nodes, multiple interface and multi-homed nodes, the

support of the flow mobility, support of fast mobile hosts, safe e-transactions, quality of service guarantees,

business aspects, etc., on current IP-based networks, so various researches have been conducted to solve

these problems. Further, there are now significant concerns that shortcomings would not be completely

resolved by the conventional incremental and 'backward-compatible' style of current research and

standardization efforts. That is the reason why the FN research effort is called a “clean-slate design for anew

network’s architecture”. It is assumed that FN design must be discussed based on a clean-slate approach as

well as an incremental design approach.

In this regard, we need to study and standardize the FN which overcomes the limitations of current networks,

and enable new plentiful services.
5.2 Value and vision of FN

The business model of FN aims for profit sharing among infrastructure providers, service providers,

application providers and end users by building cooperative eco-systems between them. It can be

accomplished by openness and accommodating various requirements of each party.

Also, FN will be able to provide millions/billions of services, therefore flexible service composition is required

to achieve the FN of context-aware services. Context-aware service composition is a key functionality required

to provide dynamically adapted services, and a key feature to guarantee a seamless provisioning of media

services, which will allow to generate enriched and novel services for end-users.

Figure 1 illustrates vision and roadmap of FN.
Future
서비스
서비스
Services
Clean-slate
Future Internet
Design
Today’s Future
Service
Federation
migration
Internet Network
Incremental Design
(IPv4)
(IPv6, NGN)
2015 ~ 2020
Figure 1 — Vision and Roadmap of FN

Today’s networks are mainly based on the IPv4 Internet. To enhance the Internet, there are two design

approaches – clean-slate design and incremental design. Future Internet will be designed based on clean-

slate approach and roughly prototyped and deployed between 2015 and 2020. At the same time, today’s

networks will be evolved continuously. Thus, there will be two different network technologies and federation

and service migration are required to support seamless integration. Federation is to be defined as an

interconnection of multiple, heterogeneous networks (e.g, IPv4, IPv6, Future Internet, or non-IP based

networks). In federation, networks would be normally be geographically dispersed and managed by different

organizations/ISPs. They would however be considered as being part of single network, in so far as they are

operated in a common management framework under a common management authority. So, multiple,

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ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)

heterogeneous networks would be eventually seen as a single federated network – FN. The FN covers all the

disruptive networks as well as existing networks. FN has a broader view than the Future Internet, and includes

other non-IP networks (e.g., sensors, vehicular networks, satellite, etc.).
6 Services and applications in FN

In the clause, the following future services are envisioned and considered as benchmark services to achieve

to build the FN.

Though the listed services are shown as examples (not normative), they imply essential, societal and

infrastructural services, and require considerable network resources that current Internet technology cannot

support.
Research projects Envisioned future services
- Ubiquitous health care
GENI [7]
- Participatory urban sensing
(Global Environment for
Network Innovations)
- Dealing with personal data
- Tele-presence
NwGN [8] - Essential services: medical care,
transportation, emergency services
(New Generation Network
Architecture)
EU FP-7 [9] - Personal service creation
- Future home
(European Union Framework
Program-7)
- Future of traffic
- Virtual reality
- Productivity tools
Korean Future Internet - Smart Network services
Development and
- Cloud Network services
Deployment Strategies
- Internet of Things services
[10]

Distinguished from the traditional CT (communication technology) or IT (information technology) services, the

services of the future should be reconsidered with broader concept since the FN will encompass wide range of

heterogeneous networks [11]:

 The problem of scope, functionality, capability, granularity, time, scale, intelligence, roles, people

and their stuff, and “at your service”
FN (or future) services can be stated as:
 the services which emerge by the year 2020

 the services which are provided and inter-work on top of both clean slate based new networks

and/or existing networks

: Since services are inherently transport /access network independent, it may span across the

exiting and clean slate based infrastructures.

 the services whose features are both user centric (I-Centric) and network centric (Net-Centric)

: The purpose of future services is to satisfy and provide best convenience for end users with

optimal usage of network resources.
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ISO/IEC TR 29181-1:2012(E)

And it would cover the IT, telecom, media and cloud computing areas, which can be provided on any layers of

network (Figure 2): for example, future ICT resource services may be provided directly on transport and

resource layers, or may be provided on transport/resource control layer in case with quality controls. Likewise,

immersive communication services may be provided on application/service support layer, or service control

layer according to provider’s own service policy and capabilities. Capabilities of each n

...

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