Surface active agents -- Bio-based surfactants -- Requirements and test methods

Agents de surface -- Bio-tensioactifs -- Exigences et méthodes d’essai

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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 21680
ISO/TC 91 Secretariat: ISIRI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-04-07 2020-06-30
Surface active agents — Bio-based surfactants —
Requirements and test methods
Agents de surface — Bio-tensioactifs — Exigences et méthodes d’essai
ICS: 71.100.40
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
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STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
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Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 21680:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
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ISO/DIS 21680:2020(E)
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© ISO 2020

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ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 21680:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Generalities on surfactants ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Performance of surfactants ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Generalities related to performance .................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Technical performance properties ......................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2.2 Solubility ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.3 Surface and interfacial tension ............................................................................................................................ 4

5.2.4 Foaming power .................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.5 Wetting performance ................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.6 Emulsion power................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Bio-based content ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2 Surfactant classification .................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.3 Analytical approach ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Sustainability ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8 End of life ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9 Declaration and product labelling ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Sub-sampling procedure ..................................................................................................................................... 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/DIS 21680:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/91 Surface active agents
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 21680:2020(E)
Introduction

Bio-based raw materials have been used for millennia in the manufacture of surfactants, e.g. the first

surfactant used by mankind, was already completely bio-based – soap. With the advent of modern

surfactants in the early 20 Century, petrochemical-based raw materials also became of interest.

They offered the opportunity to tune the surfactant properties, in a broader sense, to their various

applications.

The last decades have seen the emergence of new bio-based raw materials for surfactants. Some of the

reasons for the increased interest lie in the bio-based products’ potential benefits in relation to the

depletion of fossil resources and climate change.

Acknowledging the need for common standards for bio-based products, with a focus on bio-based

products other than food, feed and biomass for energy applications.

The standards of ISO/TC 91 on “Surfactants” aims at providing a common basis on the following aspects:

— common terminology;
— bio-based content determination;
— Life Cycle Assessment (LCA);
— sustainability aspects;
— declaration tools.

It is important to understand what the term “bio-based product” covers and how it is being used. The

term “bio-based” means “derived wholly or partly from biomass”. It is essential to characterize the

amount of biomass contained in the product by, for instance, its (total) bio-based content or bio-based

carbon content.

The bio-based content of a product itself does not provide information on its environmental impact

or sustainability, which may be assessed through Life Cycle Inventory (LCI), LCA and sustainability

criteria. In addition, transparent and unambiguous communication within bio-based value chains is

facilitated by a harmonized framework for certification and declaration.

Surfactants are products which have the ability to reduce interfacial/surface tension, wet surfaces,

suspend materials or emulsify oils and fats. In Europe, thousands of producers, manufacturers

and nearly every inhabitant use surfactants every day in consumer or industrial applications. The

surfactant-producing industry is composed of mainly multinationals. Downstream users are found in

multinationals as well as SME's.

Surfactants may be produced from both fossil and renewable carbon feedstock. The amount of crude

oil used for surfactant production is, however, low with less than 1 % of the total world's crude oil

consumption.

Finally, the approach for these Technical Reports/Specifications/Standards intends to strengthen

and harmonize the reputation of “bio-based surfactants” and the confidence of the customer in this

product group.

An overview and considerations for the compilation of this document can be found in the ISO/TR 21681

[Surface active agents -- Bio-based surfactants -- Overview on surfactants containing biomass]. It will

describe existing raw material sources with regard to their current usage in surface active agents, their

source identification and conformation, and the options for communication same. It shall also include

the current work on surfactants regarding their performances, their sustainability, the LCA approaches

and end of life options.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 21680:2020(E)
Surface active agents — Bio-based surfactants —
Requirements and test methods
1 Scope

This document sets requirements for bio-based surfactants in terms of properties, limits, application

classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based

surfactants as to whether they:
— are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;

— comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general

surfactants;
— are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and

— comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (non-bio-based) surfactants.

The regulatory requirements applicable to surfactants are also applicable to bio-based surfactants.

NOTE EN 16575 defines the term “bio-based” as derived from biomass and clarifies that “bio-based” does not

imply “biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not necessarily imply the use of “bio-based” material.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1772, Surface active agents - Determination of wetting power by immersion (ISO 8022:1990 modified)

EN 1890, Surface active agents - Determination of cloud point of non-ionic surface active agents obtained

by condensation of ethylene oxide
EN 12458, Surface active agents - Determination of stability in hard water

EN 12728, Surface active agents - Determination of foaming power - Perforated disc beating method

EN 13955, Surface active agents - Determination of Krafft point and solubility of ionic surface active agents

EN 13996, Surface active agents - Foaming power and antifoaming power - Turbine stirring method

EN 14210, Surface active agents - Determination of interfacial tension of solutions of surface active agents

by the stirrup or ring method
EN 14370, Surface active agents - Determination of surface tension

EN 14371, Surface active agents - Determination of foamability and degree of foamability - Circulation

test method

EN 16640, Bio-based products — Bio-based carbon content — Determination of the bio-based carbon

content using the radiocarbon method
EN 16575, Bio-based products - Vocabulary
EN 16751, Bio-based products - Sustainability criteria
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/DIS 21680:2020(E)
EN 16760, Bio-based products - Life Cycle Assessment

EN 16785-1, Bio-based products – Bio-based content - Part 1: Determination of the bio-based content using

radiocarbon method and elemental analysis

EN 16785-2, Bio-based products – Bio-based content – Part 2: Determination of the bio-based content using

material balance

ISO 14040, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

ISO 14044, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines

DIN 53902, Testing of surface active agents; determination of foaming power, modified Ross-Miles-method

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 862 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
surfactant

organic substance possessing surface activity which, dissolved in a liquid, particularly water, lowers the

surface or interfacial tension, by preferred adsorption at the liquid/vapour surface, or other interfaces

[11]
Note 1 to entry: “Substance” as defined in REACH

[SOURCE: ISO 862:1995, Definition 1, modified — The term originally defined was “surface active

agent” and “a chemical compound” is replaced here with “organic substance” at the beginning of the

definition.]
3.2
bio-based surfactant
surfactant wholly or partly derived from biomass (based on biogenic carbon)
3.3
bio-surfactant

surfactant wholly based on biomass (based on biogenic carbon) produced either by chemical or

biotechnological processing
3.4
degradation

transformation of a compound into smaller component parts due to the physico-chemical processes,

which can occur due to abiotic processes such as oxidation and UV adsorption
3.5
biodegradation

transformation of a compound into smaller component parts by means of biological processes

3.6
ultimate biodegradation

breakdown of organic matter by micro-organisms in the presence of oxygen to carbon dioxide, water

and mineral salts of any other elements present (mineralization) or in absence of oxygen to carbon

dioxide, methane and mineral salts, and in both cases the production of new biomass

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 21680:2020(E)
4 Generalities on surfactants

Surfactants are products which have the ability to reduce interfacial/surface tension, wet surfaces,

suspend materials, or emulsify oils and fats. They make it possible to process, apply, clean or separate

materials. Surfactants are widely used in consumer and professional products and for industrial

applications. Surfactants are typically used on their own or in combination with other surfactants and

other agents to fulfil the requirements of the respective applications.
Examples of applications for surfactants are:
— cleaning agent;
— foaming/defoaming agent;
— wetting agent;
— emulsifier;
— viscosity modifier;
— surface tension reducer;
— process aid;
— fabric softener.

NOTE For many applications to perform effectively, surfactants are essential (see for examples the website

of the TEGEWA e.V. (TExtilhilfsmittel” (textile auxiliaries), “GErbstoffe” (tanning agents) and “WAschrohstoffe”

(detergent raw materials)) .
5 Performance of surfactants
5.1 Generalities related to performance

Performance and properties of any molecule, including surfactants, is determined by its chemical

structure and not by the origin of its raw materials.

This section gives a common set of technical properties characterizing the performance of surfactants

including bio-based surfactants. Due to the absence of international surfactant specification standards,

it is necessary to provide to potential users the means to qualify the bio-based surfactant products,

especially for its technical performance. Additionally
...

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