The aim of this technical report is to summarise the actual situation regarding many aspects regarding bio-based surfactants and their relation to any other surfactant regardless of its origin.  It will describe existing raw material sources with regard to their current usage in surface active agents, their source identification and conformation, and the options for communication same.
It shall also include the current work on surfactants regarding their performances, their sustainability, the LCA approaches and end of life options

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This document specifies a method for the determination of static electricity elimination (antistatic) performance. This document is applicable to fabric conditioners and antistatic agents. NOTE The differences between this document and some International Standards related to static electricity on textiles are listed in Annex B.

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This document specifies a method for the simultaneous determination of the total alkali content and the total fatty matter content of soaps (including liquid soaps), excluding compounded products.

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This document provides a method for the determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) in surfactants using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected with diode array detector (DAD) or fluorescence detector (FLD). This method is appropriate for the detection and quantification of APEOs in surfactants.

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This document provides microbiological test methods for enumeration and detection of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, detection of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in liquid hand dishwashing.

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This document specifies a potentiometric method for the determination of the chloride content of soaps, containing or not containing other surface active agents, and also of compounded products.

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ISO 19619:2018 specifies an analytical procedure for the determination of free propylene oxide in surfactants which are synthesized from propylene oxide copolymers. The method is appropriate for the qualitative and quantitative determination of propylene oxide groups in propylene oxide adducts, polyethers and polyglycol esters by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID) based on external procedure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is used for the confirmatory purposes.

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This Technical Specification sets requirements for bio-based surfactants in terms of properties, limits, application classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based solvents surfactants as to whether they:
- are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
- comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general surfactants;
- are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and
- comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (regular) surfactants.
The criteria of the Regulation for Environmental Assessment of Chemicals (REACh) [2] are included in the discussions that have lead to this paper.
NOTE   prEN 16575 defines the term "bio-based" as derived from biomass and clarifies that "bio-based" does not imply "biodegradable". In addition, "biodegradable" does not necessarily imply the use of "bio-based" material.

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This International Standard provides a method for the determination of 1,4-dioxane residues in
surfactants which are synthesized from epoxyethane, such as alkyl ether sulfates and alcohol ethoxylates.
The method is applicable for samples containing 1,4-dioxane more than 5 mg/kg. For samples containing
1,4-dioxane more than 100 mg/kg, the sample solutions should be diluted to appropriate concentration.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the polyethylene glycol (PEG)
content in aromatic and aliphatic non-ionic surface active agents of the type R-(O-C2H4) n OH; where n
is the mean ethylene oxide (EO) value. It is applicable to all ethoxylated products soluble in methanol
or methanol/water mixture. This method applies to PEG concentrations as mass fraction greater than
or equal to 0,1 %. This International Standard is not applicable to PEG whose molar mass is lower than
400 g/mol. Monomeric ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, and glycerol are not detected.

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ISO 17280:2015 provides a method for the determination of 1,4-dioxane residues in surfactants which are synthesized from epoxyethane, such as alkyl ether sulfates and alcohol ethoxylates. The method is applicable for samples containing 1,4-dioxane more than 5 mg/kg. For samples containing 1,4-dioxane more than 100 mg/kg, the sample solutions should be diluted to appropriate concentration.

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ISO 16560:2015 specifies a method for the determination of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) content in aromatic and aliphatic non-ionic surface active agents of the type R-(O-C2H4) n OH; where n is the mean ethylene oxide (EO) value. It is applicable to all ethoxylated products soluble in methanol or methanol/water mixture. This method applies to PEG concentrations as mass fraction greater than or equal to 0,1 %. This International Standard is not applicable to PEG whose molar mass is lower than 400 g/mol. Monomeric ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, and glycerol are not detected.

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ISO 17293-2:2014 specifies a method for the determination of monochloroacetic acid (monochloroacetate) and dichloroacetic acid (dichloroacetate) in surfactants by ion chromatographic method. The method applies for anionic surfactants such as alkyl (phenyl) ethoxylated carboxylate (AEC) or amphoteric surfactants such as alkyl imidazoline carboxylate, alkyl dimethyl betaine, and fatty acetyl propyl dimethyl betaine. The limit of detection (LOD) is ≤0,01 µg/ml for monochloroacetic acid and ≤0,05 µg/ml for dichloroacetic acid; and the limit of quantification (LOQ) is ≤0,1 µg/ml for each standard (using a standard solution). The LOD, at 1 g of sample weight, is ≤1 mg/kg for monochloroacetic acid and ≤5 mg/kg for dichloroacetic acid; and the LOQ is ≤10 mg/kg for each acid.

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ISO 17283-1:2014 specifies a method for the determination of monochloroacetic acid (monochloroacetate) and dichloroacetic acid (dichloroacetate) in surfactants by HPLC method. The method applies for anionic surfactants such as alkyl (phenyl) ethoxylated carboxylate (AEC) or amphoteric surfactants such as alkyl imidazoline carboxylate, alkyl dimethyl betaine, and fatty acetyl propyl dimethyl betaine. The limit of detection (LOD) is ≤0,3 µg/ml for monochloroacetic acid and ≤0,2 µg/ml for dichloroacetic acid; the limit of quantification (LOQ) is ≤1,0 µg/ml for monochloroacetic acid and ≤0,75 µg/ml for dichloroacetic acid (using a standard solution). The LOD, at 5 g of sample weight, is ≤6 mg/kg for monochloroacetic acid and ≤4 mg/kg for dichloroacetic acid; and the LOQ is ≤20 mg/kg for monochloroacetic acid and ≤15 mg/kg for dichloroacetic acid.

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ISO 4317:2011 specifies two titration methods (volumetric and coulometric) using Karl Fischer reagent for the determination of the water content of surface active agents and detergents. These methods are applicable to products in the form of powders, pastes and solutions. They are applicable only if so indicated in the specific standard for each product. As alkaline compounds react with Karl Fischer reagent, the methods give values which are too high in the case of samples containing alkali metal silicates, carbonates, hydroxides or borates. Therefore, samples need to be analysed for the presence of such alkali metal salts prior to the determination of the water content.

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Specification of method of preparing water of known hardness for use in testing surface active agents and products containing them.

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This European Standard specifies a method of preparing water of known calcium and magnesium hardness for use in testing surface active agents and products containing them.

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This part of ISO 2871 specifies a method for the determination of low-molecular-mass cationic-active materials such as monoamines, amine oxides, quaternary ammonium compounds and alkylpyridinium salts which have a main chain of 10 to 22 carbon atoms and not more than 6 other carbon atoms in the cation. The method is also suitable for other cationic-active materials. The method is applicable to solids or to aqueous solutions of the active material when the relative molecular mass of the cationic-active matter is known or when it has been previously determined if its content is expressed as a percentage by mass. If more than one type of cationic-active material is present, an estimate of average relative molecular mass may be used. The method is not applicable if anionic and/or amphoteric surface active agents are present.

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This part of ISO 2871 specifies a method for the determination of high-molecular-mass cationic-active materials such as
a) quaternary ammonium compounds in which two of the alkyl groups each contain 10 or more carbon atoms, e.g. distearyl-dimethyl-ammonium chlorides, or
b) salts of imidazoline or 3-methylimidazoline in which long-chain acylaminoethyl and alkyl groups are substituted in the 1- and 2-positions, respectively. The method is applicable to solids or to aqueous solutions of the active material when the relative molecular mass of the cationic-active matter is known or when it has been previously determined if its content is expressed as a percentage by mass. The method is not applicable if anionic surface active agents are present.

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ISO 2871-1:2010 specifies a method for the determination of high-molecular-mass cationic-active materials such as quaternary ammonium compounds in which two of the alkyl groups each contain 10 or more carbon atoms, e.g. distearyl-dimethyl-ammonium chlorides, or salts of imidazoline or 3-methylimidazoline in which long-chain acylaminoethyl and alkyl groups are substituted in the 1- and 2-positions, respectively.
The method is applicable to solids or to aqueous solutions of the active material. The method is not applicable if anionic surface active agents are present.

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ISO 2871-2:2010 specifies a method for the determination of low-molecular-mass cationic-active materials such as monoamines, amine oxides, quaternary ammonium compounds and alkyl-pyridinium salts which have a main chain of 10 to 22 carbon atoms and not more than 6 other carbon atoms in the cation. The method is also suitable for other cationic-active materials.
The method is applicable to solids or to aqueous solutions of the active material. The method is not applicable if anionic and/or amphoteric surface active agents are present.

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ISO 2871-1:2010 specifies a method for the determination of high-molecular-mass cationic-active materials such as quaternary ammonium compounds in which two of the alkyl groups each contain 10 or more carbon atoms, e.g. distearyl-dimethyl-ammonium chlorides, or salts of imidazoline or 3-methylimidazoline in which long-chain acylaminoethyl and alkyl groups are substituted in the 1- and 2-positions, respectively. The method is applicable to solids or to aqueous solutions of the active material. The method is not applicable if anionic surface active agents are present.

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ISO 2871-2:2010 specifies a method for the determination of low-molecular-mass cationic-active materials such as monoamines, amine oxides, quaternary ammonium compounds and alkyl-pyridinium salts which have a main chain of 10 to 22 carbon atoms and not more than 6 other carbon atoms in the cation. The method is also suitable for other cationic-active materials. The method is applicable to solids or to aqueous solutions of the active material. The method is not applicable if anionic and/or amphoteric surface active agents are present.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination, in detergents, of anionic-active matter hydrolyzable and non-hydrolyzable under acid conditions. This active matter includes alkyl sulfates and hydroxysulfates and alkylphenol and fatty alcohol ethoxysulfates. The mean relative molecular mass of the two types of active matter must be known or previously determined, if their content is expressed as a percentage by mass. If the detergent contains any oxidizing agent, this must be destroyed before the hydrolysis.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the content of unsulfated matter present in ordinary commercial neutralized products of sulfation of ethoxylated alcohols or alkylphenols [alkyl oxyethylene sulfates (ethoxylated alcohol sulfates) or alkylphenol oxyethylene sulfates (ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfates)] containing an average of not more than 20 oxyethylene groups per molecule.

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ISO 8799:2009 specifies a method for the determination of the content of unsulfated matter present in ordinary commercial neutralized products of sulfation of ethoxylated alcohols or alkylphenols [alkyl oxyethylene sulfates (ethoxylated alcohol sulfates) or alkylphenol oxyethylene sulfates (ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfates)] containing an average of not more than 20 oxyethylene groups per molecule.

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ISO 8799:2009 specifies a method for the determination of the content of unsulfated matter present in ordinary commercial neutralized products of sulfation of ethoxylated alcohols or alkylphenols [alkyl oxyethylene sulfates (ethoxylated alcohol sulfates) or alkylphenol oxyethylene sulfates (ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfates)] containing an average of not more than 20 oxyethylene groups per molecule.

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ISO 2870:2009 specifies a method for the determination, in detergents, of anionic-active matter hydrolyzable and non-hydrolyzable under acid conditions.
This active matter includes alkyl sulfates and hydroxysulfates and alkylphenol and fatty alcohol ethoxysulfates.

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ISO 2870:2009 specifies a method for the determination, in detergents, of anionic-active matter hydrolyzable and non-hydrolyzable under acid conditions. This active matter includes alkyl sulfates and hydroxysulfates and alkylphenol and fatty alcohol ethoxysulfates.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the effectiveness of surface active agents to create and to stabilize a dispersion of pigment powder in water. It is applicable to all classes of surface active agents and formulations of surface active agents. The method can also be applied analogously to other powders.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the effectiveness of surface active agents to create and to stabilize a dispersion of pigment powder in water. It is applicable to all classes of surface active agents and formulations of surface active agents. The method can also be applied analogously to other powders.

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This European Standard specifies a procedure for the determination of the content of free fatty acid, FFA, in alkylamidopropylbetaines, which is defined as being the amount of fatty acid expressed in grams per 100 g of product.
This method has been validated for the determination of fatty acids from C6 to C20 in a total concentration range from 0,02  g to more than 3,0 g fatty acid per 100 g of product.

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This European Standard specifies a procedure for the determination of the content of free fatty acid, FFA, in alkylamidopropylbetaines, which is defined as being the amount of fatty acid expressed in grams per 100 g of product.
This method has been validated for the determination of fatty acids from C6 to C20 in a total concentration range from 0,02  g to more than 3,0 g fatty acid per 100 g of product.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the active matter content of alkylamidobetaines in commercial surface active agents.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of hydroxyl value of aliphatic and cyclic hydroxyl compounds with hydroxyl groups attached to primary and secondary carbon atoms.
This European Standard is applicable to polyacetals, temperature sensitive materials, high solids polymer polyols and rigid polyols and phenols.
This European Standard is not suitable for determination of hydroxyl groups attached to tertiary carbon atoms.
NOTE   This method is currently recommended for neutral refined products. However for products that contain an excess of acidic species a validation should be carried out to show that the acidic species either does not interfere or that the acidic species interference has been obviated.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the identifying and quantifying of high boiling point solvents in finished liquid detergents and raw materials.

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This document sets requirements for bio-based surfactants in terms of properties, limits, application classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based surfactants as to whether they:
-   are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
-   comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general surfactants;
-   are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass;
-   comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (non-bio-based) surfactants.
The criteria of the regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) [13] also apply to bio-based surfactants.
NOTE   EN 16575 defines the term "bio-based" as derived from biomass and clarifies that "bio-based" does not imply "biodegradable". In addition, "biodegradable" does not necessarily imply the use of "bio-based" material.

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The aim of this document is to summarize the actual situation regarding many aspects regarding bio-based surfactants and their relation to any other surfactant regardless of its origin. It will describe existing raw material sources with regard to their current usage in surface active agents, their source identification and conformation, and the options for communication same.
It also includes the current work on surfactants regarding their performances, their sustainability, the LCA approaches and end of life options.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the active matter content of alkylamidobetaines in commercial surface active agents.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of hydroxyl value of aliphatic and cyclic hydroxyl compounds with hydroxyl groups attached to primary and secondary carbon atoms.
This European Standard is applicable to polyacetals, temperature sensitive materials, high solids polymer polyols and rigid polyols and phenols.
This European Standard is not suitable for determination of hydroxyl groups attached to tertiary carbon atoms.
NOTE   This method is currently recommended for neutral refined products. However for products that contain an excess of acidic species a validation should be carried out to show that the acidic species either does not interfere or that the acidic species interference has been obviated.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the identifying and quantifying of high boiling point solvents in finished liquid detergents and raw materials.

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German translation received on 2006-06-07 NOT circulated as the corrigendum concerns the English text ONLY.

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TC - Modification to 4.10

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This document specifies methods for the determination of the cloud point of solutions of non-ionic surface active agents obtained by the reaction of ethylene oxide with a hydrophobic base molecule.
This document primarily applies to surfactants obtained by reaction of ethylene oxide with hydrophobic base molecules, such as fatty alcohols, fatty acids, long-chain alkylphenols, fatty amines, fatty acid esters of sugar derivatives among other ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants, which are by far the most commonly used.
NOTE   Other non-ionic surfactants containing other structural units, such as propylene oxide-ethylene oxide block copolymers, have distinctive behaviours that make the determination of the cloud point more difficult. This leads sometimes to a gradual turbidity over a temperature range of several degrees or even to the occurrence of two cloud points at significantly different temperatures.

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This document specifies methods for the determination of the cloud point of solutions of non-ionic surface active agents obtained by the reaction of ethylene oxide with a hydrophobic base molecule.
This document primarily applies to surfactants obtained by reaction of ethylene oxide with hydrophobic base molecules, such as fatty alcohols, fatty acids, long-chain alkylphenols, fatty amines, fatty acid esters of sugar derivatives among other ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants, which are by far the most commonly used.
NOTE   Other non-ionic surfactants containing other structural units, such as propylene oxide-ethylene oxide block copolymers, have distinctive behaviours that make the determination of the cloud point more difficult. This leads sometimes to a gradual turbidity over a temperature range of several degrees or even to the occurrence of two cloud points at significantly different temperatures.

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TC - Modification to 4.10

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TC - Modification to 4.8
German translation received on 2006-06-07 NOT circulated as the corrigendum concerns the English text ONLY.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the content of free N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-alkylamides (amidoamine) in alkylamidopropylbetaines, expressed in grams per 100 g of product.
This method is applicable in the range between 0,02 g and 1,0 g of amidoamine per 100 g of product.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the content of inorganic sulphate in anionic surface active agents. It can be applied to a-olefin sulphonates and n-olefin sulphonates, alcohol sulphates, alcohol ether sulphates, alkyl benzene sulphonates and other alkyl sulphonates. This method is used also for the determination of inorganic sulphate in alkyl benzene sulphonates or other alkyl sulphonates in their acid form. This method also applies to deep-coloured samples.
NOTE   Sulphate can be present as sulphuric acid, ionic salts of this acid or mixture of these.

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