Road vehicles -- Data communication between sensors and data fusion unit for automated driving functions -- Logical interface

This document is applicable to road vehicles with automated driving functions. The document specifies the logical interface between in-vehicle environmental perception sensors (for example, radar, lidar, camera, ultrasonic) and the fusion unit which generates a surround model and interprets the scene around the vehicle based on the sensor data. The interface is described in a modular and semantic representation and provides information on object level (for example, potentially moving objects, road objects, static objects) as well as information on feature and detection levels based on sensor technology specific information. Further supportive information is available. This document does not provide electrical and mechanical interface specifications. Raw data interfaces are also excluded.

Véhicules routiers -- Communication de données entre capteurs et unité de fusion de données pour les fonctions de conduite automatisée -- Interface logique

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-May-2021
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
28-Jun-2021
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23150
First edition
2021-05
Road vehicles — Data communication
between sensors and data fusion unit
for automated driving functions —
Logical interface
Véhicules routiers — Communication de données entre capteurs et
unité de fusion de données pour les fonctions de conduite automatisée
— Interface logique
Reference number
ISO 23150:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23150:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23150:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Architectural components ............................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Level of detail terms ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Structure terms ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Measurement terms............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

3.5 Requirement level terms ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

3.6 Road user relevant entity types ................................................................................................................................................ 5

3.7 Axis and coordinate system terms ......................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Abbreviated terms ...........................................................................................................................................................................................11

5 Structure of the interface description .........................................................................................................................................12

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Signal ............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Interface .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.4 Specific signal grouping ...............................................................................................................................................................14

5.5 Profile ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6 Logical interface from a sensor as well as a sensor cluster to a fusion unit ........................................15

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2 Generic interface header .............................................................................................................................................................18

6.3 Generic interface entity ................................................................................................................................................................18

6.4 Profile: Uniqueness of interface versioning ................................................................................................................18

7 Object level ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2 Generic object level interface ..................................................................................................................................................19

7.2.1 Generic object level header..................................................................................................................................20

7.2.2 Generic object level entity ....................................................................................................................................20

7.3 Potentially moving object interface ...................................................................................................................................21

7.3.1 Potentially moving object header ...................................................................................................................27

7.3.2 Potentially moving object entity .....................................................................................................................28

7.3.3 Profile: Motion ................................................................................................................................................................29

7.4 Road object interface ......................................................................................................................................................................30

7.4.1 Road object header .....................................................................................................................................................40

7.4.2 Road object entity ........................................................................................................................................................42

7.4.3 Profile: Colour model for RDOI .........................................................................................................................44

7.5 Static object interface .....................................................................................................................................................................44

7.5.1 Static object header ....................................................................................................................................................58

7.5.2 Static object entity .......................................................................................................................................................59

7.5.3 Profile: Colour model for SOI .............................................................................................................................61

8 Feature level ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................61

8.1 General .......................................................................................................................................................................................................61

8.2 Generic sensor cluster feature interface ........................................................................................................................62

8.2.1 Generic sensor cluster feature header .......................................................................................................62

8.2.2 Generic sensor cluster feature entity ..........................................................................................................63

8.3 Camera feature interface .............................................................................................................................................................64

8.3.1 Camera feature header ............................................................................................................................................67

8.3.2 Camera feature entity ...............................................................................................................................................68

8.3.3 Profile: Colour model for CFI ..............................................................................................................................70

8.4 Ultrasonic feature interface ......................................................................................................................................................70

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 23150:2021(E)

8.4.1 Ultrasonic feature header......................................................................................................................................73

8.4.2 Ultrasonic feature entity ........................................................................................................................................74

9 Detection level .....................................................................................................................................................................................................74

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................74

9.2 Generic sensor detection interface .....................................................................................................................................75

9.2.1 Generic sensor detections header..................................................................................................................75

9.2.2 Generic sensor detections entity ....................................................................................................................76

9.3 Radar detection interface ...........................................................................................................................................................76

9.3.1 Radar detections header ........................................................................................................................................79

9.3.2 Radar detections entity ...........................................................................................................................................80

9.3.3 Profile: Radar ambiguity ........................................................................................................................................81

9.4 Lidar detection interface .............................................................................................................................................................81

9.4.1 Lidar detection header ............................................................................................................................................84

9.4.2 Lidar detection entity ...............................................................................................................................................85

9.5 Camera detection interface .......................................................................................................................................................85

9.5.1 Camera detection header.......................................................................................................................................88

9.5.2 Camera detection entity .........................................................................................................................................89

9.5.3 Profile: Colour model for CDI .............................................................................................................................90

9.6 Ultrasonic detection interface .................................................................................................................................................90

9.6.1 Ultrasonic detection header ................................................................................................................................93

9.6.2 Ultrasonic detection entity ...................................................................................................................................94

9.6.3 Profile: Ultrasonic sensor cluster ...................................................................................................................95

10 Supportive sensor interfaces ................................................................................................................................................................96

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................96

10.2 Generic supportive sensor interface .................................................................................................................................97

10.2.1 Generic supportive sensor header.................................................................................................................97

10.2.2 Generic supportive sensor entity ...................................................................................................................98

10.3 Sensor performance interface ................................................................................................................................................98

10.3.1 Sensor performance header .............................................................................................................................102

10.3.2 Sensor performance entity ...............................................................................................................................104

10.3.3 Profile: Uniqueness of interface versioning of SPIs .....................................................................104

10.4 Sensor health information interface ..............................................................................................................................104

10.4.1 Sensor health information header ..............................................................................................................107

10.4.2 Sensor health information entity.................................................................................................................108

Annex A (normative) Interface signals ........................................................................................................................................................109

Annex B (normative) Options and constraints ...................................................................................................................................217

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................227

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23150:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 31,

Data communication.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 23150:2021(E)
Introduction

Highly-automated driving (AD) functions for road vehicles require a situation awareness of the

surroundings of the vehicle and a, preferably, comprehensive scene understanding. For the fast and

reliable recognition of real-world objects, a sensor suite is necessary to provide information for the

fusion unit. Utilisation of different sensor technologies like radar, lidar, camera and ultrasonic with

different detection capabilities is indispensable to ensure both complementary and redundant

information. The fusion unit analyses and evaluates the different sensor signals and finally generates a

dynamic surround model with sufficient scene understanding.

While current partly-automated functions utilise only particular objects (for example, vehicles,

pedestrians, road markings) to generate a simple surround model, it is necessary for future highly-

automated driving functions to merge not only the recognised objects but also to include other sensor-

specific properties and characteristics of these objects for the generation of a coherent model of the

surroundings. To minimise the development efforts for the sensors and the fusion unit and to maximise

the reusability of development and validation efforts for the different functions on the sensor and

fusion unit side, a standardised logical interface layer between the sensor suite and the fusion unit is

worthwhile and beneficial for both the sensor and the system supplier.
Key

1 logical interface layer between the fusion unit and automated driving functions

2 logical interface layer between a single sensor as well as a single sensor cluster and the fusion unit

3 interface layer on raw data level of a sensor’s sensing element

Figure 1 — Architecture: sensors/sensor clusters – fusion unit – automated driving functions

The logical interface layer between a single sensor as well as a single sensor cluster and the fusion unit

[see key 2 in Figure 1] addresses the encapsulation of technical complexity as well as objects, features

and detections to enable object-level, feature-level and detection-level fusion. Additional supportive

information of the sensor as well as the sensor cluster will supplement the data for the fusion unit.

vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23150:2021(E)
Road vehicles — Data communication between sensors
and data fusion unit for automated driving functions —
Logical interface
1 Scope

This document is applicable to road vehicles with automated driving functions. The document specifies

the logical interface between in-vehicle environmental perception sensors (for example, radar, lidar,

camera, ultrasonic) and the fusion unit which generates a surround model and interprets the scene

around the vehicle based on the sensor data. The interface is described in a modular and semantic

representation and provides information on object level (for example, potentially moving objects, road

objects, static objects) as well as information on feature and detection levels based on sensor technology

specific information. Further supportive information is available.

This document does not provide electrical and mechanical interface specifications. Raw data interfaces

are also excluded.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Architectural components
3.1.1
fusion

act of uniting signals (3.3.1) from two or more sensors (3.1.5) as well as sensor clusters (3.1.6) to create a

surround model (3.1.7)
3.1.2
fusion unit

computing unit where the fusion (3.1.1) of sensor (3.1.5) data as well as a sensor cluster (3.1.6) data is

performed
3.1.3
interface

shared boundary between two functional units, defined by various characteristics pertaining to the

functions, physical interconnections, signal (3.3.1) exchanges and other characteristics of the units, as

appropriate

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2124351, modified — Notes to entry have been removed.]

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 23150:2021(E)
3.1.4
logical interface

interface (3.1.3) between a sensor (3.1.5) as well as a sensor cluster (3.1.6) and the fusion unit (3.1.2),

defined by logical characteristics
Note 1 to entry: Logical means a semantic description of the interface.
Note 2 to entry: Mechanical and electrical interfaces are excluded.

Note 3 to entry: This document uses the term interface as a shortcut for the term logical interfaces.

3.1.5
sensor

in-vehicle unit which detects entities external of the vehicle with preprocessing capabilities serving at

least one logical interface (3.1.4)
Note 1 to entry: A sensor may use one or more sensing elements.
3.1.6
sensor cluster

group of sensors (3.1.5) of the same technology serving a common logical interface (3.1.4)

Note 1 to entry: A sensor cluster can exceptionally consist of only one sensor.

EXAMPLE A stereo camera, a surround-view camera, an ultrasonic sensor array, a corner radar system.

3.1.7
surround model
representation of the real world adjacent to the ego-vehicle
3.2 Level of detail terms
3.2.1
detection

sensor technology specific entity represented in the sensor coordinate system (3.7.18) based on a single

measurement (3.4.1) of a sensor (3.1.5)

Note 1 to entry: A small amount of history can be used for some detection signals (3.3.1), for example, model-free

filtering may be used in track-before-detect algorithms.
3.2.2
detection level
set of logical interfaces (3.1.4) that provides detections (3.2.1)
3.2.3
feature

sensor technology specific entity represented in the vehicle coordinate system (3.7.16) based on multiple

measurements (3.4.1)

Note 1 to entry: Multiple measurements can originate from a sensor cluster (3.1.6).

Note 2 to entry: Multiple measurements can originate from multiple measurement cycles (3.4.2).

Note 3 to entry: The term feature is used in this document not as function or group of functions as specified in

ISO/SAE PAS 22736 .
3.2.4
feature level
set of logical interfaces (3.1.4) that provides features (3.2.3)

1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/SAE DPAS 22736:2021.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 23150:2021(E)
3.2.5
object

representation of a real-world entity with defined boundaries and characteristics in the vehicle

coordinate system (3.7.16)

Note 1 to entry: The geometric description of the object is in the vehicle coordinate system.

Note 2 to entry: Object signals (3.3.1) are basically sensor technology independent. Sensor technology specific

signals may extend the object signals.

EXAMPLE A potentially moving object (3.6.1), a road object (3.6.2), a static object (3.6.3).

3.2.6
object level
set of logical interfaces (3.1.4) that provides objects (3.2.5)
3.3 Structure terms
3.3.1
signal

entity consisting of one or more values and which is part of a logical interface (3.1.4)

3.3.2
logical signal group

grouping of signals (3.3.1) that has a logical relationship and a name for the grouping

3.3.3
classification
attribute-based differentiation
Note 1 to entry: An attribute is defined by a list of enumerators.
3.4 Measurement terms
3.4.1
measurement
measuring and processing result of a measurement cycle (3.4.2)
3.4.2
measurement cycle

time period from the start of a data acquisition event to the start of the next data acquisition event

Note 1 to entry: A measurement cycle of one sensor (3.1.5) is a consistent view of an observed scene and not

overlapping in time.
3.4.3
accuracy

closeness of agreement between a measured quantity value and a true quantity value

Note 1 to entry: The concept accuracy is not a quantity and is not given a numerical quantity value. A measurement

(3.4.1) is said to be more accurate when it offers a smaller error (3.4.6).

Note 2 to entry: The term accuracy should not be used for trueness (3.4.4) and the term precision (3.4.5) should

not be used for accuracy, which, however, is related to both these concepts.

Note 3 to entry: Accuracy is sometimes understood as closeness of agreement between measured quantity values

that are being attributed to the measurand.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.13, modified — The terms "measurement accuracy" and "accuracy

of measurement" were deleted and the Notes to entry have been adapted.]
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 23150:2021(E)
3.4.4
trueness

closeness of agreement between the average of an infinite number of replicated measured quantity

values and a reference quantity value

Note 1 to entry: Trueness is not a quantity and thus cannot be expressed numerically, but measures for closeness

of agreement are given in the ISO 5725 series.

Note 2 to entry: Trueness is inversely related to systematic error, but is not related to random error.

Note 3 to entry: The term accuracy (3.4.3) should not be used for trueness.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.14, modified — The terms "measurement trueness" and "trueness

of measurement" were deleted and the Notes to entry have been adapted.]
3.4.5
precision

closeness of agreement between indications or measured quantity values obtained by replicate

measurements (3.4.1) on the same or similar measurands under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: Precision is usually expressed numerically by measures of imprecision, such as standard

deviation, variance, or coefficient of variation under the specified conditions of measurement.

Note 2 to entry: The specified conditions can be, for example, repeatability conditions of measurement,

intermediate precision conditions of measurement, or reproducibi
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23150
ISO/TC 22/SC 31
Road vehicles — Data communication
Secretariat: DIN
between sensors and data fusion unit
Voting begins on:
2021­02­11 for automated driving functions —
Logical interface
Voting terminates on:
2021­04­08
Véhicules routiers - Communication de données entre capteurs et
unité de fusion de données pour les fonctions de conduite automatisée
- Interface logique
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 23150:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23150:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23150:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Architectural components ............................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Level of detail terms ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Structure terms ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Measurement terms............................................................................................................................................................................ 3

3.5 Requirement level terms ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

3.6 Road user relevant entity types ................................................................................................................................................ 5

3.7 Axis and coordinate system terms ......................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Abbreviated terms ...........................................................................................................................................................................................11

5 Structure of the interface description .........................................................................................................................................12

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Signal ............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Interface .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.4 Specific signal grouping ...............................................................................................................................................................14

5.5 Profile ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6 Logical interface from a sensor as well as a sensor cluster to a fusion unit ........................................15

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2 Generic interface header .............................................................................................................................................................17

6.3 Generic interface entity ................................................................................................................................................................18

6.4 Profile: Uniqueness of interface versioning ................................................................................................................18

7 Object level ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Generic object level interface ..................................................................................................................................................19

7.2.1 Generic object level header..................................................................................................................................19

7.2.2 Generic object level entity ....................................................................................................................................20

7.3 Potentially moving object interface ...................................................................................................................................21

7.3.1 Potentially moving object header ...................................................................................................................27

7.3.2 Potentially moving object entity .....................................................................................................................28

7.3.3 Profile: Motion ................................................................................................................................................................29

7.4 Road object interface ......................................................................................................................................................................30

7.4.1 Road object header .....................................................................................................................................................40

7.4.2 Road object entity ........................................................................................................................................................42

7.4.3 Profile: Colour model for RDOI .........................................................................................................................44

7.5 Static object interface .....................................................................................................................................................................44

7.5.1 Static object header ....................................................................................................................................................58

7.5.2 Static object entity .......................................................................................................................................................59

7.5.3 Profile: Colour model for SOI .............................................................................................................................61

8 Feature level ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................61

8.1 General .......................................................................................................................................................................................................61

8.2 Generic sensor cluster feature interface ........................................................................................................................62

8.2.1 Generic sensor cluster feature header .......................................................................................................62

8.2.2 Generic sensor cluster feature entity ..........................................................................................................63

8.3 Camera feature interface .............................................................................................................................................................63

8.3.1 Camera feature header ............................................................................................................................................67

8.3.2 Camera feature entity ...............................................................................................................................................68

8.3.3 Profile: Colour model for CFI ..............................................................................................................................70

8.4 Ultrasonic feature interface ......................................................................................................................................................70

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23150:2021(E)

8.4.1 Ultrasonic feature header......................................................................................................................................73

8.4.2 Ultrasonic feature entity ........................................................................................................................................74

9 Detection level .....................................................................................................................................................................................................74

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................74

9.2 Generic sensor detection interface .....................................................................................................................................75

9.2.1 Generic sensor detections header..................................................................................................................75

9.2.2 Generic sensor detections entity ....................................................................................................................76

9.3 Radar detection interface ...........................................................................................................................................................76

9.3.1 Radar detections header ........................................................................................................................................79

9.3.2 Radar detections entity ...........................................................................................................................................80

9.3.3 Profile: Radar ambiguity ........................................................................................................................................81

9.4 Lidar detection interface .............................................................................................................................................................81

9.4.1 Lidar detection header ............................................................................................................................................84

9.4.2 Lidar detection entity ...............................................................................................................................................85

9.5 Camera detection interface .......................................................................................................................................................85

9.5.1 Camera detection header.......................................................................................................................................88

9.5.2 Camera detection entity .........................................................................................................................................89

9.5.3 Profile: Colour model for CDI .............................................................................................................................90

9.6 Ultrasonic detection interface .................................................................................................................................................90

9.6.1 Ultrasonic detection header ................................................................................................................................93

9.6.2 Ultrasonic detection entity ...................................................................................................................................94

9.6.3 Profile: Ultrasonic sensor cluster ...................................................................................................................95

10 Supportive sensor interfaces ................................................................................................................................................................96

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................96

10.2 Generic supportive sensor interface .................................................................................................................................97

10.2.1 Generic supportive sensor header.................................................................................................................97

10.2.2 Generic supportive sensor entity ...................................................................................................................98

10.3 Sensor performance interface ................................................................................................................................................98

10.3.1 Sensor performance header .............................................................................................................................102

10.3.2 Sensor performance entity ...............................................................................................................................104

10.3.3 Profile: Uniqueness of interface versioning of SPIs .....................................................................104

10.4 Sensor health information interface ..............................................................................................................................104

10.4.1 Sensor health information header ..............................................................................................................107

10.4.2 Sensor health information entity.................................................................................................................108

Annex A (normative) Interface signals ........................................................................................................................................................109

Annex B (normative) Options and constraints ...................................................................................................................................216

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................226

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23150:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 31,

Data communication.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23150:2021(E)
Introduction

Highly-automated driving (AD) functions for road vehicles require a situation awareness of the

surroundings of the vehicle and a, preferably, comprehensive scene understanding. For the fast and

reliable recognition of real-world objects, a sensor suite is necessary to provide information for the

fusion unit. Utilisation of different sensor technologies like radar, lidar, camera and ultrasonic with

different detection capabilities is indispensable to ensure both complementary and redundant

information. The fusion unit analyses and evaluates the different sensor signals and finally generates a

dynamic surround model with sufficient scene understanding.

While current partly-automated functions utilise only particular objects (for example, vehicles,

pedestrians, road markings) to generate a simple surround model, it is necessary for future highly-

automated driving functions to merge not only the recognised objects but also to include other sensor-

specific properties and characteristics of these objects for the generation of a coherent model of the

surroundings. To minimise the development efforts for the sensors and the fusion unit and to maximise

the reusability of development and validation efforts for the different functions on the sensor and

fusion unit side, a standardised logical interface layer between the sensor suite and the fusion unit is

worthwhile and beneficial for both the sensor and the system supplier.
Key

1 logical interface layer between the fusion unit and automated driving functions

2 logical interface layer between a single sensor as well as a single sensor cluster and the fusion unit

3 interface layer on raw data level of a sensor’s sensing element

Figure 1 — Architecture: sensors/sensor clusters – fusion unit – automated driving functions

The logical interface layer between a single sensor as well as a single sensor cluster and the fusion unit

[see key 2 in Figure 1] addresses the encapsulation of technical complexity as well as objects, features

and detections to enable object level, feature level and detection level fusion. Additional supportive

information of the sensor as well as the sensor cluster will supplement the data for the fusion unit.

vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23150:2021(E)
Road vehicles — Data communication between sensors
and data fusion unit for automated driving functions —
Logical interface
1 Scope

This document is applicable to road vehicles with automated driving functions. The document specifies

the logical interface between in-vehicle environmental perception sensors (for example radar, lidar,

camera, ultrasonic) and the fusion unit which generates a surround model and interprets the scene

around the vehicle based on the sensor data. The interface is described in a modular and semantic

representation and provides information on object level (for example, potentially moving objects, road

objects, static objects) as well as information on feature and detection levels and sensor technology

specific information.

This document does not provide electrical and mechanical interface specifications. Raw data interfaces

are also excluded.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Architectural components
3.1.1
fusion

act of uniting signals (3.3.1) from two or more sensors (3.1.5) as well as sensor clusters (3.1.6) to create a

surround model (3.1.7)
3.1.2
fusion unit

computing unit where the fusion (3.1.1) of sensor (3.1.5) data as well as a sensor cluster (3.1.6) data is

performed
3.1.3
interface

shared boundary between two functional units, defined by various characteristics pertaining to the

functions, physical interconnections, signal (3.3.1) exchanges, and other characteristics of the units, as

appropriate

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2124351, modified — Notes to entry have been removed.]

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ISO/FDIS 23150:2021(E)
3.1.4
logical interface

interface (3.1.3) between a sensor (3.1.5) as well as a sensor cluster (3.1.6) and the fusion unit (3.1.2),

defined by logical characteristics
Note 1 to entry: Logical means a semantic description of the interface.
Note 2 to entry: Mechanical and electrical interfaces are excluded.

Note 3 to entry: This document uses the term interface as a shortcut for the term logical interfaces.

3.1.5
sensor

in-vehicle unit which detects entities external of the vehicle with preprocessing capabilities serving at

least one logical interface (3.1.4)
Note 1 to entry: A sensor may use one or more sensing elements.
3.1.6
sensor cluster

group of sensors (3.1.5) of the same technology serving a common logical interface (3.1.4)

Note 1 to entry: A sensor cluster can exceptionally consist of only one sensor.

EXAMPLE A stereo camera, a surround-view camera, an ultrasonic sensor array, a corner radar system.

3.1.7
surround model
representation of the real world adjacent to the ego­vehicle
3.2 Level of detail terms
3.2.1
detection

sensor technology specific entity represented in the sensor coordinate system (3.7.18) based on a single

measurement (3.4.1) of a sensor (3.1.5)

Note 1 to entry: A small amount of history can be used for some detection signals (3.3.1), for example model-free

filtering may be used in track-before-detect algorithms.
3.2.2
detection level
set of logical interfaces (3.1.4) that provides detections (3.2.1)
3.2.3
feature

sensor technology specific entity represented in the vehicle coordinate system (3.7.16) based on multiple

measurements (3.4.1)

Note 1 to entry: Multiple measurements can originate from a sensor cluster (3.1.6).

Note 2 to entry: Multiple measurements can originate from multiple measurement cycles (3.4.2).

Note 3 to entry: The term feature is used in this document not as function or group of functions as specified in

ISO/SAE PAS 22736 .
3.2.4
feature level
set of logical interfaces (3.1.4) that provides features (3.2.3)

1) Under development. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/SAE DPAS 22736:2021.

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ISO/FDIS 23150:2021(E)
3.2.5
object

representation of a real-world entity with defined boundaries and characteristics in the vehicle

coordinate system (3.7.16)

Note 1 to entry: The geometric description of the object is in the vehicle coordinate system.

Note 2 to entry: Object signals (3.3.1) are basically sensor technology independent. Sensor technology specific

signals may extend the object signals.

EXAMPLE A potentially moving object (3.6.1), a road object (3.6.2), a static object (3.6.3).

3.2.6
object level
set of logical interfaces (3.1.4) that provides objects (3.2.5)
3.3 Structure terms
3.3.1
signal

entity consisting of one or more values and which is part of a logical interface (3.1.4)

3.3.2
logical signal group

grouping of signals (3.3.1) that has a logical relationship and a name for the grouping

3.3.3
classification
attribute­based differentiation
Note 1 to entry: An attribute is defined by a list of enumerators.
3.4 Measurement terms
3.4.1
measurement
measuring and processing result of a measurement cycle (3.4.2)
3.4.2
measurement cycle

time period from the start of a data acquisition event to the start of the next data acquisition event

Note 1 to entry: A measurement cycle of one sensor (3.1.5) is a consistent view of an observed scene and not

overlapping in time.
3.4.3
accuracy

closeness of agreement between a measured quantity value and a true quantity value

Note 1 to entry: The concept accuracy is not a quantity and is not given a numerical quantity value. A measurement

(3.4.1) is said to be more accurate when it offers a smaller error (3.4.6).

Note 2 to entry: The term accuracy should not be used for trueness (3.4.4) and the term precision (3.4.5) should

not be used for accuracy, which, however, is related to both these concepts.

Note 3 to entry: Accuracy is sometimes understood as closeness of agreement between measured quantity values

that are being attributed to the measurand.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.13, modified — The terms "measurement accuracy" and "accuracy

of measurement" were deleted and the Notes to entry have been adapted.]
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ISO/FDIS 23150:2021(E)
3.4.4
trueness

closeness of agreement between the average of an infinite number of replicated measured quantity

values and a reference quantity value

Note 1 to entry: Trueness is not a quantity and thus cannot be expressed numerically, but measures for closeness

of agreement are given in the ISO 5725 series.

Note 2 to entry: Trueness is inversely related to systematic error, but is not related to random error.

Note 3 to entry: The term accuracy (3.4.3) should not be used for trueness.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.14, modified — The terms "measurement trueness" and "trueness

of measurement" were deleted and the Notes to entry
...

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