Internet of Things (IoT) -- Real-time IoT framework

This document specifies the framework of a real-time IoT (RT-IoT) system, including: RT-IoT system conceptual model based on domain-based IoT reference model defined in ISO/IECÂ 30141; impacts of real-time parameters in terms of four viewpoints (time, communication, control and computation).

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Publication Date
05-Jul-2021
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6000 - International Standard under publication
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06-Jul-2021
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ISO/IEC 30165
Edition 1.0 2021-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Real-time IoT framework
ISO/IEC 30165:2021-07(en)
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ISO/IEC 30165
Edition 1.0 2021-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Real-time IoT framework
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-9897-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 30165:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 5

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 5

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 5

4 Conceptual model ............................................................................................................ 6

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 The six domains ...................................................................................................... 6

4.3 Edge sub-system .................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Timing constraints ................................................................................................... 7

5 Viewpoints of RT-IoT system conceptual model ............................................................... 7

5.1 Time view ............................................................................................................... 7

5.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 7

5.1.2 Clock synchronization ...................................................................................... 8

5.1.3 Timestamp ....................................................................................................... 8

5.1.4 Time granularity ............................................................................................... 8

5.1.5 Timeout handling ............................................................................................. 9

5.2 Communication view ............................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Bandwidth management................................................................................. 10

5.2.3 Latency and jitter ........................................................................................... 10

5.2.4 Redundancy .................................................................................................. 10

5.2.5 Priority ........................................................................................................... 10

5.3 Control view .......................................................................................................... 10

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

5.3.2 Physical safety .............................................................................................. 11

5.3.3 Reliability....................................................................................................... 11

5.3.4 Accuracy ....................................................................................................... 11

5.3.5 Fault tolerance............................................................................................... 11

5.3.6 Closed loop control ........................................................................................ 11

5.4 Computation view ................................................................................................. 12

5.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

5.4.2 Real-time task model ..................................................................................... 12

5.4.3 Real-time operating systems .......................................................................... 12

5.4.4 Real-time databases ...................................................................................... 13

5.4.5 Task scheduling and resource management .................................................. 13

5.4.6 Distributed computing .................................................................................... 13

Annex A (informative) State of the technology...................................................................... 14

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 15

Figure 1 – RT-IoT system conceptual model ........................................................................... 6

Figure 2 – RT-IoT system time view ........................................................................................ 8

Figure 3 – RT-IoT system communication view ....................................................................... 9

Figure 4 – RT-IoT system control view .................................................................................. 11

Figure 5 – RT-IoT system computation view .......................................................................... 12

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ISO/IEC 30165:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
REAL-TIME IoT FRAMEWORK
FOREWORD

1) ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission)

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patent rights. IEC and ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 30165 has been prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things and Digital Twin, of

ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology. It is an International Standard.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/216/FDIS JTC1-SC41/229/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

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and www.iso.org/directives.

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– 4 – ISO/IEC 30165:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021
INTRODUCTION

This document addresses a special kind of IoT system operating in real-time that is called real-

time IoT (RT-IoT) systems.

The correct behaviour of a real-time system depends not only on the logical correctness, but

also on the timeliness of its actions. Design and development of a real-time system are different

from conventional computer systems in terms of real-time OS, embedded development, task

scheduling, etc.

[1] emphasizes the requirements of timeliness and predictability in real-time systems as

follows.

"The challenges and trade-offs faced by the designers of real-time systems are quite different

from those who design general purpose computing systems. To achieve the fundamental

requirements of timeliness and predictability, not only do conventional methods for scheduling

and resource management have to be redesigned, but new concepts that have not been

considered in conventional systems need to be added. New paradigms are necessary to specify

and validate real-time systems."

Lack of understanding of real-time systems could lead to unsuccessful RT-IoT system

deployment where real-time computation is required. A deployment of an RT-IoT system based

on the very general real-time capabilities defined in ISO/IEC 30141 [2] is not enough to fully

support real-time requirements. Therefore, it is important to complement the real-time

capabilities of IoT reference architecture for RT-IoT systems.

Basically, an RT-IoT system has features of a typical IoT system except real-time capability.

ISO/IEC 30141 explains real-time capability of an IoT system as follows:

– a characteristic of a system or mode of operation in which computation is performed during

the actual time that an external process occurs, in order that the computation results can be

used to control, monitor, or respond in a timely manner to the external process

Considering the characteristics of real-time capability, any IoT system embraces real-time

aspects to some extent simply because it continuously interacts with the physical world.

Requirements for real-time capability depend on the peer that an IoT system interfaces with.

For example, a human–machine interface guarantees a maximum delay of 250 ms in presenting

responses to humans, whereas 150 ms is sufficient in a telephone service. Any IoT system

interfacing with physical things guarantees some extent of timeliness because any event in the

physical world demands timely adjustment from the IoT system.

This document focuses on real-time capability in addition to very general description given in

ISO/IEC 30141, because failing on timing constraints could cause serious damage to an IoT

system or to its environment, including injury or even death of people involved. Certain RT-IoT

systems, such as industrial IoT (IIoT) systems and cyber-physical systems (CPS), consider time

as of high importance.

The purpose of this document is to provide a guideline for deploying an RT-IoT system to avoid

pitfalls that usually occur during real-time system developments.
____________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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ISO/IEC 30165:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
REAL-TIME IoT FRAMEWORK
1 Scope

This document specifies the framework of a real-time IoT (RT-IoT) system, including:

– RT-IoT system conceptual model based on domain-based IoT reference model defined in

ISO/IEC 30141;

– impacts of real-time parameters in terms of four viewpoints (time, communication, control

and computation).
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
real-time IoT
RT-IoT
IoT system with timing constraints

Note 1 to entry: Correct behaviour of an RT-IoT system depends not only on the logical correctness, but also on

being able to meet timing constraints.
3.1.2
timeliness

property of meeting timing constraints, finishing before the deadline and giving compulsory

response
3.2 Abbreviated terms
2G/3G/4G second/third/fourth generation mobile networks
5G fifth generation mobile networks
AI artificial intelligence
ASD application and service domain
CPU central process unit
IoT Internet of Things
LAN local area network
OMD operation and management domain
PED physical entity domain
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– 6 – ISO/IEC 30165:2021 © ISO/IEC 2021
QoS Quality of Service
RAID resource access and interchange domain
RT real time
TSN time-sensitive networking
UD user domain
4 Conceptual model
4.1 General

Figure 1 illustrates the conceptual model based on the IoT reference architecture in

ISO/IEC 30141. The conceptual model of an RT-IoT system inherits domain-based reference

model and extends it in terms of timing constraints.
Figure 1 – RT-IoT system conceptual model
4.2 The six domains

First of all, an RT-IoT system is still an IoT system. Its conceptual model is extended from that

of the six domain model for an IoT system.
4.3 Edge sub-system

The edge sub-system is an entity of an RT-IoT system, which encompasses IoT device entity

and IoT gateway entity defined in ISO/IEC 30141.
An RT-IoT system can be de
...

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