Aluminium pigments for paints

This document specifies the requirements and corresponding test methods for aluminium pigments suitable for use in paints including: a) general, decorative and protective paints, and b) special finishing paints.

Pigments d'aluminium pour peintures

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Aug-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
10-Jul-2021
Completion Date
09-Jul-2021
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Effective Date
15-Dec-2017

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 1247-1
First edition
2021-08
Aluminium pigments for paints —
Part 1:
General aluminium pigments
Pigments d'aluminium pour peintures —
Partie 1: Pigments d'aluminium généraux
Reference number
ISO 1247-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 1247-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 1247-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Description ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Requirements and test methods .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

8 Determination of non-volatile-matter content ..................................................................................................................... 3

8.1 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.1 Number of determinations...................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.2 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.3 Determination .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.3 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Determination of matter soluble in organic solvents .................................................................................................... 5

10 Comparison of appearance ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

10.1 Test portion ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

10.2 Assessment ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

11 Determination of residue on sieve ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

11.1 Reagent .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

11.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

11.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

11.3.1 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

11.3.2 Determination .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

11.4 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

12 Determination of water-covering capacity ............................................................................................................................... 8

12.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

12.2 Reagents........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

12.3 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

12.4 Pre-treatment of sample ..............................................................................................................................................................10

12.5 Preparation of trough .....................................................................................................................................................................10

12.6 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................10

12.6.1 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................10

12.6.2 Determination .................................................................................................................................................................11

12.7 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................11

12.8 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

12.8.1 Repeatability ....................................................................................................................................................................12

12.8.2 Reproducibility ...............................................................................................................................................................12

13 Determination of leafing power ........................................................................................................................................................12

13.1 Reagents.....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

13.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................12

13.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................13

13.3.1 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................13

13.3.2 Determination .................................................................................................................................................................13

13.4 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................14

13.5 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................15

13.5.1 Repeatability ....................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 1247-1:2021(E)

13.5.2 Reproducibility ...............................................................................................................................................................15

14 Determination of water content ........................................................................................................................................................15

14.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

14.2 Electrometric titration method..............................................................................................................................................15

14.3 Visual titration method .................................................................................................................................................................15

14.4 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................15

15 Determination of lead (spectrophotometric method) ...............................................................................................16

15.1 Reagents.....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

15.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................16

15.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................17

15.3.1 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................17

15.3.2 Blank test .............................................................................................................................................................................17

15.3.3 Determination .................................................................................................................................................................17

16 Determination of hiding power ..........................................................................................................................................................17

16.1 Apparatus and materials .............................................................................................................................................................17

16.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................18

17 Determination of metallic impurities with flame atomic absorption spectrometric

method .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

17.1 Determination range .......................................................................................................................................................................18

17.2 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................18

17.3 Reagent .......................................................................................................................................................................................................18

17.4 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................20

17.5 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................20

17.5.1 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................20

17.5.2 Blank experiment .........................................................................................................................................................20

17.5.3 Preparation of the test sample ..........................................................................................................................20

17.5.4 Treatment of the different elements in the sample ........................................................................21

17.5.5 Spectrometric measurement ..............................................................................................................................21

17.5.6 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................22

18 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 1247-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 256, Pigments, dyestuff and extenders.

This first edition of ISO 1247-1, together with ISO 1247-2, cancels and replaces ISO 1247:1974, which has

been technically revised. It also incorporates the Amendment ISO 1247:1974/Amd 1:1982.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— an introduction has been added, giving the reasons for the division;

— Clause 3, Terms and definitions, has been added and the terms “non-volatile-matter” and “hiding

power” have been included;

— a distinction between surface-treated and surface-untreated aluminium pigments has been

introduced in Clause 4 and 5;
— former subclause 4.2, Classes, has been deleted;
— “matter volatile at 105 °C” has been substituted by “non-volatile-matter”;
— former Clause 6, Packing, has been deleted;
— Clause 7, Sampling, has been reduced to a reference to ISO 15528;

— the requirements and test methods of “pigment specific surface area”, “particle size distribution”

and “hiding power” and the corresponding test methods have been added to Table 1 and Table 1 has

been renamed “Requirements and test methods”;

— the test method for “manganese” has been deleted from the metallic impurities in Table 1;

— the flame atomic absorption spectrometric method has been introduced to determine metal

impurities;
— former Clause 13, Test for absence of leafing power, has been deleted;
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 1247-1:2021(E)
— Table 3, test portions, has been deleted;
— Clause 16, Determination of hiding power, has been added;

— the normative references have been updated and the text has been editorially revised.

A list of all parts in the ISO 1247 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 1247-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Since the beginning of the new millennium, with the progress in technology and product development,

there is a boom of new types of aluminium pigments which, serving as heat-resistant or rust-proof

coatings or as colorants, find their ways into applications in a wide range of industrial sectors.

Aluminium pigments can be conveniently divided into two groups according to their forms: general

aluminium pigments produced in a milling process and vacuum metallized aluminium pigments (VMP)

(see ISO 1247-2). As the technical requirements are different for aluminium pigments used in different

fields, it is necessary to develop an international standard for each of the two groups.

To meet the needs in the marketing of aluminium pigments, characteristics such as “particle size

distribution” and “hiding power”, as well as their corresponding testing methods, are introduced in this

document.

To improve the safety of the aluminium pigments, the organic solvents and auxiliary agents of low

flashpoints have been substituted by reagents with high flashpoints, the “matter volatile at 105 °C” has

been replaced by “non-volatile-matter”, for which testing methods are developed according to ISO 3251.

The previous edition (i.e. ISO 1247:1974) uses different spectrophotometric methods to determine the

content of lead, iron and copper, and the ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) titration method

to determine zinc. These methods are cumbersome to operate. The method used to determine lead

involves the use of potassium cyanate, a highly toxic agent seldom used since the 1990s, and the method

used to determine zinc is applicable only to samples with a total zinc content of 0,10 % or above, and

does not suit the status quo of the aluminium pigment industry. While these old methods are retained

in this document, the flame atomic absorption spectrometric method is introduced as a new option

for the determination of the above-mentioned metallic impurities. This method is faster, operation-

friendly, has a wider range of detection, and is gaining more and more popularity.

To use as little toxic reagent as possible, this document resorts to using 2-Butoxyethanol or n-butyl

acetate to replace acetone, which, as material likely to be used for making illegal drugs, is now forbidden

or restricted by many countries.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 1247-1:2021(E)
Aluminium pigments for paints —
Part 1:
General aluminium pigments
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements and corresponding test methods for aluminium pigments

suitable for use in paints including:
a) general, decorative and protective paints, and
b) special finishing paints.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 385, Laboratory glassware — Burettes
ISO 648, Laboratory glassware — Single-volume pipettes

ISO 793, Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Determination of iron — Orthophenanthroline photometric

method

ISO 795, Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Determination of copper content — Oxalyldihydrazide

photometric method

ISO 808, Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Determination of silicon — Spectrophotometric method with

the reduced silicomolybdic complex
ISO 1042, Laboratory glassware — One-mark volumetric flasks
ISO 1784, Aluminium alloys — Determination of zinc — EDTA titrimetric method
ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods

ISO 9277, Determination of the specific surface area of solids by gas adsorption — BET method

ISO 13320, Particle size analysis — Laser diffraction methods

ISO 15528, Paints, varnishes and raw materials for paints and varnishes — Sampling

ISO 18451-1, Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders — Terminology — Part 1: General terms

ISO 18451-2, Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders — Terminology — Part 2: Classification of colouring

materials according to colouristic and chemical aspects
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 18451-1, ISO 18451-2 and the

following apply.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 1247-1:2021(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
non-volatile matter
residue by mass obtained by evaporation under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: Instead of the term “non-volatile matter” different terms, such as solid, dry residue, dry matter,

solid matter, stoving residue are being used commonly with the respective abbreviations. The term “non-volatile

matter” which is also applied in ISO 3251 should be used together with the abbreviation “NV” instead of these

terms.
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.176]
3.2
hiding power

ability of a pigmented medium to hide the colour or the colour differences of a substrate

[SOURCE: ISO 18314-2:2015, 2.1.6]
4 Description

Aluminium pigments are composed of finely divided aluminium metal. The particles of aluminium metal

are lamellar in shape when examined microscopically. It is typically divided by the predominant flake

shape into “cornflake” (flakes with predominantly ragged and uneven flake shape) and “silverdollar”

(flakes with predominantly round and smooth surface).

The material may be in the form of a powder or a paste and have leafing or non-leafing characteristics

and the surface of the aluminium flakes may be untreated or treated by technical processing.

Mica and other adulterants shall be absent. If, in solution of the sample in hydrochloric acid as described

in 15.3.3, a non-fatty residue is obtained, the residue shall be examined.
5 Classification
This document covers four types of general aluminium pigments, as follows:
— Type 1: aluminium powder, leafing, surface untreated or treated;
— Type 2: aluminium paste, leafing, surface untreated or treated;
— Type 3: aluminium powder, non-leafing, surface untreated or treated;
— Type 4: aluminium paste, non-leafing, surface untreated or treated.

NOTE Untreated refers to milled aluminium pigments with necessary milling agents. Treated refers to

the involvement of an additional process to modify the aluminium surface in order to protect the pigments, for

example encapsulation
6 Requirements and test methods

The material shall have the characteristics given in the appropriate column of Table 1.

The liquid contained in paste pigment shall be agreed between the interested parties.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 1247-1:2021(E)
Table 1 — Requirements and test methods
Requirement according to type
Characteristic Test method
Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4
Non-volatile matter,
min. 99,0 min. 25,0 min. 99,0 min. 25,0 Clause 8
% mass fraction
Matter soluble in
9.1 (Type 1 and Type 2)
organic solvents,
max. 6,0 max. 4,0 max. 1,5 max. 6,0 and 9.2 (Type 3 and
b Type 4)
% mass fraction
Comparison of To match closely the appearance of paint prepared similarly
Clause 10
appearance from an agreed sample
Residue on sieve To be agreed between the interested parties Clause 11
Pigment specific
surface area,
To be agreed between the interested parties ISO 9277
m /g
Water-covering
To be agreed between the
capacity,
– – Clause 12
interested parties
m /g
Leafing power,
min. 65 min. 65 – – Clause 13
Water content,
max. 0,2 max. 0,15 max. 0,2 max. 0,15 Clause 14
% mass fraction
For lead : Clause 15,
Clause 17,
max. 1,0 for
For iron : Clause 17,
Cu + Fe + Pb + Si + Zn
ISO 793
Metallic impurities,
max. 0,03 for Pb
To be agreed between the
For copper : Clause 17,
% mass fraction on
interested parties
Separate limits for met-
ISO 795
dry pigment
als other than lead may be
For silicon : ISO 808
agreed between the interest-
ed parties b
For zinc : Clause 17,
ISO 1784
Hiding power,
To be agreed between the interested parties Clause 16
g/m
Particle size
distribution
To be agreed between the interested parties ISO 13320
(instrumental
method)
Aluminium pigments surface-treated are not included.

These methods are recommended for reference purposes, but other methods may be used by agreement between the

interested parties.
7 Sampling
Take a representative sample of the product to be tested according to ISO 15528.
8 Determination of non-volatile-matt
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 1247-1
ISO/TC 256
Aluminium pigments for paints —
Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on:
Part 1:
2021-05-14
General aluminium pigments
Voting terminates on:
2021-07-09
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 1247-1:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 1247-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 1247-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Description ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

6 Requirements and test methods .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

8 Determination of non-volatile-matter content ..................................................................................................................... 3

8.1 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.1 Number of determinations...................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.2 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2.3 Determination .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.3 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Determination of matter soluble in organic solvents .................................................................................................... 5

10 Comparison of appearance ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

10.1 Test portion ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

10.2 Assessment ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

11 Determination of residue on sieve ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

11.1 Reagent .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

11.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

11.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

11.3.1 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

11.3.2 Determination .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

11.4 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

12 Determination of water-covering capacity ............................................................................................................................... 8

12.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

12.2 Reagents........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

12.3 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

12.4 Pre-treatment of sample ..............................................................................................................................................................10

12.5 Preparation of trough .....................................................................................................................................................................10

12.6 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................10

12.6.1 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................10

12.6.2 Determination .................................................................................................................................................................11

12.7 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................11

12.8 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

12.8.1 Repeatability ....................................................................................................................................................................12

12.8.2 Reproducibility ...............................................................................................................................................................12

13 Determination of leafing power ........................................................................................................................................................12

13.1 Reagents.....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

13.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................12

13.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................13

13.3.1 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................13

13.3.2 Determination .................................................................................................................................................................13

13.4 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................14

13.5 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................15

13.5.1 Repeatability ....................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 1247-1:2021(E)

13.5.2 Reproducibility ...............................................................................................................................................................15

14 Determination of water content ........................................................................................................................................................15

14.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

14.2 Electrometric titration method..............................................................................................................................................15

14.3 Visual titration method .................................................................................................................................................................15

14.4 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................................................................15

15 Determination of lead (spectrophotometric method) ...............................................................................................16

15.1 Reagents.....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

15.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................16

15.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................17

15.3.1 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................17

15.3.2 Blank test .............................................................................................................................................................................17

15.3.3 Determination .................................................................................................................................................................17

16 Determination of hiding power ..........................................................................................................................................................17

16.1 Apparatus and materials .............................................................................................................................................................17

16.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................18

17 Determination of metallic impurities with flame atomic absorption spectrometric

method .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

17.1 Determination range .......................................................................................................................................................................18

17.2 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................18

17.3 Reagent .......................................................................................................................................................................................................18

17.4 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................20

17.5 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................20

17.5.1 Test portion .......................................................................................................................................................................20

17.5.2 Blank experiment .........................................................................................................................................................20

17.5.3 Preparation of the test sample ..........................................................................................................................20

17.5.4 Treatment of the different elements in the sample ........................................................................21

17.5.5 Spectrometric measurement ..............................................................................................................................21

17.5.6 Expression of results .................................................................................................................................................22

18 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 1247-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 256, Pigments, dyestuff and extenders.

This first edition of ISO 1247-1, together with ISO 1247-2, cancels and replaces ISO 1247:1974, which has

been technically revised. It also incorporates the Amendment ISO 1247:1974/Amd 1:1982.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— an introduction has been added, giving the reasons for the division;

— Clause 3, Terms and definitions, has been added and the terms “non-volatile-matter” and “hiding

power” have been included;

— a distinction between surface-treated and surface-untreated aluminium pigments has been

introduced in Clause 4 and 5;
— former subclause 4.2, Classes, has been deleted;
— “matter volatile at 105 °C” has been substituted by “non-volatile-matter”;
— former Clause 6, Packing, has been deleted;
— Clause 7, Sampling, has been reduced to a reference to ISO 15528;

— the requirements and test methods of “pigment specific surface area”, “particle size distribution”

and “hiding power” and the corresponding test methods have been added to Table 1 and Table 1 has

been renamed “Requirements and test methods”;

— the test method for “manganese” has been deleted from the metallic impurities in Table 1;

— the flame atomic absorption spectrometric method has been introduced to determine metal

impurities;
— former Clause 13, Test for absence of leafing power, has been deleted;
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 1247-1:2021(E)
— Table 3, test portions, has been deleted;
— Clause 16, Determination of hiding power, has been added;

— the normative references have been updated and the text has been editorially revised.

A list of all parts in the ISO 1247 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 1247-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Since the beginning of the new millennium, with the progress in technology and product development,

there is a boom of new types of aluminium pigments which, serving as heat-resistant or rust-proof

coatings or as colorants, find their ways into applications in a wide range of industrial sectors.

Aluminium pigments can be conveniently divided into two groups according to their forms: general

aluminium pigments produced in a milling process and vacuum metallized aluminium pigments (VMP)

(see ISO 1247-2). As the technical requirements are different for aluminium pigments used in different

fields, it is necessary to develop an international standard for each of the two groups.

To meet the needs in the marketing of aluminium pigments, characteristics such as “particle size

distribution” and “hiding power”, as well as their corresponding testing methods, are introduced in this

document.

To improve the safety of the aluminium pigments, the organic solvents and auxiliary agents of low

flashpoints have been substituted by reagents with high flashpoints, the “matter volatile at 105 °C” has

been replaced by “non-volatile-matter”, for which testing methods are developed according to ISO 3251.

The previous edition (i.e. ISO 1247:1974) uses different spectrophotometric methods to determine the

content of lead, iron and copper, and the ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) titration method

to determine zinc. These methods are cumbersome to operate. The method used to determine lead

involves the use of potassium cyanate, a highly toxic agent seldom used since the 1990s, and the method

used to determine zinc is applicable only to samples with a total zinc content of 0,10 % or above, and

does not suit the status quo of the aluminium pigment industry. While these old methods are retained

in this document, the flame atomic absorption spectrometric method is introduced as a new option for

the determination of the above mentioned metallic impurities. This method is faster, operation-friendly,

has a wider range of detection, and is gaining more and more popularity.

To use as little toxic reagent as possible, this document resorts to using 2-Butoxyethanol or n-butyl

acetate to replace acetone, which, as material likely to be used for making illegal drugs, is now forbidden

or restricted by many countries.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 1247-1:2021(E)
Aluminium pigments for paints —
Part 1:
General aluminium pigments
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements and corresponding test methods for aluminium pigments

suitable for use in paints including
a) general, decorative and protective paints, and
b) special finishing paints.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 385, Laboratory glassware — Burettes
ISO 648, Laboratory glassware — Single-volume pipettes

ISO 793, Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Determination of iron — Orthophenanthroline photometric

method

ISO 795, Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Determination of copper content — Oxalyldihydrazide

photometric method

ISO 808, Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Determination of silicon — Spectrophotometric method with

the reduced silicomolybdic complex
ISO 1042, Laboratory glassware — One-mark volumetric flasks
ISO 1784, Aluminium alloys — Determination of zinc — EDTA titrimetric method
ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods

ISO 9277, adsorption — BET method Determination of the specific surface area of solids by gas

ISO 13320, Particle size analysis — Laser diffraction methods

ISO 15528, Paints, varnishes and raw materials for paints and varnishes — Sampling

ISO 18451-1, Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders — Terminology — Part 1: General terms

ISO 18451-2, Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders — Terminology — Part 2: Classification of colouring

materials according to colouristic and chemical aspects
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 18451-1, ISO 18451-2 and the

following apply.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/FDIS 1247-1:2021(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
non-volatile matter
residue by mass obtained by evaporation under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: Instead of the term “non-volatile matter” different terms, such as solid, dry residue, dry matter,

solid matter, stoving residue are being used commonly with the respective abbreviations. The term “non-volatile

matter” which is also applied in ISO 3251 should be used together with the abbreviation “NV” instead of these

terms.
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.176]
3.2
hiding power

ability of a pigmented medium to hide the colour or the colour differences of a substrate

[SOURCE: ISO 18314-2:2015, 2.1.6]
4 Description

Aluminium pigments are composed of finely divided aluminium metal. The particles of aluminium metal

are lamellar in shape when examined microscopically. It is typically divided by the predominant flake

shape into “cornflake” (flakes with predominantly ragged and uneven flake shape) and “silverdollar”

(flakes with predominantly round and smooth surface).

The material may be in the form of a powder or a paste and have leafing or non-leafing characteristics

and the surface of the aluminium flakes may be untreated or treated by technical processing.

Mica and other adulterants shall be absent. If, in solution of the sample in hydrochloric acid as described

in 15.3.3, a non-fatty residue is obtained, the residue shall be examined.
5 Classification
This document covers four types of general aluminium pigments, as follows:
— Type 1: aluminium powder, leafing, surface untreated or treated;
— Type 2: aluminium paste, leafing, surface untreated or treated;
— Type 3: aluminium powder, non-leafing, surface untreated or treated;
— Type 4: aluminium paste, non-leafing, surface untreated or treated.

NOTE Untreated refers to milled aluminium pigments with necessary milling agents. Treated refers to

the involvement of an additional process to modify the aluminium surface in order to protect the pigments, for

example encapsulation
6 Requirements and test methods

The material shall have the characteristics given in the appropriate column of Table 1.

The liquid contained in paste pigment shall be agreed between the interested parties.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 1247-1:2021(E)
Table 1 — Requirements and test methods
Requirement according to type
Characteristic Test method
Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4
Non-volatile matter,
min. 99,0 min. 25,0 min. 99,0 min. 25,0 Clause 8
% mass fraction
Matter soluble in
9.1 (Type 1 and Type 2)
organic solvents,
max. 6,0 max. 4,0 max. 1,5 max. 6,0 and 9.2 (Type 3 and
b Type 4)
% mass fraction
Comparison of To match closely the appearance of paint prepared similarly
Clause 10
appearance from an agreed sample
Residue on sieve To be agreed between the interested parties Clause 11
Pigment specific
surface area,
To be agreed between the interested parties ISO 9277
m /g
Water-covering
To be agreed between the
capacity,
– – Clause 12
interested parties
m /g
Leafing power,
min. 65 min. 65 – – Clause 13
Water content,
max. 0,2 max. 0,15 max. 0,2 max. 0,15 Clause 14
% mass fraction
For lead : Clause 15,
Clause 17,
max. 1,0 for
For iron : Clause 17,
Cu + Fe + Pb + Si + Zn
ISO 793
Metallic impurities,
max. 0,03 for Pb
To be agreed between the
For copper : Clause 17,
% mass fraction on
interested parties
Separate limits for met-
ISO 795
dry pigment
als other than lead may be
For silicon : ISO 808
agreed between the in
...

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