Applications of statistical and related methods to new technology and product development process — Part 7: Guidelines for developing digitalized products and services — General principles and perspectives of the QFD method

The current ISO 16355 series is written intentionally independent of industry because the principles of applying statistical methods for product and technology development are similar for all types of products. However, when applying the standard for the development of fully or partially digitized products in practice, specific characteristics of digital goods in product development (such as measurability, immateriality, economies of scale effects, etc.) are taken into account. This document gives guidelines for adapting the quality function deployment (QFD) process, its purpose, users, and tools as they are described in the ISO 16355 series that consider these specific characteristics for developing digitalized products and services. Table 1 illustrates the scope of this document by stating examples of the types of products the standard focuses on. Users of this document include all organization functions necessary to assure customer satisfaction, including business planning, marketing, sales, research and development (R&D), engineering, information technology (IT), manufacturing, procurement, quality, production, service, packaging and logistics, support, testing, regulatory, and other phases in hardware, software, service, and system organizations.

Application des méthodes statistiques et des méthodes liées aux nouvelles technologies et de développement de produit — Partie 7: Ligne directrices pour le développement de produits et services numérisés — Principes généraux et perspectives de la méthode de déploiement de la fonction qualité (QFD)

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Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jan-2023
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
05-Feb-2023
Completion Date
09-Jan-2023
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ISO 16355-7:2023 - Applications of statistical and related methods to new technology and product development process — Part 7: Guidelines for developing digitalized products and services — General principles and perspectives of the QFD method Released:9. 01. 2023
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16355-7
First edition
2023-01
Applications of statistical and related
methods to new technology and
product development process —
Part 7:
Guidelines for developing digitalized
products and services — General
principles and perspectives of the QFD
method
Application des méthodes statistiques et des méthodes liées aux
nouvelles technologies et de développement de produit —
Partie 7: Ligne directrices pour le développement de produits et
services numérisés — Principes généraux et perspectives de la
méthode de déploiement de la fonction qualité (QFD)
Reference number
ISO 16355-7:2023(E)
© ISO 2023
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16355-7:2023(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2023

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16355-7:2023(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Basic concepts of developing digitalized products and services .....................................................................4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Characteristics of digitalized products and services and their development ............................... 4

4.2.1 Specific characteristics of digitalized products and services .................................................... 4

4.2.2 Effects of specific characteristics of digitalized products and services on

the development process ............................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2.3 Requirements change management in the development of digitalized

products and services .................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Design guidelines for developing digitalized products and services..................................................... 5

4.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.2 Iterative and incremental development for digital functions .................................................... 5

4.3.3 Close collaboration, cooperation, and co-creation of customers’ and

developers’ side ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.4 Focus on essential activities and tasks .......................................................................................................... 6

4.3.5 Consider all aspects of business value ............................................................................................................ 6

4.3.6 Sustainable and comprehensible procedure ............................................................................................. 6

4.3.7 Foster commitment and motivation ................................................................................................................. 6

4.3.8 Use digital data analytics ........................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Basic concepts of QFD ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 Theory of QFD ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Principles of QFD .................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Spirit of QFD .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6 Integration of QFD and the development of digitalized products and services ...............................7

6.1 QFD support for product development methods in general ........................................................................... 7

6.2 The fit between the design guidelines and QFD ....................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Flow of product development of digitalized products and services with QFD ............................. 8

6.4 QFD enhanced validation support to unified modelling language (UML) and

systems modelling language (SysML) ............................................................................................................................. 11

6.4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.4.2 QFD Support to UML .................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.4.3 QFD Support to SysML ................................................................................................................................................ 11

7 Types of product planning projects with QFD ...................................................................................................................11

7.1 Requirements driven approach ............................................................................................................................................12

7.1.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.1.2 Requirements driven deployment ...................................................................................................................12

7.1.3 Dynamic software QFD .............................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Data driven approach ....................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2.1 Data driven deployment ...........................................................................................................................................12

7.2.2 QFD for MVP/MMP development ......................................................................................................................12

7.3 Technology driven approach ...................................................................................................................................................13

7.3.1 Reverse QFD ........................................................................................................................................................................13

7.3.2 Technology driven deployment .......................................................................................................................... 13

8 QFD team membership ...............................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Core team membership ................................................................................................................................................................13

8.3 Subject matter experts .................................................................................................................................................................13

iii
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ISO 16355-7:2023(E)

8.4 QFD team leadership ...................................................................................................................................................................... 14

9 Techniques for applying QFD for developing digital products and services ....................................14

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14

9.2 Fit with iterative procedures .................................................................................................................................................. 14

9.3 Extended user stories .................................................................................................................................................................... 14

9.4 Visual display of information .................................................................................................................................................15

9.5 Categorization with the Kano model ............................................................................................................................... 15

9.6 Maximum value table (MVT) .................................................................................................................................................. 15

9.7 Incrementally growing and shrinking prioritization matrices ............................................................... 16

9.8 Prioritization with pairwise comparison.................................................................................................................... 16

9.9 Assessment and ranking functional requirements............................................................................................. 16

9.10 Value proposition canvas ........................................................................................................................................................... 17

9.11 Persona development ..................................................................................................................................................................... 17

9.12 Software support .............................................................................................................................................................................. 17

9.13 Test of prototypes ............................................................................................................................................................................. 17

9.14 Voice of engineer analysis (VOEA) ..................................................................................................................................... 18

9.15 Software house of quality (Software HoQ) ................................................................................................................ 18

9.16 Test coverage matrix ...................................................................................................................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) Examples of applicable methods and tools .................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16355-7:2023(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 69, Applications of statistical methods,

Subcommittee SC 8, Application of statistical and related methodology for new technology and product

development.
A list of all parts in the ISO 16355 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html..
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16355-7:2023(E)
Introduction

Quality function deployment (QFD) is a method to assure customer or stakeholder satisfaction and

value with new and existing products by designing in, from different levels and different perspectives,

the requirements that are most important to the customer or stakeholder. These requirements are

well understood through the use of quantitative and non-quantitative tools and methods to improve

confidence of the design and development phases that they are working on the right things. In addition

to satisfaction with the product, QFD improves the process by which new products are developed.

Reported results of using QFD include improved customer satisfaction with products at time of launch,

improved cross-functional communication, systematic and traceable design decisions, efficient use of

resources, reduced rework, reduced time-to-market, lower life cycle cost, improved reputation of the

organization among its customers or stakeholders.

The current ISO 16355 series describes methods and tools of QFD independent of industry because

the principles of applying statistical methods for product and technology development are similar

for all types of products. However, when applying the standard for the development of fully or

partially digitized products, specific characteristics of digital goods in product development (such as

measurability, immateriality, etc.) should be taken into account. Digital goods such as software are

specific in economies of scale and network effects and thus require specific strategies and concepts

for design, development and marketing. Due to the progress of digitalization in almost any market, the

observed phenomena and measures gain relevance and importance in business and academia. Hence

the emerging convergences in industries, suppliers, businesses and products cause a game change in

markets for digital or digitized goods.

Therefore, this document describes guidelines for developing digitalized products and services. It aims

at adapting the (QFD) process, its purpose, users, and tools as they are described in the ISO 16355 series

with respect to the specific characteristics of digitalized products and services. All companies affected

by the digitization of their products and services are intended users of this document.

The methods and tools shown and described represent decades of improvements to QFD; the list is

neither exhaustive nor exclusive. Users should consider the applicable methods and tools as suggestions,

not requirements. As the other parts of the ISO 16355 series, this document is descriptive and discusses

current best practice; it is not prescriptive by requiring specific tools and methods.

© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16355-7:2023(E)
Applications of statistical and related methods to new
technology and product development process —
Part 7:
Guidelines for developing digitalized products and services
— General principles and perspectives of the QFD method
1 Scope

The current ISO 16355 series is written intentionally independent of industry because the principles

of applying statistical methods for product and technology development are similar for all types of

products. However, when applying the standard for the development of fully or partially digitized

products in practice, specific characteristics of digital goods in product development (such as

measurability, immateriality, economies of scale effects, etc.) are taken into account.

This document gives guidelines for adapting the quality function deployment (QFD) process, its

purpose, users, and tools as they are described in the ISO 16355 series that consider these specific

characteristics for developing digitalized products and services. Table 1 illustrates the scope of this

document by stating examples of the types of products the standard focuses on.

Users of this document include all organization functions necessary to assure customer satisfaction,

including business planning, marketing, sales, research and development (R&D), engineering,

information technology (IT), manufacturing, procurement, quality, production, service, packaging and

logistics, support, testing, regulatory, and other phases in hardware, software, service, and system

organizations.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 16355-1, Application of statistical and related methods to new technology and product development

process — Part 1: General principles and perspectives of quality function deployment (QFD)

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16355-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
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ISO 16355-7:2023(E)
3.1
digitalized products and services

works that incorporate components consisting of operable objects from digital information and

communication technology

Note 1 to entry: In this document, the terms digital, digitized and digitalized are used synonymously. A digitalized

good is an intangible software enabled product or service that can be sold and distributed repeatedly online

without the need to replenish inventory. Digitalization may cause services to have a stronger product character.

Note 2 to entry: In this document, software product development means the development of digitalized products

and software parts of software-intensive products, i.e. systems or services.

Note 3 to entry: Software parts of software-intensive systems that are not marketed and priced as separate

entities are called embedded software.

Note 4 to entry: Software-intensive systems can be products from all industries such as automobiles, airplanes,

smartphones etc.

Note 5 to entry: Software-intensive services, often delivered as cloud services, can also be products from all

industries like financial, insurance, gaming, social software, or human services based on software support.

Note 6 to entry: This document will generally use the term “software products” instead of explicitly referring to

software-intensive products.

Note 7 to entry: When other parts of ISO 16355 series or ISO 9000 series standards are referenced in this

document, note they may not differentiate explicitly between products and services.

3.2
quality function deployment
QFD

managing of all organizational functions and activities to assure product quality

Note 1 to entry: The organization is responsible for product quality and strives for it via defining, testing,

building, commercializing, and supporting the product.

Note 2 to entry: Literal definition is that the “quality function” is “deployed” to all other business functions and

departments who play a role in assuring quality and customer satisfaction.

Note 3 to entry: In most cases, the interests of an organization are commercial, but there are exceptions, as is

sometimes seen in open source-based products or in the public sector.
3.3
voice of customer
VOC
communications from the customer, user, and others

Note 1 to entry: The communications from the customer may be verbal, written, video, audio, animation, or other

form and may be descriptive, behavioural, or ethnographic.
Note 2 to entry: Customer is defined in ISO 9000:2015, 3.2.4.

Note 3 to entry: For digitalized products and services, the voice may not come from the customer itself but from

data or other artefacts relevant for quality.

Note 4 to entry: Customers may be not only human but also digitalized actors (digital agents).

3.4
customer need
potential benefit to a customer

Note 1 to entry: The benefit to a customer from having their problem solved, their opportunity enabled, their

image (self or to others) enhanced, or being advanced to a more desirable state.
Note 2 to entry: The benefit is positively stated.
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ISO 16355-7:2023(E)
Note 3 to entry: The benefit describes a single issue.

Note 4 to entry: The benefit is independent of the product or service performance, functional requirements, non-

functional requirements, functions, features, or enabling technologies.
Note 5 to entry: A need may be explicit or latent.
Note 6 to entry: Customer is defined in ISO 9000:2015, 3.2.4.

Note 7 to entry: Requirements engineering for digitalized products and services defines customer needs

differently than ISO 16355-1. Requirements engineering in focusing on product requirements may not deal with

customer needs explicitly. Customer needs may be latent according to ISO 16355-1 which does not match the

definition of requirements in ISO 9000 where needs must be stated explicitly. If the input to voice of customer

is considered as customer needs in requirements engineering, the voice analysis yields stated requirements

which may be interpreted as customer requirements as the complement to product requirements. Hence in

[2]

requirements engineering the term customer requirements may be used synonymously to customer needs .

Note 8 to entry: The term demanded quality is also used in software QFD projects.

3.5
functional requirement
characteristic that a product or service is specified to possess

Note 1 to entry: The characteristic may be an inherent performance of the product or service or an action that

the product or service may be able to accomplish. The manner in which the product accomplishes the action does

not include specific mechanisms or internal procedures as part of the functional requirement.

Note 2 to entry: Product is defined in ISO 9000:2015, 3.7.6.
Note 3 to entry: Service is defined in ISO 9000:2015, 3.7.7.

Note 4 to entry: Common methods for the specification of requirements for digital products and services

differentiate between functional and non-functional requirements, whereas functional requirements address

actions a product may accomplish and non-functional requirements the inherent performance of a product. The

terms quality requirement, and quality characteristics are also used in software QFD projects.

3.6
voice of stakeholder
VOS
communications from stakeholders

Note 1 to entry: Communications from stakeholders may be verbal, written, video, audio, animation, or other

form and may be descriptive, behavioural, or ethnographic.
Note 2 to entry: Stakeholder is defined in ISO 9000:2015, 3.2.3.

Note 3 to entry: Stakeholders may be not only human but also digitalized decision-makers (digital agents).

Note 4 to entry: For digital goods, the stakeholder “solution developer” is particularly important because the

product is often created incrementally in close cooperation with the customer.
3.7
customer gemba
location where true customer information is found

Note 1 to entry: Gemba is a Japanese word meaning the place where the truth is discovered. In Six Sigma, this

usually refers to the shop floor where internal activities take place. In QFD for new product development, the

new product does not exist yet, so the gemba changes to where the customer's activities or encounters take place.

Note 2 to entry: The gemba may be not limited to physical location. For digitalized products, digitalized spaces

may exist where human actors directly may not explore (for example, cyberspace).

Note 3 to entry: Gemba visits help discover unknown or latent customer needs and requirements.

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ISO 16355-7:2023(E)
3.8
hoshin kanri
method for management and deployment of strategic organizational policy

Note 1 to entry: English translations of the Japanese include policy management, policy deployment, management

by policy, and strategy deployment.
4 Basic concepts of developing digitalized products and services
4.1 General

This standard describes guidelines for adapting the methods described in ISO 16355 series standards

that consider the specific characteristics for developing digitalized products and services. See Table 1.

Table 1 — Digitalized products and services in scope of this document
Degree of digitization
Physical Digitalized(hybrid) Digital
Degree of servizitation
Product Watch with mechanical Smart watch Watch App on smartphone
movement or notebook
Hybrid product/
Intermodal mobility Onlince booking (with
Phone with contract
services chipTAN)
Hybrid service
Car navigation system
Automatic download via
Service Car repair (update performed by car
web services
garage)
not focus of ISO 16355-7 focus of ISO 16355-7
4.2 Characteristics of digitalized products and services and their development
4.2.1 Specific characteristics of digitalized products and services

Digital products and services have specific characteristics that influence the applications of statistical

and related methods to new technology and the product development process.
a) digital "voices" from customers and stakeholders;
b) availability of digital data from product usage;
c) easier product changes during development;
d) easier product changes after delivery;
e) cloud based product functions;
f) high rate of change due to requirements un
...

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