Safety of toys — Part 2: Flammability

ISO 8124-2:2014 specifies the categories of flammable materials that are prohibited in all toys, and requirements concerning flammability of certain toys when they are subjected to a minor source of ignition. ISO 8124-2:2014 includes general requirements relating to all toys and specific requirements and test methods relating to the following toys, which are considered as being those presenting the greatest hazard: ? toys intended to be worn on the head: beards, moustaches, wigs, etc. made from hair, pile or material that behaves in a similar manner to hair; masks; hoods, headdresses, etc.; flowing elements of toys to be worn on the head, but excluding paper novelty hats of the type usually supplied in party crackers; ? toy disguise costumes and toys intended to be worn by a child in play; ? toys intended to be entered by a child; ? soft-filled toys.

Sécurité des jouets — Partie 2: Inflammabilité

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Aug-2014
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
27-Oct-2020
Completion Date
27-Oct-2020
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8124-2
Third edition
2014-08-15
Safety of toys —
Part 2:
Flammability
Sécurité des jouets —
Partie 2: Inflammabilité
Reference number
ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
ISO 2014
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Toys to be worn on the head ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Toy disguise costumes and toys intended to be worn by a child in play ............................................... 4

4.4 Toys intended to be entered by a child ............................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Soft-filled toys .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Test methods ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Test relating to beards, moustaches, wigs, etc. made from hair, pile, or material that

behaves in a similar manner to hair (e.g. free-hanging ribbons, paper, cloth strands, or

other flowing elements), which protrude 50 mm or more from the surface of the toy ........... 6

5.3 Test relating to beards, moustaches, wigs, etc. made from hair, pile, or material that

behaves in a similar manner to hair (e.g. free-hanging ribbons, paper, cloth strands, or

other flowing elements), which protrude less than 50 mm from the surface of the toy, and

full or partial moulded head masks ...................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Test relating to flowing elements of toys to be worn on the head (except those covered by

4.2.2 and 4.2.3), hoods, headdresses, etc. and masks not covered by 4.2.4 which partially

or fully cover the head (e.g. fabric and cardboard masks, eye masks, face masks), toy

disguise costumes and toys intended to be entered or worn by a child ............................................... 7

5.5 Test for soft-filled toys ...................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Background and rationale for this part of ISO 8124 ...........................................................11

Annex B (informative) Significant technical changes between this part of ISO 8124 and the

previous version ................................................................................................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
ISO 8124-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 181, Safety of toys.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second (ISO 8124-2:2007), which has been technically

revised.

ISO 8124 consists of the following parts, under the general title Safety of toys:

— Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties
— Part 2: Flammability
— Part 3: Migration of certain elements

— Part 4: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use

— Part 5: Determination of total concentration of certain elements in toys
— Part 6: Certain phthalate esters in toys and children’s products
— Part 7: Requirements and test methods for finger paints
— Part 8: Age determination guidelines [Technical Report]
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
Safety of toys —
Part 2:
Flammability
1 Scope

This part of ISO 8124 specifies the categories of flammable materials that are prohibited in all toys,

and requirements concerning flammability of certain toys when they are subjected to a minor source of

ignition.

The test methods described in Clause 5 are used for the purposes of determining the flammability of toys

under the particular test conditions specified. The test results thus obtained cannot be considered as

providing an overall indication of the potential fire hazard of toys or materials when subjected to other

sources of ignition.

This part of ISO 8124 includes general requirements relating to all toys and specific requirements and

test methods relating to the following toys, which are considered as being those presenting the greatest

hazard:

— toys intended to be worn on the head: beards, moustaches, wigs, etc. made from hair, pile or material

that behaves in a similar manner to hair; masks; hoods, headdresses, etc.; flowing elements of toys to

be worn on the head, but excluding paper novelty hats of the type usually supplied in party crackers

(see A.4);

— toy disguise costumes and toys intended to be worn by a child in play (see A.5);

— toys intended to be entered by a child (see A.6);
— soft-filled toys (see A.7).

NOTE 1 Additional requirements for flammability of electric toys are specified in IEC 62115.

NOTE 2 There are very few accident data concerning the hazards associated with the flammability of toys.

NOTE 3 See A.2.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2431:2011, Paints and varnishes — Determination of flow time by use of flow cups

ISO 6941:2003, Textile fabrics — Burning behaviour — Measurement of flame spread properties of vertically

oriented specimens

ISO 8124-1:2012, Safety of toys — Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. Terms defined in this

clause appear in italics throughout this part of ISO 8124.
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
3.1
chemical toy

toy intended for the direct handling of chemical substances and mixtures and which is used in a manner

appropriate to a given age group and under the supervision of an adult
3.2
extremely flammable liquid
liquid having a flash point < 23 °C and initial boiling point ≤ 35 °C
3.3
flaming debris

material that becomes detached from the sample during the test procedure and continues to flame as it

falls
3.4
flammability

ability of a material or a product to burn with a flame under specified test conditions

3.5
flammable gas

gas or gas mixture having a flammable range with air at 20 °C and a standard pressure of 101,3 kPa

3.6
flammable liquid
liquid having a flash point ≥ 23 °C and ≤ 60 °C
3.7
hair
slender flexible fibres intended to represent human or animal hair
3.8
highly flammable liquid
liquid having a flash point < 23 °C and initial boiling point > 35 °C
3.9
material that behaves in a similar manner to hair

material having the ability to flow like hair, to hang closely to the head and continue to move on its own

after the head is rotated then stopped
3.10
molten drips
falling droplets of molten material
3.11
moulded head mask
mask that is moulded to the contours of the head or face
3.12
soft-filled toys

toy, clothed or unclothed, with soft body surfaces and filled with soft materials or a combination of soft

and non-soft materials (e.g. pellets), allowing compression of the main part readily with the hand

Note 1 to entry: A soft-filled toy can only be filled with a combination of soft and non-soft material if the main part

of the toy can still be readily compressed with the hand.

Note 2 to entry: This definition is intended to be consistent with that in ISO 8124-1.

3.13
surface flash

rapid spread of flame over the surface of a material without ignition of its base structure at the same

time
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
4 Requirements
4.1 General
See A.3.
The following materials shall not be present in toys:

— celluloid (cellulose nitrate), except when used in varnish, paint, glue, or in balls of the type used for

table tennis or similar games;
— materials with the same behaviour in fire as celluloid;

Specific materials to which the test flame is applied in order to check compliance of the toy with

requirements in 4.2 to 4.5 are considered to comply with this requirement if the toy meets its

appropriate requirements in 4.2 to 4.5.

— materials with a piled surface which produce surface flash when a flame is applied to the tested

material under the conditions described in 5.5.1 and 5.5.2.

Piled surfaces showing non rapid spread of flame to an area remote from the test flame are

considered to meet this requirement.

In addition, toys shall not contain flammable gases, extremely flammable liquids, highly flammable

liquids, flammable liquids, and flammable gels except as provided for below:

— flammable liquids and flammable gels supplied in sealed containers having a maximum volume

of 15 ml per container;

— highly flammable liquids and flammable liquids being entirely retained within a porous material

in capillary channels of writing instruments;
−6 2
m /s when determined in accordance
— flammable liquids with a viscosity greater than 260 × 10
with ISO 2431:2011, 5.1.4, Figure 1, using cup No. 6;
— highly flammable liquids contained in chemical toys.
4.2 Toys to be worn on the head
See A.4.
4.2.1 General
The requirements of 4.2 apply to:

— beards, moustaches, wigs, etc. made from hair, pile, or material that behaves in a similar manner to

hair;
— moulded and fabric masks;
— hoods, headdresses, etc.;
— flowing elements of toys to be worn on the head;
but not to paper novelty hats of the type usually supplied in party crackers.

When a product incorporates several features, for example a hat with an attached mask and hair, each

part shall be tested separately to the applicable sub-clause relevant to that particular part of the toy.

Attachments made from elastic or string, which is used for the purpose of securing a mask, hat, etc. on

the head shall not be tested.
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)

4.2.2 Beards, moustaches, wigs, etc. made from hair, pile, or material that behaves in a similar

manner to hair (e.g. free-hanging ribbons, paper, cloth strands, or other flowing elements), which

protrude 50 mm or more from the surface of the toy

When determining whether materials are required to be tested under 4.2.2, the distance by which the

material protrudes shall be measured without applying tension to the protruding part, e.g. curly hair

is not straightened. Plaits or braided hair shall be fully released and combed, where possible, before

testing.

When tested according to 5.2, the duration of flaming shall not be more than 2 s after the removal of the

test flame.

In addition, if ignition occurs, the maximum burnt length of hair, pile, or material that behaves in a similar

manner to hair shall not be

a) more than 50 % of the greatest initial length, when the initial length was 150 mm or more, or

b) more than 75 % of the greatest initial length, when the initial length was less than 150 mm.

4.2.3 Beards, moustaches, wigs, etc. made from hair, pile, or material that behaves in a similar

manner to hair (e.g. free-hanging ribbons, paper, cloth strands, or other flowing elements), which

protrude less than 50 mm and more than 5 mm from the surface of the toy

Beards, moustaches, wigs, etc. made from hair, pile, or material that behaves in a similar manner to hair

which protrude 5 mm or less from the surface of the toy are regarded as headdresses and are covered

by 4.2.5.

When tested in accordance with 5.3, the duration of flaming shall not be more than 2 s after the removal

of the test flame, and the maximum distance between the upper edge of the burnt area and the point of

application of the test flame shall not be more than 70 mm.
4.2.4 Full or partial moulded head masks

When tested in accordance with 5.3, the duration of flaming shall not be more than 2 s after the removal

of the test flame. The maximum distance between the upper edge of the burnt area and the point of

application of the test flame shall not be more than 70 mm.

This requirement does not apply to moulded eye masks nor face masks that neither cover the chin nor a

cheek as they are covered by 4.2.5.

4.2.5 Flowing elements of toys to be worn on the head (except those covered by 4.2.2 and 4.2.3),

hoods, headdresses, etc. and masks not covered by 4.2.4 which partially or fully cover the head

(e.g. fabric and cardboard masks, eye masks, face masks), but excluding those items covered by

4.3

When tested in accordance with 5.4, the rate of spread of flame of the test sample shall not exceed

10 mm/s or the test sample shall self-extinguish.

This requirement does not apply if it is not possible to obtain a sample from a single toy as described in

5.4.1.
4.3 Toy disguise costumes and toys intended to be worn by a child in play
See A.5.

This requirement does not apply if it is not possible to obtain a sample from a single toy as described in

5.4.1.

When tested in accordance with 5.4, the rate of spread of flame of the test sample shall not exceed

30 mm/s or the test sample shall self-extinguish.
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)

If the rate of spread of flame is between 10 mm/s and 30 mm/s, the appropriate part(s) of the toy and the

packaging shall be permanently marked with a statement similar to the following:
“Warning! Keep away from fire.”
See ISO 8124-1:2012, B.2.1, for guidance.
4.4 Toys intended to be entered by a child
See A.6.

These are toys that at least partially enclose a child and include e.g. toy tents, wigwams and play tunnels,

but do not include open canopies. The requirements apply to toys made of flexible materials such as

fabric and vinyl. They do not apply to rigid materials.
If the material has non-identical surfaces, both sides shall be tested.

When tested in accordance with 5.4, the rate of spread of flame of the test sample shall not exceed

30 mm/s or the test sample shall self-extinguish.

If the test sample has a rate of spread of flame greater than 20 mm/s when tested in accordance with 5.4,

there shall be no flaming debris or molten drips.

If the rate of spread of flame is between 10 mm/s and 30 mm/s, the appropriate part(s) of the toy and the

packaging shall be permanently marked with a statement similar to the following:
“Warning! Keep away from open flame.”
See ISO 8124-1:2012, B.2.1, for guidance.

This requirement does not apply if it is not possible to obtain a sample from a single toy as described in

5.4.1.
4.5 Soft-filled toys
See A.7.

The requirements of this subclause do not apply to soft-filled toys or soft-filled parts of a toy that cannot

be cuddled or hugged by a child during play.

The requirements of this clause do not apply to toys which, when positioned in accordance with 5.5.3,

present a maximum unhindered vertical soft-filled height of 150 mm or less. Soft filled toys shall be tested

as supplied, including any clothing or cover present with the toy and, if considered to be more onerous,

with the clothes or cover removed if removal can be accomplished without damage to the clothes, cover,

or toy.

When tested in accordance with 5.5, the rate of spread of flame on the surface shall not be more than

30 mm/s or the toy shall self-extinguish.
5 Test methods
5.1 General
5.1.1 Precautionary information

It is the responsibility of those using these test methods to do so in a safe manner. Burning materials

can produce smoke and toxic gases and therefore protective measures are required for the safety of

operators. Fire extinguishers should be readily available to hand.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
5.1.2 Test burner

The test flame shall be obtained from a burner as described in ISO 6941:2003, Annex A, and shall be

operated with butane or propane gas.

The type of gas used shall be specified in the results, for the sake of consistency.

5.1.3 Conditioning and test chamber

Before each test, the toys or samples shall be conditioned for at least 7 h in an atmosphere having a

temperature of (21 ± 5) °C and a relative humidity of (65 ± 5) %.

Carry out the tests in a test chamber in which the movement of air is less than 0,2 m/s at the start of

the test and is not affected by operation of mechanical apparatus during the test. It is essential that the

volume of air in the test chamber is not affected by a reduction in the level of oxygen concentration.

When an open-fronted chamber is used for the test, ensure that the test sample is at least 300 mm from

the walls of the chamber. Maintain the chamber at 10 °C to 30 °C and at a relative humidity of 15 % to

80 % prior to the test being carried out.

The samples shall be tested within 5 min of removal from the conditioning atmosphere.

5.1.4 Test flame
Light the burner described in 5.1.2 and pre-heat for a minimum of 2 min.

The required height of the flame shall be measured from the end of the burner tube to the top of the

flame with the burner in the vertical position.

5.2 Test relating to beards, moustaches, wigs, etc. made from hair, pile, or material that

behaves in a similar manner to hair (e.g. free-hanging ribbons, paper, cloth strands, or

other flowing elements), which protrude 50 mm or more from the surface of the toy

5.2.1 Test flame
Adjust the flame height to (20 ± 2) mm.
5.2.2 Test burner position
Position the burner vertically.
5.2.3 Test performance

Measure the length of the hair, pile, or material that behaves in a similar manner to hair and position the

toy so that the largest dimension of the hair, pile, or material that behaves in a similar manner to hair

hangs vertically or as near vertically as possible.

Apply the test flame for (2 ± 0,5) s to the lower edge or ends of the sample material so that the flame

penetrates the element by approximately 10 mm.

If ignition occurs, measure the duration of flaming and the burnt length, i.e. the maximum length of the

hair, pile, or material that behaves in a similar manner to hair that has been burnt.

5.3 Test relating to beards, moustaches, wigs, etc. made from hair, pile, or material that

behaves in a similar manner to hair (e.g. free-hanging ribbons, paper, cloth strands, or

other flowing elements), which protrude less than 50 mm from the surface of the toy, and

full or partial moulded head masks
See A.8.
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
5.3.1 Test flame
Adjust the flame height to (20 ± 2) mm.
5.3.2 Test burner position
Move the burner to an angle of 45°.
5.3.3 Test performance
Position the toy vertically.

Apply the test flame to the toy for (5 ± 0,5) s, so that the test flame makes contact between 20 mm and

30 mm above the lower edge of the toy and/or attachment and at a distance of approximately 5 mm

measured horizontally from the closest point of the burner tube, to the surface of the toy.

If ignition occurs, measure the duration of flaming and the maximum distance between the upper edge

of the burnt area and the point of application of the flame.

5.4 Test relating to flowing elements of toys to be worn on the head (except those

covered by 4.2.2 and 4.2.3), hoods, headdresses, etc. and masks not covered by 4.2.4

which partially or fully cover the head (e.g. fabric and cardboard masks, eye masks, face

masks), toy disguise costumes and toys intended to be entered or worn by a child
See A.9.
5.4.1 Preparation of sample
Each test shall be carried out on a single new toy.
If advice to the consumer (e.g. a care label on the toy or its packaging)

— indicates that the toy is not intended to be washed, it shall not be washed or soaked before testing,

— recommends a method of washing or cleaning, the toy shall be treated before testing in accordance

with these recommendations which are regarded as instructions from the manufacturer, and

— gives no information relating to washing or cleaning the toy, if it is likely to be washed during its life

or exposed to rain shall be treated, before testing, in accordance with the following instructions,

immerse the test sample(s) in tap water (at approximately 20 °C) at a ratio of at least 1:20 mass of

test sample(s) to volume of water, and allow it/them to stand for 10 min. Drain and repeat twice.

Rinse by immersing the test sample(s) in demineralized water for 2 min. Drain and dry by a method

appropriate to the test sample(s) and, where appropriate, restore the pile as near as possible to its

original condition.

Cut test samples with dimensions of at least 610 mm × 100 mm from each material available on the

toy. Each test sample shall be made from one material. Where possible, the sample should not include

seamed edges or edges decorated with lace trimmings. As seams modify the rate of spread of flame, they

shall be placed in the upper part of the sample holder.

Where there is insufficient material to prepare a full sample as described above, two equal pieces of the

same material from the same single toy with dimensions of 310 mm × 100 mm can be used so that when

they overlap, a full sample of at least 610 mm × 100 mm is obtained. In order to ensure that there is no

gap at the overlap, staples can be used to secure the join.

As the rate of spread of flame can be different with the direction of the fabric, where there is enough

material, cut the test sample with the length corresponding to the vertical direction of the toy when in

use.
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)

For toys corresponding to 4.3 (toy disguise costumes and toys intended to be worn by a child in play),

if the costume is intended to be reversible and the material has non-identical surfaces, both sides of the

material shall be tested. In this case, a second sample is prepared and can be from a second toy if there

is insufficient material to obtain two samples from the same toy.

For toys corresponding to 4.4 (toys intended to be entered by a child), if the material has non-identical

surfaces, both sides of the material shall be tested. In this case, a second sample is prepared and can be

from a second toy if there is insufficient material to obtain two samples from the same toy.

5.4.2 Holding the test sample

Place the test sample on the sample holder as shown in Figure 1, slightly tensioned to avoid creases,

waving, or curling.
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 100 % cotton marker threads
2 test sample
A top side
B underside

Figure 1 — Test relating to flowing elements of toys to be worn on the head (except those

covered by 4.2.2 and 4.2.3), hoods, headdresses etc. and masks not covered by 4.2.4 which

partially or fully cover the head (e.g. fabric and cardboard masks, eye masks, face masks), toy

disguise costumes, toys intended to be worn by a child in play and toys intended to be entered

by a child

For toys corresponding to 4.2.5 (flowing elements of toys to be worn on the head) and 4.3 (toy disguise

costumes and toys intended to be worn by a child in play), the outside surface of the material when in

use, shall be positioned face up.

Attach the marker threads at points A and B of Figure 2 across the sample at no more than 2 mm from

the surface of the sample, with a device to indicate when the marker thread is severed.

Position the sample holder at (45 ± 1)° to the horizontal.
5.4.3 Test flame
Adjust the flame height to (40 ± 3) mm.
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
5.4.4 Test burner position

Position the burner vertically in order to have a distance between the edge and the top of the burner of

(30 ± 2) mm (see Figure 2).
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 test sample
2 burner
A location of 100 % cotton marker threads
B location of 100 % cotton marker threads
Figure 2 — Gas burner
5.4.5 Test performance
Maintain the burner with the flame as indicated above for (10 ± 1) s.

If ignition occurs, start the timing device when the first marker thread is severed by the flame and stop

it when the second marker thread is severed.
5.4.6 Results

If, after applying the flame, the sample fails to ignite and if the first marker thread is not severed, the

rate of spread of flame is equal to 0.

If ignition occurs and the first marker thread is severed and the flame extinguishes before severing the

second marker thread, the material tested is considered as self-extinguishing.

If the second marker thread is severed, note the time and calculate the rate of spread of flame in mm/s.

Round the resulting value to the nearest mm/s.
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ISO 8124-2:2014(E)
5.5 Test for soft-filled toys
5.5.1 Test flame
Adjust the flame height to (20 ± 2) mm.
5.5.2 Tes
...

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