Information technology — Multimedia framework (MPEG-21) — Part 23: Smart Contracts for Media

This document specifies the means (e.g. protocols and application programming interfaces) for converting MPEG-21 XML and RDF media contracts (ISO/IEC 21000-19, ISO/IEC 21000-20, and ISO/IEC 21000-21) to smart contracts executable on existing DLT environments.

Technologies de l'information — Cadre multimédia (MPEG-21) — Partie 23: Contrats intelligents pour les médias

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Nov-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
27-Jan-2023
Completion Date
18-Nov-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 21000-23
First edition
2022-11
Information technology — Multimedia
framework (MPEG-21) —
Part 23:
Smart Contracts for Media
Technologies de l'information — Cadre multimédia (MPEG-21) —
Partie 23: Contrats intelligents pour les médias
Reference number
ISO/IEC 21000-23:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
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ISO/IEC 21000-23:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

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© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 21000-23:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols, and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4 Conventions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Classes representation .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Namespace prefixes ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General aspects ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Relationships between MPEG-21 CEL/MCO and DLTs ........................................................................................ 5

6 Bidirectional conversion between MPEG-21 CEL/MCO contracts and smart

contracts for media ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 Conversion from MPEG-21 CEL/MCO contracts to smart contracts for media ............................ 9

6.1.1 MPEG-21 CEL/MCO parser ........................................................................................................................................ 9

6.1.2 Smart contract generator ........................................................................................................................................ 10

6.1.3 DLT tokens and payments manager ............................................................................................................... 10

6.2 Conversion from smart contracts for media to MPEG-21 CEL/MCO contracts ......................... 11

6.2.1 Smart contract parser ................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.2.2 MPEG-21 CEL/MCO generator ............................................................................................................................. 11

7 Narrative contracts ........................................................................................................................................................................................12

8 API for media contractual objects ..................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 Contract ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13

8.1.1 Contract ...................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1.2 Encryptable .......................................................................................................................................................................... 17

8.2 Party ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 18

8.2.1 Party ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

8.2.2 Person/User ......................................................................................................................................................................... 19

8.2.3 CELPerson ............................................................................................................................................................................. 20

8.2.4 MCOUser ........................................................................................................................................... .......................................20

8.2.5 Organization ................................... ........................................................................................................ ............................. 21

8.3 Deontic ........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.3.1 DeonticStructuredClause/DeonticExpression .....................................................................................22

8.3.2 TextClause .............................................................................................................................................................................23

8.3.3 CELDeonticStructuredBlock ................................................................................................................................. 24

8.3.4 CELDeonticStructuredClause .............................................................................................................................. 25

8.3.5 CELCondition ...................................................................................................................................................................... 26

8.3.6 MCODeonticExpression ............................................................................................................................................. 27

8.3.7 Permission ............................................................................................................................................................................28

8.3.8 CELPermission ..................................................................................................................................................................29

8.3.9 MCOPermission ................................................................................................................................................................29

8.4 Action ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................30

8.4.1 Act/GenericAction/Action ......................................................................................................................................30

8.4.2 Trade .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 33

8.4.3 Provide ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 33

8.4.4 Payment ...................................................................................................................................................................................34

8.4.5 Notify ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 35

8.4.6 UserDefinedAction ........................................................................................................................................................ 36

8.5 Object ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37

iii
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ISO/IEC 21000-23:2022(E)

8.5.1 Object ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 37

8.5.2 Item ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 37

8.5.3 IPEntity ....................................................................................................................................................................................38

8.5.4 Event ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 39

8.5.5 Segment ...................................................................................................................................................................................40

8.5.6 Service ......................................................................................................................................................................................40

8.5.7 SubjectWrapperObject ............................................................................................................................................... 41

8.5.8 Track ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 42

8.5.9 Interval..................................................................................................................................................................................... 43

8.6 Fact ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 43

8.6.1 Constraint/Fact ................................................................................................................................................................ 43

8.6.2 FactComposition ..............................................................................................................................................................46

8.6.3 ActionEventFact ............................................................................................................................................................... 47

8.6.4 TogetherWith ......................................................................................................................................................................48

8.6.5 AccessPolicy .........................................................................................................................................................................48

8.6.6 DeliveryModality ............................................................................................................................................................49

8.6.7 Device ........................................................................................................................................................................................50

8.6.8 IPEntityContext ................................................................................................................................................................ 51

8.6.9 Language ................................................................................................................................................................................ 51

8.6.10 Length ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 52

8.6.11 MaterialFormat ................................................................................................................................................................. 52

8.6.12 Means.........................................................................................................................................................................................54

8.6.13 Runs ............................................................................................................................................................................................54

8.6.14 ServiceAccessPolicy...................................................................................................................................................... 55

8.6.15 ServiceChannelContext .............................................................................................................................................56

8.6.16 SpatialContext ........................................................................................................................................... ......................... 57

8.6.17 TemporalContext ............................................................................................................................................................. 57

8.6.18 UserTimeAccess ................................................................................................................................................................58

8.6.19 UserDefinedFact ............................................................................................................................................................... 59

9 API for MPEG-21 CEL/MCO parser ..................................................................................................................................................60

10 API for MPEG-21 CEL/MCO generator .........................................................................................................................................60

11 Reference software and conformance .......................................................................................................................................60

11.1 MPEG-21 template contracts .................................................................................................................................................. 62

11.1.1 Open Music Initiative use cases ......................................................................................................................... 62

11.2 MPEG-21 Contract Expression Language ....................................................................................................................63

11.2.1 MPEG-21 CEL parser ....................................................................................................................................................63

11.2.2 MPEG-21 CEL generator ............................................................................................................................................63

11.2.3 MPEG-21 CEL contracts to smart contracts for media (forward conversion) ..........63

11.2.4 Smart contracts for media to MPEG-21 CEL contracts (backward

conversion) ...........................................................................................................................................................................65

11.3 MPEG-21 Media Contract Ontology ...................................................................................................................................66

11.3.1 MPEG-21 MCO parser .................................................................................................................................................. 67

11.3.2 MPEG-21 MCO generator ..........................................................................................................................................68

11.3.3 MPEG-21 MCO contracts to smart contracts for media (forward conversion) ........68

11.3.4 Smart contracts for media to MPEG-21 MCO contracts (backward

conversion) ...........................................................................................................................................................................73

11.4 OpenAPI and demo .......................................................................................................................................................................... 75

11.4.1 OpenAPI .................................................................................................................................................................................. 75

11.4.2 MPEG-21 MCO OpenAPI server .......................................................................................................................... 76

11.4.3 MPEG-21 CEL server ........................................................................................................................................... .......... 76

11.4.4 Demo .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 76

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................78

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 21000-23:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 29, Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 21000 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 21000-23:2022(E)
Introduction

The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) standards include a set of RDF ontologies for the

codification of intellectual property (IP) rights information related to media. The ISO/IEC 21000-19

Media Value Chain Ontology (MVCO) which facilitates rights tracking for fair, timely, and transparent

payment of royalties by capturing user roles and their permissible actions on a particular IP entity.

The ISO/IEC 21000-19/AMD1 Audio Value Chain Ontology (AVCO) which extends MVCO functionality

related to the description of IP entities in the audio domain (e.g. multitrack audio and time segments).

The ISO/IEC 21000-21 Media Contract Ontology (MCO) which facilitates the conversion of narrative

contracts to digital ones related to exploitation of IP rights, payments and notifications. With respect

to the latter, an equivalent standard has also been developed but using XML schemas, known as

ISO/IEC 21000-20 Contract Expression Language (CEL).

Furthermore, the axioms in these XML schemas and RDF ontologies can drive the execution of rights-

related workflows in controlled environments, for example, Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs),

where transparency and interoperability are favored toward fair trade of music and media. Thus, the

aim of this document is to provide the means (e.g. protocols and application programming interfaces)

for converting these XML and RDF media contracts to smart contracts executable on existing DLT

environments.

By doing this conversion in a standard way for several smart contract languages it is going to ensure

that MPEG schemas and ontologies prevail as the interlingua for transferring verified contractual data

from one DLT to another.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 21000-23:2022(E)
Information technology — Multimedia framework (MPEG-
21) —
Part 23:
Smart Contracts for Media
1 Scope

This document specifies the means (e.g. protocols and application programming interfaces) for

converting MPEG-21 XML and RDF media contracts (ISO/IEC 21000-19, ISO/IEC 21000-20, and

ISO/IEC 21000-21) to smart contracts executable on existing DLT environments.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 21000-19, Information technology — Multimedia framework (MPEG-21) — Part 19: Media Value

Chain Ontology

ISO/IEC 21000-20, Information technology — Multimedia framework (MPEG-21) — Part 20: Contract

Expression Language

ISO/IEC 21000-21, Information technology — Multimedia framework (MPEG-21) — Part 21: Media

contract ontology
3 Terms, definitions, symbols, and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
DLT
distributed ledger technology

distributed network of computers, ideally organized in a decentralized way, mutually agreeing on a

common state while tolerating failures (including malicious behavior) to some extent

3.1.2
smart contract
code deployed in a DLT or the source code from which such code was compiled

Note 1 to entry: The execution of smart contract instructions is distributed among the nodes of the DLT in which

it is deployed to. This execution is triggered via a DLT transaction and produces a change in the DLT state.

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 21000-23:2022(E)
3.1.3
smart contract language

programming language used for creating the code of a smart contract, that is then compiled in another

code deployable to a specific DLT
3.1.4
smart contract template

source code of a smart contract written using a specific smart contract language for defining a common

behavior.
3.1.5
smart contract specification

set of information needed for the deployment of a smart contract and for populating the data structures

that the smart contract instructions are interacting with
3.1.6
DLT address

product of a cryptographic schema operation used to represent identities in a DLT

3.1.7
DLT governance
specification indicating the set of rules followed by the specific DLT protocol
3.1.8
token

object stored in a DLT and managed through one or more smart contracts, representing unique tangible

or intangible media assets, possessions, and accountable items
3.1.9
fungible token
token being changeable with other tokens
3.1.10
non-fungible token
token being non interchangeable with other tokens
3.1.11
MPEG-21 CEL/MCO contract

contract represented using ISO/IEC 21000-19, ISO/IEC 21000-20 and ISO/IEC 21000-21 elements

3.1.12
media contractual objects

set of machine-readable objects extracted from a specific MPEG-21 CEL/MCO contract

3.1.13
smart contract for media

deployed smart contract that is the result of the conversion process from a specific MPEG-21 CEL/MCO

contract
3.1.14
parser

software component that extracts a set of media contractual objects from an MPEG-21 CEL/MCO

contract or a smart contract for media
3.1.15
generator

software component that from a set of media contractual objects generates an MPEG-21 CEL/MCO

contract or a smart contract specification
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 21000-23:2022(E)
3.1.16
DLT tokens and payments manager
component deploying a smart contract for media on a specific DLT
3.1.17
contract developer

actor providing the means to generate an MPEG-21 CEL/MCO contract or a smart contract in a specific

smart contract language (e.g. smart contract templates)
3.1.18
DLT system engineer

actor providing the information needed to deploy a smart contract in a specific DLT (e.g. DLT addresses

and governance)
3.2 Abbreviated terms
MVCO media value chain ontology
AVCO audio value chain ontology
CEL contract expression language
MCO media contract ontology
CEL/MCO ISO/IEC 21000-19, ISO/IEC 21000-20, and ISO/IEC 21000-21
IP intellectual property
API application programming interface
4 Conventions
4.1 Classes representation

The following conventions derive from the Object-Oriented Programming paradigm. In this sense

Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are represented in terms of Classes definitions and Objects.

An Object is an instantiation of a Class while a Class contains the following properties:

— Name of the represented object.
— Type of the represented object. An object Type may be:
— Abstract which is only showing essential information with respect to an interf
...

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