Information technology -- Learning, education and training -- Competency models expressed in MLR

This document specifies the description of entities of the real world dealing with competencies, competencies description, competencies evaluation, and of the operations done by these entities on competencies. This document provides a model to express all information required for the exchange and integration of heterogeneous descriptions of "competency" and of heterogeneous "competency objects": — any item of discourse in the real world related to "competency" has a representation preserving its meaning in the proposed model; — this representation allows comparison, hierarchical classification and aggregation of different items of discourse related to "competency". The concrete content of items of discourse in the real world related to "competency" is not specified in this document, which only deals with the formal expression of the discourse.

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 22602
First edition
2019-09
Information technology — Learning,
education and training — Competency
models expressed in MLR
Reference number
ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
ISO/IEC 2019
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols ....................................................................................................... 1

4 Content value rules ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 The competency world entities ............................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Competency world properties (object properties) .......................................................................................................... 7

7 Data properties ...................................................................................................................................................................................................23

Annex A (informative) An example using only DES defined in this document .......................................................26

Annex B (informative) Mapping of the ISO/IEC 20006 models ..............................................................................................30

Annex C (Informative) A second example using DES from different standards ....................................................42

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................46

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http: //patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 36, Information technology for learning, education and training.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
Introduction

ISO/IEC 19788-1 provides metadata for learning resources (MLR) and consists of a set of data element

concepts and conceptual domains (as defined in the ISO 11179 series) allowing the description of a

conceptual level independently of any particular representation. This means that any educational

metadata schema can be specified using MLR.

Schemas describing competencies are used in many information models related to learning, education

and training, such as school transcripts, learning objectives, curricula descriptions, employer

job requirements, professional association competency frameworks and national occupational

classifications.

Therefore, with the development of the different parts of the ISO/IEC 19788 series and the increasing

demand for information models' interoperability, the description of a “competency” in the MLR format

appears as a necessity.

Use of MLR can support different types of approaches such as structured database, linked data

and RDF models. This means that MLR can be used to describe objects that are used to support the

development, identification, and evaluation of competencies within IT systems that use heterogeneous

[1]

approaches and have varying forms, among which are included those proposed in ISO/IEC 20006-1

[2]
and ISO/IEC 20006-2 .

This document provides a generic representation of a “competency” that will facilitate the exchange of

information between systems using different data models to represent competencies, and the linkage

of competency models to other metadata models.

This document can be used either alone or together with other standards to express and compare

contextual views of schemas that describe competencies.
Relationship to ISO/IEC TR 24763

A “competency” is an item of discourse that refers to some entities of the real world. The meaning of

this item of discourse as a “competency” description is given by fixed relationships between some

classes of entities of the real world, which create a recognizable “competency pattern” independent of

the description itself.

A tentative description of this pattern has been proposed in ISO/IEC TR 24763 as the “conceptual

reference model for competencies and related objects”. It aims to clarify the information types and

relationships that are used within IT systems to support the description, management, development,

transfer and assessment of competency information or other related objects.

The conceptual reference model (CRM), as outlined in ISO/IEC TR 24763, is further developed and

refined in this document.

The main development of the CRM proposed in this document provides an abstract model of a

“competency” and related entities that allows accounting for the meaning of any competency description

in the real world. It is composed of:

1) a fixed structural model describing the competency world (i.e. the entities referred to in discourse

about competencies and their relationships in context);

2) an open and extensible semantic structured layer attached to each of the competency world

entities, allowing for the description of various aspects or dimensions or facets of an instance of

the entity.
The two-level model

The fixed structural model describing the competency world is derived from the conceptual reference

model for competency information and related objects published in ISO/IEC TR 24763.

The amended structural model of the competency world is presented in Figure 1.
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
Figure 1 — Structural model describing the competency world (adapted from
ISO/IEC TR 24763)

For semantic consistency, the following amendments have been made to the original model, concerning

the names of classes and of properties.
— Classes

— The linguistically neutral identifiers used in ISO/IEC TR 24763 are in the form “En”, where “E”

stands for “Entity”, and “n” is a number. In this document, they are replaced by MLR identifiers

“RCnnnn”, where RC stands for Resource Class, and n is a number. As an example, E1 [Action]

becomes RC0001 Action.

— The class E7 initially named in English “[LET Institution]” has been replaced by its super-class

“RC0007 Institution”, which is more generic, and allows the extension of the structural model to

any type of institutions, such as companies, which are de facto part of the “competency world”.

— Properties

— The linguistically neutral identifiers used in ISO/IEC TR 24763 are in the form “Pn”, where “P”

stands for “Property”, and “n” is a number. In this document, they are replaced by the standards

MLR identifiers “DESnnnn”, where DES stands for “Data Element Specification”, and n is a

number. As an example, P1 [shows] becomes DES0001 shows.

— The property P8 between E5 [Environment] and E1 [Action] initially named “shapes” has been

renamed as “DES0008 influences” because it is semantically more appropriate.

— The property P11 between E7 [Institution] and E5 [Environment], initially named “influences”

has been renamed as “DES0011 shapes” because it is semantically more appropriate.

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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)

— The property P17 between E9 [Role] and E3 [Competency] initially named “profiles” has been

reversed and renamed as “DES0017 provides consistency to”. It has now RC0003 Competency as

domain and RC0009 Role as codomain. The reason is also that it is semantically more appropriate.

Figure 2 represents the open and extensible semantic structured layer attached to each of the

competency world entities. Figure 2 shows the generic data property diagram, linking any competency

world entity to an MLR string, and the diagram of an example linking instances of a competency world

entity to some of its descriptors.

Figure 2 — Open and extensible semantic layer attached to a competency world entity

(model and example)

This two-level modelling principle is used to describe a competency in MLR format. The structural

model comprises 9 resource classes corresponding to 9 classes of entities in the real world and 17 pairs

of properties (Data Element Specifications) corresponding to the relations between the instances of

these entities in the real world. Together, they constitute the competency world model. This structural

model is described in Clauses 5 and 6.

The semantic layer is attached to each of the 9 classes of entities by data properties, i.e. by properties

having as domain an entity of the competency world and a codomain which is “literal”. The mandatory

data properties are described in Clause 7, together with how to build others.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
Information technology — Learning, education and
training — Competency models expressed in MLR
1 Scope

This document specifies the description of entities of the real world dealing with competencies,

competencies description, competencies evaluation, and of the operations done by these entities on

competencies.

This document provides a model to express all information required for the exchange and integration

of heterogeneous descriptions of “competency” and of heterogeneous “competency objects”:

— any item of discourse in the real world related to “competency” has a representation preserving its

meaning in the proposed model;

— this representation allows comparison, hierarchical classification and aggregation of different

items of discourse related to “competency”.

The concrete content of items of discourse in the real world related to “competency” is not specified in

this document, which only deals with the formal expression of the discourse.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 19788-1, Information technology — Learning, education and training — Metadata for learning

resources — Part 1: Framework

ISO/IEC/TR 24763, Information technology — Learning, education and training — Conceptual Reference

Model for Competency Information and Related Objects
3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols

For the purposes of this document, the terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols given in

ISO/IEC 19788-1, ISO/IEC TR 24763 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
appellation
designation of an object by a linguistic expression

Note 1 to entry: This term is more generic than Name (ISO/IEC 19788-1) but can be defined in exactly the same way.

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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
3.2
competency

observable or measurable ability of an actor to perform necessary action(s) in given context(s) to

achieve specific outcome(s)
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO/IEC TR 24763:2011, 2.2.
4 Content value rules

This clause lists rule sets defined in ISO/IEC 19788-1 that may be reused in this document (see Clause 7)

or in order to apply it.
MLR String
See ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, subclause 9.2.
Date
See ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, subclause 9.3.
Date & Time
See ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, subclause 9.4.
Duration
See ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, subclause 9.5.
IRI
Rules for the representation of Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRI).
ID: PRS0006
Name: IRI
Rule_ID Rule statement / Example(s) & Note(s)
01 A character string constructed according to RFC 3987
HTTP IRI
ID: PRS0007
Name: HTTP_IRI
Rule_ID Rule statement / Example(s) & Note(s)

01 A character string constructed according to RFC 3987 and using the HTTP Scheme

5 The competency world entities

In this clause, the entities of the competency world are described using the MLR format as resource

classes. All these entities have specific properties relating them to other entities of the competency

world which are not data properties, i.e. which have another competency world entity as codomain, as

shown in Figure 1.

These entities are considered as subclasses of the superclass competency world entity, so that they

inherit its data properties, which are described in Clause 7. Each entity has the following attributes.

— Resource class identifier (an identifier identifying the latest version of the resource class

description), mandatory

— Resource class canonical identifier (a canonical identifier for the resource class), mandatory

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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)

— A Resource class name (a name for the resource class, linguistically neutral, readable by machines),

mandatory

— A Resource class label (a label for the resource class, in a given language, readable by humans),

mandatory
— Definition (a definition for the class), mandatory

— SubclassOf [multiple inheritance] (a superclass for the class under specification); a class can inherit

behaviours and features from more than one superclass), optional
— Note (additional information and examples), optional
RC0000 competency world entity
Resource Class
IS O _ I EC _ 226 02: 2019: : RC0000
identifier
Resource Class
ISO_IEC_22602::RC0000
canonical identifier
Resource Class name Competency_World_Entity
Resource Class label Competency World Entity
An instance of this class is a real-world entity which belongs to one of the
Definition
classes of the structural model of the competency world.
SubclassOf —
There are nine competency world entities numbered RC0001 to RC0009,
Note
which are presented in Figure 1 and described below.
RC0001 Action
Resource Class
I SO _ I EC _ 226 02: 2019: : RC0 0 01
identifier
Resource Class
ISO_IEC_22602::RC0001
canonical identifier
Resource Class name Action
Resource Class label Action
An instance of this class is an act in the real world, which generates
Definition
changes in the state of one or more entities.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_22602::RC0000
Usually, an action is semantically represented by an action verb followed
by an object to which it applies.
Examples: to write a paper
Note
to play a symphony
to build a bridge
RC0002 Actor
Resource Class
I SO _ I EC _ 226 02: 2019: : RC0 0 02
identifier
Resource Class
ISO_IEC_22602::RC0002
canonical identifier
Resource Class name Actor
Resource Class label Actor
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
An instance of this class is a person or group of people or automated agents
Definition
who have the potential to perform an action.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_22602::RC0000
Usually, an actor is semantically represented by the subject of an action verb.
Examples: the entity designated by the name “Arthur Cravan”
Note
the entity designated by “The Paris Symphony
Orchestra”
the entity designated by “GG Engineering”
RC0003 Competency
Resource Class
I SO _ I EC _ 226 02: 2019: : RC0 0 03
identifier
Resource Class
ISO_IEC_22602::RC0003
canonical identifier
Resource Class name Competency
Resource Class label Competency
An instance of this class is an ability of an actor to perform an action on an
Definition
entity in a given environment to achieve specific outcome.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_22602::RC0000
Very often, “is able” denoting the abilities or the word “ability” is omitted
in the description, and a competency is described as an action followed by
the generated outcome.
Examples: (ability) to synthetize the main trends in the domain
Note

(the orchestra is able) to play Beethoven’s 5 Symphony in

the Concert Hall superlatively well
(GG Engineers are able) to apply structural engineering
principles and techniques
RC0004 Criteria and method
Resource Class
ISO _IEC _22602: 2019: : RC0004
identifier
Resource Class
ISO_IEC_22602::RC0004
canonical identifier
Resource Class name Criteria_and_method
Resource Class label Criteria and method
An instance of this class is a criterion or a set of criteria to assess outcomes

Definition of an action or a method or a set of methods to provide a measurement of a

competency, through an evaluation, assessment process.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_22602::RC0000
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
Criteria and method can be quantitative or qualitative, as well as a mixture
of both quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative methods usually require
a measuring instrument, whereas qualitative methods are based on a
judgement.
Examples: quantitative criterion to evaluate a paper: up to 10 points

for the ideas, 5 points for the style, and 5 points for the

Note
spelling

qualitative criterion: a standing ovation is the highest mark

of appraisal of a concert
quantitative method: measurement of bridge resistance
through a 20-ton load test
RC0005 Environment
Resource Class
ISO _IEC _22602: 2019: : RC0005
identifier
Resource Class
ISO_IEC_22602::RC0005
canonical identifier
Resource Class name Environment
Resource Class label Environment
An instance of this class is any physical or virtual entity or set of physical
Definition
or virtual entities composing the surroundings of an action.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_22602::RC0000
The instances of this entity influence the way an action is performed by
an actor.
Examples: the student’s computer running an Operating System and
Note
Software
the Olympia Concert Hall
the Thames River in the central part of the City
RC0006 Evaluation, assessment process
Resource Class
I SO _ I EC _ 226 02: 2019: : RC0 0 06
identifier
Resource Class
ISO_IEC_22602::RC0006
canonical identifier
Resource Class name Evaluation_assessment_process
Resource Class label Evaluation, assessment process
An instance of this class is an evaluation process or assessment process
Definition
used to assess outcomes, i.e. the results of actions.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_22602::RC0000
If there is a validated scale of performance level associated with the
criteria used by the process, then this process provides
a measurement of a competency.
Examples: students essays are reviewed according to a given Rubrics
Note
grid

the performance of the orchestra is appreciated by a jury

the resistance of the bridge is tested by the successful

crossing of an automated 20-ton truck
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
RC0007 Institution
Resource Class
ISO _IEC _22602: 2019: : RC0007
identifier
Resource Class
ISO_IEC_22602::RC0007
canonical identifier
Resource Class name Institution
Resource Class label Institution
An instance of this class is any legal entity that is likely to expect an actor

Definition with whom it has contractual relationship to play a specific role and to

perform specific actions described in the contract.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_22602::RC0000
Examples: the entity named University of Toronto
Note the entity named Théâtre des Champs-Elysées
the entity named London City Council
RC0008 Outcome
Resource Class
ISO _IEC _22602: 2019: : RC0008
identifier
Resource Class
ISO_IEC_22602::RC0008
canonical identifier
Resource Class name Outcome
Resource Class label Outcome

Definition An instance of this class is an observable or measurable result of an action.

SubclassOf ISO_IEC_22602::RC0000
Types and levels of outcome for each action are tacitly agreed by an actor
and an institution within their contractual relationship.
Examples: the paper is written by the student on a computer without
spelling errors
Note

Beethoven’s 5 Symphony is played by the orchestra in the

Concert Hall

the wooden bridge across the river is built in less than one

week
RC0009 Role
Resource Class
I SO _ I EC _ 226 02: 2019: : RC0 0 0 9
identifier
Resource Class
ISO_IEC_22602::RC0009
canonical identifier
Resource Class name Role
Resource Class label Role
An instance of this class is any functional position within an institution
Definition
that an actor in contractual relationship with it is entitled to occupy.
SubclassOf ISO_IEC_22602::RC0000
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
Each position is associated with a set of expected competencies, which
provides consistency to the instances of role and make the credibility of
the player (an actor) for the others.
Note
Examples: student
first violin
project manager
6 Competency world properties (object properties)

In this clause, the relations between the entities of the competency world are described using the MLR

format as data element specification.

All the properties defined between two competency world entities can be defined in two ways, i.e. each

property has a reverse property, which uses as domain the codomain of the first one, and as codomain

the domain of the first one. Both properties are described in this document. They are numbered from 1

to 17 from the direction described in Figure 1, and from 21 to 37 for the reverse properties.

Each property has the following attributes.

— Property identifier (data element specification identifier, identifying the latest version of the data

element specification), mandatory
— Property canonical identifier (data element canonical identifier), mandatory

— Property name (data element name, linguistically neutral, readable by machines), mandatory

— Property label (data element label, in a given language, readable by humans), mandatory

— Definition (data element definition), mandatory
— Linguistic indicator (data element linguistic indicator), mandatory
— Domain (data element domain), mandatory
— Codomain (data element codomain), mandatory
— Content value rules, conditional
— Refines, conditional
— Example(s), optional
— Note(s), optional
DES0001 shows
Data Element Specification
Property identifier I SO _ I E C _ 226 02: 2019: : DE S 00 01
Property canonical
ISO_IEC_22602::DES0001
identifier
Data element attributes
Property name shows
Property label shows
Association of an actor to the demonstration of a competency
Definition
through behaviour or achievement.
Linguistic indicator —
Domain Actor (ISO_IEC_22602::RC0002)
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
Data Element Specification
Codomain Competency (ISO_IEC_22602::RC0003)
Content value rules —
Refines
Example(s)
If DES0001 is true, then competency has been demonstrated through
an instance of action that has generated instances of outcome and
these instances have been assessed by an instance of evaluation
Note(s)
and assessment process providing a measurement of competency,
which reaches at least the level considered as meeting the minimum
requirements by criteria and method defined by an institution.
DES0002 performs
Data Element Specification
Property identifier I SO _ I E C _ 226 02: 2019: : DE S 00 02
Property canonical
ISO_IEC_22602::DES0002
identifier
Data element attributes
Property name performs
Property label performs
Definition Association of an actor to a future, ongoing or past action.
Linguistic indicator —
Domain Actor (ISO_IEC_22602::RC0002)
Codomain Action (ISO_IEC_22602::RC0001)
Content value rules —
Refines
Example(s)
The canonical form of this property uses the generic verb “perform”
followed by the gerundive of the action verb followed by the object to
Note(s) which the verb applies. But generally, this property uses, as a
shortcut, the action verb, so that it can take many different forms,
which can be considered as sub-properties.
DES0003 plays
Data Element Specification
Property Identifier I SO _ I E C _ 226 02: 2019: : DE S 00 03
Property canonical
ISO_IEC_22602::DES0003
identifier
Data element attributes
Property name plays
Property label plays
Definition Association between an actor and a role.
Linguistic indicator —
Domain Actor (ISO_IEC_22602::RC0002)
Codomain Role (ISO_IEC_22602::RC0009)
Content value rules —
Refines
Example(s)
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ISO/IEC 22602:2019(E)
Data Element Specification
An instance of role is set or defined by an instance of Institution
through DES0012. The instances of role can be very different
according to the type of contractual relationship DES0004 between
the instances of actor and the instances of Institution.
Note(s)
An instance of actor can play an instance of role, but not necessarily
or not always.
If an instance of actor plays an instance of role, he can only play
...

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