Systems and software engineering — Design and development of information for users

This document covers the development process for designers and developers of information for users of software. It describes how to establish what information users need, how to determine the way in which that information should be presented, and how to prepare the information and make it available. It is not limited to the design and development stage of the life cycle, but includes information on design throughout the life cycle, such as design strategy and maintaining a design. This document provides requirements for the structure, information content, and format of information for users of software. This document can be applied to developing the following types of information, although it does not cover all aspects of them: — information for users of products other than software; — multimedia systems using animation, video, and sound; — computer-based training (CBT) packages and specialized course materials intended primarily for use in formal training programs; — maintenance information describing the internal operation of systems software; — information for users incorporated into the user interface itself. This document is applicable to information architects and information developers, including a variety of specialists: — information architects who plan the structure and format of information products; — usability specialists and business analysts who identify the tasks that the intended users can perform with the software; — developers and editors of the written content of information for users; — graphic designers with expertise in electronic media; — user interface designers and ergonomics experts working together to design the presentation of the information on the screen. This document is also a reference for those with other roles and interests in the process of developing information for users: — managers of the software development process or the information-development process; — acquirers of information for users prepared by suppliers; — usability testers, reviewers of information for users, subject-matter experts; — developers of tools for creating information for users; — human-factors experts who identify principles for making information for users more accessible and easily used.

Ingénierie du logiciel et des systèmes — Conception et développement d'informations pour les utilisateurs

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Jan-2022
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
04-Dec-2021
Completion Date
03-Dec-2021
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/
STANDARD IEC/IEEE
26514
First edition
2022-01
Systems and software engineering —
Design and development of
information for users
Ingénierie du logiciel et des systèmes — Conception et développement
d'informations pour les utilisateurs
Reference number
ISO/IEC/IEEE 26514:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
© IEEE 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 26514:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022
© IEEE 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO or IEEE at the

respective address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8 3 Park Avenue, New York
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva NY 10016-5997, USA
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org Email: stds.ipr@ieee.org
Website: www.iso.org Website: www.ieee.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 26514:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... vi

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5 Information management process .................................................................................................................................................10

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10

5.2 Planning the information-development project .................................................................................................... 11

5.3 Managing the information-development project .................................................................................................. 11

6 Information architecture and development ........................................................................................................................12

6.1 Project requirements, objectives, and constraints .............................................................................................12

6.1.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1.2 Project objectives and goals ..................................................................................................................................12

6.1.3 Requirements on information for users .....................................................................................................12

6.1.4 Constraints on information for users ........................................................................................................... 13

6.1.5 Project infrastructure and tools ....................................................................................................................... 14

6.1.6 Schedule constraints ................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.1.7 Users and usability objectives ............................................................................................................................. 15

6.2 Audience and task analysis....................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.2.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.2.2 Audience analysis ........................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.2.3 Task analysis ....................................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.3 Development .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.1 Information gathering ................................................................................................................................................ 21

6.3.2 Developing information for users .................................................................................................................... 22

6.4 Review .........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.5 Prototypes and drafts ................................................................................................................................................................... 22

6.6 Content management during development ................................................................................................................ 23

6.7 Translation considerations in design and development ................................................................................. 24

6.8 Final assembly and review ....................................................................................................................................................... 24

6.9 Packaging ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 25

6.10 Release ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 25

6.11 Updating and maintenance.......................................................................................................................................................25

6.12 Version control and change control .................................................................................................................................. 25

7 Information quality .......................................................................................................................................................................................26

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 26

7.2 Correctness ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 26

7.3 Consistency ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 26

7.4 Comprehensibility ............................................................................................................................................................................ 26

7.5 Conciseness ...................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 26

7.6 Minimalism ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 27

7.7 Accessibility ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 27

8 Structure of information for users ................................................................................................................................................27

8.1 Overall structure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 27

8.2 Modularity ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 27

8.3 Structuring by function ...............................................................................................................................................................28

8.4 Information model ...........................................................................................................................................................................28

8.5 Structure of conceptual information ...............................................................................................................................30

iii
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 26514:2022(E)

8.6 Structure of instructional information .........................................................................................................................30

8.7 Structure of reference information ................................................................................................................................... 31

8.8 Structure of commands ............................................................................................................................................................... 32

8.9 Structure of troubleshooting information .................................................................................................................. 32

8.10 Structure of error messages .................................................................................................................................................... 32

8.11 Glossary of terms ........................................................................................................................................... .................................... 32

8.12 Structure of printed information for users ................................................................................................................ 33

8.13 Structure of online information for users ................................................................................................................... 33

8.14 User-generated content ................................................................................................................................................................ 33

8.14.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 33

8.14.2 Goals and practices .......................................................................................................................................................34

8.15 Application programming interfaces (API) ............................................................................................................... 35

8.15.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 35

8.15.2 Providing information about an API ..............................................................................................................36

8.15.3 Structure of the API reference ............................................................................................................................ 37

8.16 Frequently asked questions (FAQ) ....................................................................................................................................38

8.17 Chatbots and voice response systems ............................................................................................................................ 39

9 Format of information for users .......................................................................................................................................................40

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................40

9.2 Consistent format ..............................................................................................................................................................................40

9.3 Selection of appropriate media and format ............................................................................................................... 41

9.3.1 Comparison of formats and media .................................................................................................................. 41

9.3.2 Use of printed or electronic information for users ........................................................................... 42

9.3.3 Relationship of information displays to the application's displays .................................... 42

9.4 Context-sensitive information ............................................................................................................................................... 43

9.5 Accessible information for users .........................................................................................................................................44

9.5.1 Understandable information for users ........................................................................................................44

9.5.2 Information for users in accessible electronic form ........................................................................44

9.5.3 Text alternatives for non-text information ..............................................................................................44

9.5.4 Unnecessary device references ..........................................................................................................................44

9.5.5 Information on accessibility features ...........................................................................................................44

9.6 Layout of screens and pages .................................................................................................................................................... 45

9.6.1 Display area ......................................................................................................................................................................... 45

9.6.2 Non-scrolling areas ....................................................................................................................................................... 45

9.7 Legibility ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 45

9.7.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 45

9.7.2 Typefaces and text size ..............................................................................................................................................46

9.7.3 Highlighting text ..............................................................................................................................................................46

9.8 Formats for representing user interface elements.............................................................................................. 47

9.8.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 47

9.8.2 Representing control and command input............................................................................................... 47

9.8.3 Representing special keyboard keys or mouse clicks .................................................................... 47

9.8.4 Representing interactions on touch screens ..........................................................................................48

9.9 Use of colour...........................................................................................................................................................................................48

9.10 Navigational features ....................................................................................................................................................................48

9.10.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................48

9.10.2 Finding the same information again ..............................................................................................................49

9.10.3 Formats for active areas ...........................................................................................................................................49

9.10.4 Linking information ..................................................................................................................................................... 50

9.10.5 Table of contents .............................................................................................................................................................. 50

9.10.6 Index ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 51

9.10.7 Search capability ............................................................................................................................................................. 51

9.11 Format of danger, warning, and caution indications ......................................................................................... 52

9.12 Format for instructions ...............................................................................................................................................................53

9.13 Formats for user-supplied annotations ......................................................................................................................... 53

9.14 Formats for illustrations ............................................................................................................................................................54

9.14.1 Consistent presentation of illustrations .....................................................................................................54

9.14.2 Placement of illustrations........................................................................................................................................54

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 26514:2022(E)

9.14.3 Illustrations of printed output ............................................................................................................................54

9.14.4 Illustrations of screen displays .......................................................................................................................... 55

9.15 Formats for icons and other types of visualization ............................................................................................56

9.15.1 When to use icons and other types of visualization ........................................................................56

9.15.2 Design of icons and other types of visualization ................................................................................56

9.15.3 Displaying the names of icons ............................................................................................................................. 57

9.16 Formats for video tutorials and animations ............................................................................................................. 57

9.17 Interactive content ...........................................................................................................................................................................58

Annex A (informative) Content of a style guide for information for users ...............................................................59

Annex B (informative) Style of translated and localized information for users................................................60

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................63

IEEE Notices and Abstract..........................................................................................................................................................................................65

© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 26514:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed

for the different types of ISO/IEC documents should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

IEEE Standards documents are developed within the IEEE Societies and the Standards Coordinating

Committees of the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards Board. The IEEE develops its

standards through a consensus development process, approved by the American National Standards

Institute, which brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve the

final product. Volunteers are not necessarily members of the Institute and serve without compensation.

While the IEEE administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the consensus

development process, the IEEE does not independently evaluate, test, or verify the accuracy of any of

the information contained in its standards.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 26514 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 7, Systems and software engineering, in cooperation with the Systems and Software

Engineering Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society, under the Partner Standards

Development Organization cooperation agreement between ISO and IEEE.

This first edition cancels and replaces ISO/IEC 26514:2008, which has been technically revised.

The main changes are as follows:

— increased emphasis on designing and developing information for users of software;

— use of IEC/IEEE 82079-1 as a normative reference for information for use;

— addition of subclauses regarding application programming interfaces (API) and chatbots.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE 26514:2022(E)
Introduction

Anyone who uses software designed to help users perform particular tasks or handle particular types

of problems needs accurate information about how the software helps the user accomplish a task. The

information for users may be the first tangible item that the user sees and therefore influences the

user’s first impressions of the software product. If the information is supplied in a convenient form and

is easy to find and understand, the user can quickly become proficient at using the product. Hence, well-

designed information for users not only assists the user and helps to reduce the cost of training and

support, but also enhances the reputation of the product, its producer, and its suppliers.

Although software developers aim to design user interfaces that behave so intuitively that little separate

explanation is needed, this is rarely possible. Today’s software offers increasingly robust functionality,

not only within applications, but also across applications that intelligently exchange information with

one another. Further, most software designs include underlying rules and calculations, or algorithms

that affect the results a user can obtain when using the software. Such underlying programming

mechanisms are discernible by users, but only through laborious testing. For these reasons and more,

information for users remains an essential component of usable software products.

This document supports the need of software users for consistent, complete, accurate, and usable

information. It includes both approaches to standardization: a) process standards, which specify the

way in which information products are to be developed; and b) information product standards, which

specify the characteristics and functional requirements of the information for users.

This document provides specific requirements for information for users of software products, based

on the requirements applicable to all types of products in IEC/IEEE 82079-1. It focuses on the parts

of the information management processes most applicable for information designers and information

developers.

Information for users is often regarded as something done after the software has been implemented.

However, for high-quality information for users of a software product, its development should be

regarded as an integral part of the software life cycle process. If done properly,

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD IEEE/FDIS
26514
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7
Systems and software engineering —
Secretariat: BIS
Design and development of
Voting begins on:
2021-10-08 information for users
Voting terminates on:
Ingénierie du logiciel et des systèmes — Conception et développement
2021-12-03
d'informations pour les utilisateurs
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC/IEEE FDIS 26514:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
© ISO/IEC 2021
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. © IEEE 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE FDIS 26514:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021
© IEEE 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO or IEEE at the

respective address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8 3 Park Avenue, New York
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva NY 10016-5997, USA
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org Email: stds.ipr@ieee.org
Website: www.iso.org Website: www.ieee.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE FDIS 26514:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... vi

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5 Information management process .................................................................................................................................................10

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10

5.2 Planning the information-development project .................................................................................................... 11

5.3 Managing the information-development project .................................................................................................. 11

6 Information architecture and development ........................................................................................................................12

6.1 Project requirements, objectives, and constraints .............................................................................................12

6.1.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1.2 Project objectives and goals ..................................................................................................................................12

6.1.3 Requirements on information for users ..................................................................................................... 13

6.1.4 Constraints on information for users ........................................................................................................... 13

6.1.5 Project infrastructure and tools ....................................................................................................................... 14

6.1.6 Schedule constraints ................................................................................................................................................... 15

6.1.7 Users and usability objectives ............................................................................................................................. 15

6.2 Audience and task analysis....................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.2.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.2.2 Audience analysis ........................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.2.3 Task analysis ....................................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.3 Development .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 21

6.3.1 Information gathering ................................................................................................................................................ 21

6.3.2 Developing information for users .................................................................................................................... 22

6.4 Review .........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.5 Prototypes and drafts ................................................................................................................................................................... 22

6.6 Content management during development ................................................................................................................ 23

6.7 Translation considerations in design and development ................................................................................. 24

6.8 Final assembly and review ....................................................................................................................................................... 24

6.9 Packaging ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 25

6.10 Release ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 25

6.11 Updating and maintenance.......................................................................................................................................................25

6.12 Version control and change control .................................................................................................................................. 25

7 Information quality .......................................................................................................................................................................................26

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 26

7.2 Correctness ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 26

7.3 Consistency ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 26

7.4 Comprehensibility ............................................................................................................................................................................ 26

7.5 Conciseness ...................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 26

7.6 Minimalism ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 27

7.7 Accessibility ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 27

8 Structure of information for users ................................................................................................................................................27

8.1 Overall structure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 27

8.2 Modularity ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 27

8.3 Structuring by function ...............................................................................................................................................................28

8.4 Information model ...........................................................................................................................................................................28

8.5 Structure of conceptual information ...............................................................................................................................30

iii
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE FDIS 26514:2021(E)

8.6 Structure of instructional information .........................................................................................................................30

8.7 Structure of reference information ................................................................................................................................... 31

8.8 Structure of commands ............................................................................................................................................................... 32

8.9 Structure of troubleshooting information .................................................................................................................. 32

8.10 Structure of error messages .................................................................................................................................................... 32

8.11 Glossary of terms ........................................................................................................................................... .................................... 32

8.12 Structure of printed information for users ................................................................................................................ 33

8.13 Structure of online information for users ................................................................................................................... 33

8.14 User-generated content ................................................................................................................................................................ 33

8.14.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 33

8.14.2 Goals and practices .......................................................................................................................................................34

8.15 Application programming interfaces (API) ............................................................................................................... 35

8.15.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 35

8.15.2 Providing information about an API ..............................................................................................................36

8.15.3 Structure of the API reference ............................................................................................................................ 37

8.16 Frequently asked questions (FAQ) ....................................................................................................................................38

8.17 Chatbots and voice response systems ............................................................................................................................ 39

9 Format of information for users .......................................................................................................................................................40

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................40

9.2 Consistent format ..............................................................................................................................................................................40

9.3 Selection of appropriate media and format ............................................................................................................... 41

9.3.1 Comparison of formats and media .................................................................................................................. 41

9.3.2 Use of printed or electronic information for users ........................................................................... 42

9.3.3 Relationship of information displays to the application's displays .................................... 42

9.4 Context-sensitive information ............................................................................................................................................... 43

9.5 Accessible information for users .........................................................................................................................................44

9.5.1 Understandable information for users ........................................................................................................44

9.5.2 Information for users in accessible electronic form ........................................................................44

9.5.3 Text alternatives for non-text information ..............................................................................................44

9.5.4 Unnecessary device references ..........................................................................................................................44

9.5.5 Information on accessibility features ........................................................................................................... 45

9.6 Layout of screens and pages .................................................................................................................................................... 45

9.6.1 Display area ......................................................................................................................................................................... 45

9.6.2 Non-scrolling areas ....................................................................................................................................................... 45

9.7 Legibility ...................................................................................................................................................................................................46

9.7.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................46

9.7.2 Typefaces and text size ..............................................................................................................................................46

9.7.3 Highlighting text .............................................................................................................................................................. 47

9.8 Formats for representing user interface elements.............................................................................................. 47

9.8.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 47

9.8.2 Representing control and command input............................................................................................... 47

9.8.3 Representing special keyboard keys or mouse clicks ....................................................................48

9.8.4 Representing interactions on touch screens ..........................................................................................48

9.9 Use of colour...........................................................................................................................................................................................48

9.10 Navigational features ....................................................................................................................................................................49

9.10.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................49

9.10.2 Finding the same information again ..............................................................................................................49

9.10.3 Formats for active areas ...........................................................................................................................................50

9.10.4 Linking information ..................................................................................................................................................... 50

9.10.5 Table of contents .............................................................................................................................................................. 50

9.10.6 Index ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 51

9.10.7 Search capability ............................................................................................................................................................. 51

9.11 Format of danger, warning, and caution indications ......................................................................................... 53

9.12 Format for instructions ...............................................................................................................................................................53

9.13 Formats for user-supplied annotations ......................................................................................................................... 53

9.14 Formats for illustrations ............................................................................................................................................................54

9.14.1 Consistent presentation of illustrations .....................................................................................................54

9.14.2 Placement of illustrations........................................................................................................................................54

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE FDIS 26514:2021(E)

9.14.3 Illustrations of printed output ............................................................................................................................54

9.14.4 Illustrations of screen displays .......................................................................................................................... 55

9.15 Formats for icons and other types of visualization ............................................................................................56

9.15.1 When to use icons and other types of visualization ........................................................................56

9.15.2 Design of icons and other types of visualization ................................................................................56

9.15.3 Displaying the names of icons ............................................................................................................................. 57

9.16 Formats for video tutorials and animations ............................................................................................................. 57

9.17 Interactive content ...........................................................................................................................................................................58

Annex A (informative) Content of a style guide for information for users ...............................................................59

Annex B (informative) Style of translated and localized information for users................................................60

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................63

IEEE Notices and Abstract..........................................................................................................................................................................................65

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC/IEEE FDIS 26514:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed

for the different types of ISO/IEC documents should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

IEEE Standards documents are developed within the IEEE Societies and the Standards Coordinating

Committees of the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards Board. The IEEE develops its

standards through a consensus development process, approved by the American National Standards

Institute, which brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve the

final product. Volunteers are not necessarily members of the Institute and serve without compensation.

While the IEEE administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the consensus

development process, the IEEE does not independently evaluate, test, or verify the accuracy of any of

the information contained in its standards.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 26514 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 7, Systems and software engineering, in cooperation with the Systems and Software

Engineering Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society, under the Partner Standards

Development Organization cooperation agreement between ISO and IEEE.

This first edition cancels and replaces ISO/IEC 26514:2008, which has been technically revised.

The main changes are as follows:

— increased emphasis on designing and developing information for users of software;

— use of IEC/IEEE 82079-1 as a normative reference for information for use;

— addition of subclauses regarding application programming interfaces (API) and chatbots.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
© IEEE 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC/IEEE FDIS 26514:2021(E)
Introduction

Anyone who uses software designed to help users perform particular tasks or handle particular types

of problems needs accurate information about how the software helps the user accomplish a task. The

information for users may be the first tangible item that the user sees and therefore influences the

user’s first impressions of the software product. If the information is supplied in a convenient form and

is easy to find and understand, the user can quickly become proficient at using the product. Hence, well-

designed information for users not only assists the user and helps to reduce the cost of training and

support, but also enhances the reputation of the product, its producer, and its suppliers.

Although software developers aim to design user interfaces that behave so intuitively that little separate

explanation is needed, this is rarely possible. Today’s software offers increasingly robust functionality,

not only within applications, but also across applications that intelligently exchange information with

one another. Further, most software designs include underlying rules and calculations, or algorithms

that affect the results a user can obtain when using the software. Such underlying programming

mechanics are discernible by users, but only through laborious testing. For these reasons and more,

information for users remains an essential component of usable software products.

This document supports the need of software users for consistent, complete, accurate, and usable

information. It includes both approaches to standardization: a) process standards, which specify the

way in which information products are to be developed; and b) information product standards, which

specify the characteristics and functional requirements of the informat
...

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