Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 30: Earthquake risk and impact analysis

This document specifies requirements and recommendations for the type of risk assessment to be employed concerning seismic activity and earthquakes in relation to data centres. In addition, it describes design concepts that can be employed as mitigation actions within the construction and other design elements of data centres.

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TECHNICAL ISO/IEC TS
SPECIFICATION 22237-30
First edition
2022-03
Information technology — Data centre
facilities and infrastructures —
Part 30:
Earthquake risk and impact analysis
Reference number
ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
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ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4 ISO/IEC 22237-1 Availability Classes .............................................................................................................................................3

5 Overview of risk associated with seismic activity........................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Direct risk of seismic motion ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 Short-period ground motion .................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Long-period ground motion ..................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.3 Ground liquefaction ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Indirect risk initiated by seismic motion ........................................................................................................................ 4

5.2.1 Fire and toxic or damaging effluent .................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.2 Explosion ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.3 Flooding...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.4 Utilities ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2.5 Access ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.6 Transport .................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.7 Security systems ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Seismic activity risk assessment ........................................................................................................................................................5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Ground motion ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.3 Ground stability ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4 Evaluation by probable maximum loss (PML) ............................................................................................................ 8

6.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.4.2 Advantages and disadvantages ............................................................................................................................. 9

7 Seismic activity risk mitigation ...........................................................................................................................................................9

7.1 Direct risk of seismic motion ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.1.2 Structural mitigation using isolation base techniques ................................................................. 10

7.1.3 Localized mitigation .................................................................................................................................................... 13

7.1.4 Roofs and ceiling supports ..................................................................................................................................... 14

7.2 Indirect risk initiated by seismic motion ..................................................................................................................... 17

7.2.1 Fire and toxic or damaging effluent ............................................................................................................... 17

7.2.2 Explosion ................................................................................................................................................................................ 17

7.2.3 Flooding................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

7.2.4 Utilities ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

7.2.5 Access ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 18

7.2.6 Transport ............................................................................................................................................................................... 18

8 Disaster planning and recovery .......................................................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

iii
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ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 39, Sustainability, IT and data centres.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 22237 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
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ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)
Introduction

Parts 1, 3, 4 and 5 of the ISO/IEC 22237 series specify requirements and recommendations for the

design of data centres to meet a given Availability Class. Parts 2 and 6 of the ISO/IEC 22237 series

specify requirements and recommendations for the building construction and security systems for

data centres.

Determination of the risk and scale of seismic activity should be included as part of the overall risk

assessment approach found in ISO/IEC 22237-1. ISO/IEC TS 22237-2 requires a geographical risk

analysis which includes seismic activity and relevant mitigation actions, but does not identify the

specific actions to be applied. ISO/IEC TS 22237-6 addresses external environmental events but does

not explicitly list earthquakes or seismic activity within that group of events (other than general

vibration) or indicate the specific measures required.

Taking these points into consideration, this document provides requirements and recommendations

for the type of risk assessment to be employed in the context of seismic activity and earthquakes in

relation to data centres. It also describes design concepts that can be employed as mitigation actions

within the construction, and other design elements, of data centres.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)
Information technology — Data centre facilities and
infrastructures —
Part 30:
Earthquake risk and impact analysis
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements and recommendations for the type of risk assessment to be

employed concerning seismic activity and earthquakes in relation to data centres. In addition, it

describes design concepts that can be employed as mitigation actions within the construction and

other design elements of data centres.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
availability
ability to be in a state to perform as required

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-192:2015, 192-01-23, modified — Note 1 to entry and Note 2 to entry deleted.]

3.1.2
computer room space

area within the data centre (3.1.3) that accommodates the data processing, data storage and

telecommunication equipment that provides the primary function of the data centre

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 22237-1:2021, 3.1.6]
3.1.3
data centre

structure, or group of structures, dedicated to the centralized accommodation, interconnection and

operation of information technology and network telecommunications (NT) equipment providing data

storage, processing and transport services together with all the facilities and infrastructures for power

distribution and environmental control together with the necessary levels of resilience (3.1.8) and

security required to provide the desired service availability (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: A structure can consist of multiple buildings and/or spaces with specific functions to support the

primary function.
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ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)

Note 2 to entry: The boundaries of the structure or space considered the data centre which includes the

information and communication technology equipment (3.1.4) and supporting environmental controls can be

defined within a larger structure or building.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 30134-1:2016, 3.1.4]
3.1.4
information and communication technology equipment
equipment providing data storage, processing and transport services
Note 1 to entry: This represents the “critical load” of the data centre (3.1.3).
3.1.5
peak ground acceleration
maximum ground acceleration occurring during earthquake shaking at a location

Note 1 to entry: Peak ground acceleration (PGA) is equal to the amplitude of the largest absolute acceleration

recorded on an accelerogram at a site during a particular earthquake.

Note 2 to entry: Earthquake shaking generally occurs in all directions. Therefore, PGA is often split into

horizontal and vertical components. Horizontal PGAs are generally larger than those in the vertical direction, but

this is not always true, especially close to large earthquakes.

Note 3 to entry: The design basis earthquake ground motion (DBEGM) is often defined in terms of PGA.

3.1.6
probable maximum loss

ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the restoration cost (3.1.9) to the re-procurement cost (3.1.7) taking

into account the degree of earthquake risk, the stability of ground, the earthquake resistance of the

building and the earthquake resistance of the facilities
3.1.7
re-procurement cost
total cost required to reconstruct the assets damaged at the time of evaluation
3.1.8
resilience

capacity to withstand failure in one or more of the information and communication technology (ICT)

equipment or data centre (3.1.3) infrastructures
3.1.9
restoration cost
cost required to recover the damage caused by seismic activity (earthquake)
3.2 Abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms apply.
DBEGM design basis earthquake ground motion
FL liquefaction index
ICT information and communication technology
IT information technology
LPI liquefaction potential index
NT network telecommunications
PGA peak ground acceleration
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ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)
PL probability of liquefaction
PML probable maximum loss
PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene
SIS seismic intensity scale
SLA service level agreement
4 ISO/IEC 22237-1 Availability Classes

ISO/IEC 22237-1 defines four classes of overall availability of the set of facilities and infrastructures

of the data centre, described as Classes 1 to 4, which are intended to provide increasing levels of

availability.
The desired Availability Class is supported by design solutions for:
a) power supply and distribution systems (ISO/IEC 22237-3),
b) environmental control systems (ISO/IEC 22237-4),
c) telecommunications cabling infrastructure (ISO/IEC TS 22237-5).

If the data centre is to be located in a region of seismic activity, then mitigation actions are necessary in

order to maintain the desired Availability Class (but not further define it).

The intention of these actions is to provide the data centre of a desired Availability Class with aseismic

performance.
5 Overview of risk associated with seismic activity
5.1 Direct risk of seismic motion
5.1.1 Short-period ground motion

Ground motion denotes the positional change of an area of ground relative to objects or other areas of

ground nearby in both horizontal and vertical directions.

Short-period (high frequency) ground motion can cause the structural damage generally associated

with earthquakes.

A number of mitigation techniques can be employed, including rack isolators within computer room

spaces and the application of base isolation techniques for the structure accommodating the facilities

and infrastructures of the data centre.
5.1.2 Long-period ground motion

Long-period (low frequency) ground motion is motion with a period typically between 1 and 5 seconds.

This type of ground motion can occur at significant distances from an earthquake epicentre.

Long-period ground motion can cause the structural damage generally associated with earthquakes.

Mitigation techniques should be employed to support the facilities of the data centre by using base

isolation techniques.

In addition, long-period ground motion and can have unexpected consequences which are not directly

constructional. For example, fuel storage tanks subject to long-period ground motion are at risk of fire

due to “sloshing” of the fuel contained within them.
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ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)
5.1.3 Ground liquefaction

Ground liquefaction resulting from ground motion results in a significant reduction in the load-bearing

capacity of the ground. This can result in the uneven settlement (or unequal settlement) of buildings

comprising the facilities of the data centre.
5.2 Indirect risk initiated by seismic motion
5.2.1 Fire and toxic or damaging effluent

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the data centre can be affected by fire in the local areas. These fires can produce effluent

which is toxic or damaging to the equipment within the data centre.
5.2.2 Explosion

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the data centre can be affected by explosions of other facilities in the local area.

5.2.3 Flooding

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the data centre can be affected by flooding from damaged water supplies or from surges in

natural water sources.
5.2.4 Utilities
5.2.4.1 General

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the data centre can be affected by failures of utility supply including electricity, gas, water

and sewerage.
5.2.4.2 Electricity

For electrical power, data centres of Availability Class 2 and above feature design solutions to provide

an additional supply to support the primary supply (see ISO/IEC 22237-3). Following an earthquake,

the primary supply can be subject to multiple outrages and ongoing restrictions. Where the additional

supply is fuel-based then the continued supply of the fuel is critical.
5.2.4.3 Gas

Following an earthquake, damage to gas supply piping infrastructure at or in the vicinity of the data

centres (typically installed underground and subject to ground instability as described in 6.3), and also

to the gas supply facilities, can result in disruption to supply.

In addition, even if damage has not occurred, if a seismograph installed at a supply facility detects a

certain level of earthquake motion, the supply can be automatically shut down.

In both cases, the supply will not be provided until safety has been confirmed. The length of disruption

can extend from days to weeks, depending on the scale of damage and repair actions found to be

necessary.
5.2.4.4 Water

Following an earthquake, damage to water supply piping infrastructure at or in the vicinity of the data

centres (typically installed underground and subject to ground instability as described in 6.3), and

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ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)

also to the supply facilities (for water intake, water purification and water distribution) can result in

disruption to supply.

In addition, even if damage has not occurred, the primary power supply to the facilities can be disrupted.

Where a data centre relies on the continual provision of water, the alternative provision of power to

supply facilities should be assessed.

The length of disruption can extend from days to weeks, depending on the scale of damage and repair

actions found to be necessary. Extreme situations have been known to extend this period to months.

5.2.4.5 Sewerage

Following an earthquake, the impact of damage to sewerage piping infrastructure and facilities serving

the data centre should be considered to be similar to that of the water supply.
5.2.5 Access

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the roads surrounding and leading to the data centre can be damaged and even destroyed.

This can restrict access for:

a) emergency services to address events (e.g. fires) in the local area which can increase associated for

the operation of the data centre; and
b) the ongoing provision of consumables to the data centre.
5.2.6 Transport

Even if a data centre has employed mitigation measures and is unaffected structurally during an

earthquake, the road and rail infrastructure surrounding and to the data centre can be damaged

and even destroyed. In addition, local regulations can restrict the type of vehicles allowed to use that

infrastructure to emergency and authorized vehicles.

This not only affects supply of consumables to the data centre but can restrict the availability of

personnel to operate the data centre.

Even if access to the data centre is unaffected, the earthquake can reduce the availability of appropriate

vehicles e.g. a lack of fuel tankers can limit the provision of fuel for additional power supplies.

5.2.7 Security systems

Measures intended to prevent unauthorized access and intrusion across the Protection Class boundaries

of the data centre (see ISO/IEC TS 22237-6) can be damaged.
6 Seismic activity risk assessment
6.1 General

Determination of the risk and scale of seismic activity should be included as part of the overall risk

assessment approach that assesses the risks and events that potentially impact the data centre. Further

guidance in relation to the risk assessment approach can be found in ISO/IEC 22237-1.

Following the determination of the risk and scale of seismic activity, appropriate mitigation actions

should be employed.
Subclause 6.2 addresses ground motion.
Subclause 6.3 address ground stability (liquefaction).
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ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)
6.2 Ground motion

The basis of the risk assessment can be the various national and regional seismic hazard maps which

typically show the probability of an earthquake in a given geographic area, within a given time period,

and with ground motion intensity exceeding a given threshold.

The time periods and thresholds vary from country to country but are typically in the region of 30 to 50

2 2
years with PGA in the range of 0,3 g (3 m/s ) to 0,5 g (5 m/s ) respectively.

For a given earthquake, the PGA will differ for the locations affected depending on a number of

parameters, the most obvious of which is distance. Table 1 shows the range of PGA values associated

with recognized seismic intensity scales (SIS).
Table 1 — PGA and SIS
PGA 0,25 to 0,80 0,80 to 1,40 1,40 to 2,50 2,50 to 3,15 3,15 to 4,00 > 4,00
m/s
Mercalli V to VII V to VIII VI to IX VIII to X IX to X X to XII
SIS
Japanese 4 5 6 7
shindo SIS
5 lower 5 upper 6 lower 6 upper
3,5 to 3,9 4,0 to 4,4 4,5 to 4,9 5,0 to 5,4 5,5 to 5,9 6,0 to 6,4 > 6,5

A SIS is associated with the probable type of damage. Table 2 indicates the type of damage associated

with a given PGA value.
Table 2 — PGA and typical damage
PGA Impact on buildings Impact on outside spaces Impact on utilities
range

Normal buildings can receive No landslides or cracks Primary power supply can fail for a

slight damage. occur. short time.
0,25 to 0,80
Earthquake-resistant build-
ings will survive, most likely
without damage.

Cracks are formed in walls of Cracks can appear in soft Primary power supply can be inter-

normal buildings. ground. Rockfalls and small rupted.
slope failures take place.
Earthquake-resistant build- Safety devices can cut off the gas
0,80 to 1,40
ings suffer slight damage. supply.
Water pipes can be damaged and
supply interrupted.

Medium to large cracks are Cracks can appear in soft Primary power supply can be inter-

formed in walls. ground. Rockfalls and small rupted.
slope failures take place.
1,40 to 2,50
Crossbeams and pillars of Gas pipes and water mains are
earthquake-resistant build- damaged and supplies interrupted
ings can suffer cracks. in certain areas.

NOTE 1 The term "normal buildings" in this table refers to buildings without earthquake-resistant features.

NOTE 2 The PGA of 3,15 is the boundary commonly used to differentiate “damage” from “severe damage”.

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ISO/IEC TS 22237-30:2022(E)
Table 2 (continued)
PGA Impact on buildings Impact on outside spaces Impact on utilities
range

Normal buildings receive Small to medium cracks ap- Primary power supply can be inter-

heavy damage and can be pear in the ground. Larger rupted.
destroyed. landslides take place.
Gas pipes and water mains are dam-
Earthquake-resistant build- aged and there can be widespread
ings can suffer large cracks in interruption of supply.
2,50 to 3,15
walls and will be moderately
damaged.
In some buildings, wall tiles
and windowpanes are dam-
aged and fall.

Walls collapse or are severely Cracks can appear in the Primary power supply is interrupt-

damaged. Normal buildings ground, and landslides take ed.
collapse. place.
3,15 to 4,00
Gas pipes and water mains are dam-
Earthquake-resistant build- aged and there can be widespread
ings suffer severe damage. interruption of supply.

Most or all buildings suffer The ground is considerably Electrical, gas and water supplies

severe damage. distorted by large cracks are interrupted.
and fissures, and slope
> 4,00
failures and landslides take
place, which can change
topographic features.

NOTE 1 The term "normal buildings" in this table refers to buildings without earthquake-resistant features.

NOTE 2 The PGA of 3,15 is the boundary commonly used to differentiate “damage” from “severe damage”.

6.3 Ground stability

Soil liquefaction following seismic activity represents risk to buildings and other structure as shown in

the schematic of Figure 1. On stable soil, grains are held together by friction with water filling any gaps

(see Figure 1a). Shaking increases the gaps between grains, such that soil lo
...

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