Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Mechanical properties of ceramic composites at elevated temperature in air atmospheric pressure — Determination of in-plane shear strength

This document specifies a method for the determination of in-plane shear strength of continuous fibre-reinforced ceramic composites at elevated temperature in air or inert atmosphere by the asymmetric four-point bending test on double-edge notched specimens. The shear strength in plane (1,2) can be evaluated, where direction 1 is that of the greater fraction of reinforcement and direction 2 is perpendicular to direction 1. Methods for test piece fabrication, testing modes and rates (load or displacement rate), data collection and reporting procedures are addressed. This document applies to all ceramic matrix composites with continuous fibre-reinforcement: unidirectional (1D), bidirectional (2D) and tridirectional (xD, with 2 x ≤ 3). This document is for material development, material comparison, quality assurance, characterization, reliability and design data generation.

Céramiques techniques (céramiques avancées, céramiques techniques avancées) — Propriétés mécaniques des composites céramiques à température élevée sous air à pression atmosphérique — Détermination de la résistance au cisaillement dans le plan

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Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Jan-2021
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
11-Jan-2021
Completion Date
11-Jan-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19587
First edition
2021-01
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics,
advanced technical ceramics) —
Mechanical properties of ceramic
composites at elevated temperature
in air atmospheric pressure —
Determination of in-plane shear
strength
Céramiques techniques (céramiques avancées, céramiques techniques
avancées) — Propriétés mécaniques des composites céramiques
à température élevée sous air à pression atmosphérique —
Détermination de la résistance au cisaillement dans le plan
Reference number
ISO 19587:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19587:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 19587:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Significance and use .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Material orientation ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Preparation of test pieces .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.4 Failures outside gauge section .................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.5 Thin test pieces ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 Test machine ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.2 Loading devices ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Test fixture .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4 Heating apparatus ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.5 Temperature measurement ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.6 Data recording system ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.7 Dimension-measuring devices .................................................................................................................................................. 7

7 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 Test piece geometry ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.2 Test piece preparations ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Number of specimen tests ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

8 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 Test modes and rates ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1.2 Displacement rate ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1.3 Load rate ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.2 Test temperature ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9 Procedures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

9.1 Test piece dimensions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.2 Test preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3 Test implementation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3.1 Mounting of test piece on test fixture ............................................................................................................ 9

9.3.2 Heating of test piece ........................................................................................................................................... ........... 9

9.3.3 Loadings ...............................................................................................................................................................................10

9.4 Completion of testing .....................................................................................................................................................................10

9.5 Test validity .............................................................................................................................................................................................11

10 Calculation of results ....................................................................................................................................................................................11

10.1 Shear strength ......................................................................................................................................................................................11

10.2 Error calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................11

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 19587:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 206, Fine ceramics.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19587:2021(E)
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical
ceramics) — Mechanical properties of ceramic composites
at elevated temperature in air atmospheric pressure —
Determination of in-plane shear strength
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for the determination of in-plane shear strength of continuous

fibre-reinforced ceramic composites at elevated temperature in air or inert atmosphere by the

asymmetric four-point bending test on double-edge notched specimens. The shear strength in plane

(1,2) can be evaluated, where direction 1 is that of the greater fraction of reinforcement and direction

2 is perpendicular to direction 1. Methods for test piece fabrication, testing modes and rates (load or

displacement rate), data collection and reporting procedures are addressed.

This document applies to all ceramic matrix composites with continuous fibre-reinforcement:

unidirectional (1D), bidirectional (2D) and tridirectional (xD, with 2 < x ≤ 3).

This document is for material development, material comparison, quality assurance, characterization,

reliability and design data generation.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3611, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Dimensional measuring equipment: Micrometers for

external measurements — Design and metrological characteristics

ISO 7500-1, Metallic materials — Calibration and verification of static uniaxial testing machines — Part 1:

Tension/compression testing machines — Calibration and verification of the force-measuring system

ISO 19634, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Ceramic composites —

Notations and symbols

ISO 20507, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Vocabulary

IEC 60584-1, Thermocouples — Part 1: Reference tables
IEC 60584-2, Thermocouples — Part 2: Tolerances
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 19634 and ISO 20507 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 19587:2021(E)
3.1
initial gauge section
initial area of test piece between notch roots
3.2
test temperature
temperature measured at the centre of the gauge section
3.3
applied force
force applied to a test piece
3.4
shear failure force
max
maximum force required to fracture a shear-loaded test piece
3.5
shear strength
maximum shear stress which a material is capable of sustaining

Note 1 to entry: Shear strength is calculated from the shear failure force and the gauge section.

3.6
inner span
centre distance between two inner loading pins
3.7
outer span
centre distance between two outer loading pins
4 Principle

The in-plane shear strength of continuous fibre-reinforced ceramic composites, as determined by this

document, is measured by the asymmetric four-point bending test at elevated temperature in air or

inert atmosphere. According to this test, the shear strength is determined by loading a test coupon in

the form of a rectangular flat strip with symmetric, centrally located V-notches using a mechanical

testing machine and an asymmetric four-point bending fixture. Failure of the test piece occurs by shear

force between the V-notches. Schematics of the test set-up and the test piece are shown in Figures 1 and

2, respectively. The free body, bending moment and shear force diagrams by the asymmetric four-point

bending flexure are illustrated in Figure 3.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 19587:2021(E)
Key
1 lower fixture 2 upper fixture
3 loading pin 4 test piece
5 loading ball 6 lower ram
7 upper ram
Figure 1 — Schematics of asymmetric four-point bending test set-up
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 19587:2021(E)
Figure 2 — Geometry and dimensions of test piece
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 19587:2021(E)
Key
A free body diagram
B bending moment diagram
C shear force diagram

Figure 3 — Free body, bending moment and shear force diagrams of asymmetric four-point

bending
5 Significance and use
5.1 Test environment

The test environment can have an influence on the measured shear strength. In particular, the

behaviour of materials susceptible to slow-crack-growth fracture will be strongly influenced by the test

environment and testing rate. Testing to evaluate the maximum strength potential of a material shall

be conducted in inert environments, at sufficiently rapid testing rates or both, so as to minimize slow-

crack-growth effects. Conversely, testing can be conducted in environments and testing modes and

rates representative of service conditions to evaluate material performance under those conditions.

When testing is conducted in uncontrolled ambient air with the objective of evaluating maximum

strength potential, water partial pressure and temperature shall be monitored and reported, if the

tested materials are sensitive to these parameters.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 19587:2021(E)
5.2 Material orientation
In this method, the shear streng
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 19587
ISO/TC 206
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics,
Secretariat: JISC
advanced technical ceramics) —
Voting begins on:
2020­10­16 Mechanical properties of ceramic
composites at elevated temperature
Voting terminates on:
2020­12­11
in air atmospheric pressure —
Determination of in-plane shear
strength
Céramiques techniques (céramiques avancées, céramiques techniques
avancées) — Propriétés mécaniques des composites céramiques
à température élevée sous air à pression atmosphérique —
Détermination de la résistance au cisaillement dans le plan
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 19587:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19587:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19587:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Significance and use .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Material orientation ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Preparation of test pieces .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.4 Failures outside gauge section .................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.5 Thin test pieces ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 Test machine ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.2 Loading devices ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Test fixture .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.4 Heating apparatus ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.5 Temperature measurement ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.6 Data recording system ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.7 Dimension­measuring devices .................................................................................................................................................. 7

7 Test pieces ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 Test piece geometry ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.2 Test piece preparations ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Number of specimen tests ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

8 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 Test modes and rates ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1.2 Displacement rate ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1.3 Load rate ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.2 Test temperature ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9 Procedures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

9.1 Test piece dimensions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.2 Test preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3 Test implementation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3.1 Mounting of test piece on test fixture ............................................................................................................ 9

9.3.2 Heating of test piece ........................................................................................................................................... ........... 9

9.3.3 Loadings ...............................................................................................................................................................................10

9.4 Completion of testing .....................................................................................................................................................................10

9.5 Test validity .............................................................................................................................................................................................11

10 Calculation of results ....................................................................................................................................................................................11

10.1 Shear strength ......................................................................................................................................................................................11

10.2 Error calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................11

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19587:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 206, Fine ceramics.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 19587:2020(E)
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical
ceramics) — Mechanical properties of ceramic composites
at elevated temperature in air atmospheric pressure —
Determination of in-plane shear strength
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for the determination of in-plane shear strength of continuous

fibre-reinforced ceramic composites at elevated temperature in air or inert atmosphere by the

asymmetric four-point bending test on double-edge notched specimens. The shear strength in plane

(1,2) can be evaluated, where direction 1 is that of the greater fraction of reinforcement and direction

2 is perpendicular to direction 1. Methods for test piece fabrication, testing modes and rates (load or

displacement rate), data collection and reporting procedures are addressed.

This document applies to all ceramic matrix composites with continuous fibre-reinforcement:

unidirectional (1D), bidirectional (2D) and tridirectional (xD, with 2 < x ≤ 3).

This document is for material development, material comparison, quality assurance, characterization,

reliability and design data generation.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3611, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Dimensional measuring equipment: Micrometers for

external measurements — Design and metrological characteristics

ISO 7500­1, Metallic materials — Calibration and verification of static uniaxial testing machines — Part 1:

Tension/compression testing machines — Calibration and verification of the force-measuring system

ISO 19634, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Ceramic composites —

Notations and symbols

ISO 20507, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Vocabulary

IEC 60584­1, Thermocouples - Part 1: Reference tables
IEC 60584­2, Thermocouples. Part 2: Tolerances
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 19634 and ISO 20507 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19587:2020(E)
3.1
initial gauge section
initial area of test piece between notch roots
3.2
test temperature
temperature measured at the centre of the gauge section
3.3
applied force
force applied to a test piece
3.4
shear failure force
max
maximum force required to fracture a shear-loaded test piece
3.5
shear strength
maximum shear stress which a material is capable of sustaining

Note 1 to entry: Shear strength is calculated from the shear failure force and the gauge section.

3.6
inner span
centre distance between two inner loading pins
3.7
outer span
centre distance between two outer loading pins
4 Principle

The in-plane shear strength of continuous fibre-reinforced ceramic composites, as determined by this

document, is measured by the asymmetric four-point bending test at elevated temperature in air or

inert atmosphere. According to this test, the shear strength is determined by loading a test coupon in

the form of a rectangular flat strip with symmetric, centrally located V-notches using a mechanical

testing machine and an asymmetric four-point bending fixture. Failure of the test piece occurs by shear

force between the V­notches. Schematics of the test set­up and the test piece are shown in Figures 1 and

2, respectively. The free body, bending moment and shear force diagrams by the asymmetric four-point

bending flexure are illustrated in Figure 3.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19587:2020(E)
Key
1 lower fixture 2 upper fixture
3 loading pin 4 test piece
5 loading ball 6 lower ram
7 upper ram
Figure 1 — Schematics of asymmetric four-point bending test set-up
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19587:2020(E)
Figure 2 — Geometry and dimensions of test piece
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 19587:2020(E)
Key
A free body diagram
B bending moment diagram
C shear force diagram

Figure 3 — Free body, bending moment and shear force diagrams of asymmetric four-point

bending
5 Significance and use
5.1 Test environment

The test environment can have an influence on the measured shear strength. In particular, the

behaviour of materials susceptible to slow-crack-growth fracture will be strongly influenced by the test

environment and testing rate. Testing to evaluate the maximum strength potential of a material shall

be conducted in inert environments, at sufficiently rapid testing rates or both, so as to minimize slow-

crack-growth effects. Conversely, testing can be conducted in environments and testing modes and

rates representative of service conditions to evaluate material performance under those conditions.

When testing is conducted in uncontrolled ambient air with the objective of evaluating maximum

strength potential, water partial pressu
...

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