Information technology — Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) — Part 8: Session-based DASH operations

This document specifies the format of the Session-Based Description document and the MPD's extension to be used in session-based operations with MPEG DASH (ISO/IEC 23009-1).

Technologies de l'information — Diffusion adaptative dynamique sur HTTP (DASH) — Partie 8: Opérations de DASH basées sur la session

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14-Feb-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 23009-8
First edition
2022-02
Information technology — Dynamic
adaptive streaming over HTTP
(DASH) —
Part 8:
Session-based DASH operations
Technologies de l'information — Diffusion adaptative dynamique sur
HTTP (DASH) —
Partie 8: Opérations de DASH basées sur la session
Reference number
ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
© ISO/IEC 2022
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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and notations ................................................................................................. 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

3.3 Notation ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4 General overview ................................................................................................................................................................................................3

4.1 Sessions and session parameters........................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 General architecture ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Timeline and orderline addressing ...................................................................................................................................... 4

5 MPD signalling for SBD ........................................................................................................................................... .......................................4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 SBD descriptor ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2.2 Semantics .................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.3 XML schema ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 SBD document format ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 KeyValue Object ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.1 Semantics .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.2.2 JSON schema ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Client operation .................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 Normative requirements ............................................................................................................................................................13

7.2 Processing model (informative) ........................................................................................................................................... 13

7.2.1 Building SBD timeline/orderline table ......................................................................................................... 13

7.2.2 Parameter value derivation ................................................................................................................................. 14

7.2.3 Segment request .............................................................................................................................................................. 14

8 Examples ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14

8.2 MPD ........................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................... 14

8.3 Session-based description document .............................................................................................................................. 15

8.3.1 Example 1: Timeline .....................................................................................................................................................15

8.3.2 Example 2: Orderline ...................................................................................................................................................15

8.4 Operation .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 16

9 Example applications – Forensic watermarking ............................................................................................................16

Annex A SBD MIME type ..............................................................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

iii
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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https://patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 29, Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 23009 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
Introduction

Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) enables media-streaming model for delivery of

media content in which control lies exclusively with the client. Clients may request data using the

HTTP protocol from standard web servers that have no DASH-specific capabilities. Consequently, the

ISO/IEC 23009 series focuses not on client or server procedures but on the data formats used to provide

a DASH Media Presentation.

This document provides methods, interfaces and data for session-based operations to be used with the

DASH standard. Session-based operations allows customization of requested segment URLs based on

the information provided for a specific streaming session.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
Information technology — Dynamic adaptive streaming
over HTTP (DASH) —
Part 8:
Session-based DASH operations
1 Scope

This document specifies the format of the Session-Based Description document and the MPD's extension

to be used in session-based operations with MPEG DASH (ISO/IEC 23009-1).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 23009-1:2019, Information technology — Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) —

Part 1: Media presentation description and segment formats
IETF RFC 7230, Hypertext Transfer Protocol — HTTP/1.1, June 2014
IETF RFC 3986, Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, January 2005

IETF RFC 8259, The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format, December 2017

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and notations
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
SBDStart
starting time of the session-based description
3.1.2
session
sequence of DASH client actions resulting in a unique playback of a media asset
3.1.3
session-based description

collection of timed key-value pairs providing a value given a time range within the session

3.1.4
session-based client

client capable of parsing SBD and adding queries to the DASH segment requests accordingly

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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
3.1.5
sidecar document

document that stores data which is not supported by the format of the main document

3.2 Abbreviated terms
DASH dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP, as specified in ISO/IEC 23009-1
HTTP hypertext transfer protocol, as specified in RFC 7230 (HTTP/1.1).
HTTPS secure version of the hypertext transfer protocol
ISO-BMFF ISO Base Media File Format, as specified in ISO/IEC 14496-12
MIME multipurpose internet mail extensions, as specified in RFC 6838
MPD media presentation description, as specified in ISO/IEC 23009-1
SBD session-based description, as defined in this document
URI uniform resource identifier
URL uniform resource locator
URN uniform resource name
3.3 Notation
This document follows the notation used in ISO/IEC 23009-1.
The following naming conventions apply in this document:

— Elements in an XML document are identified by an upper-case first letter and in boldface as Element.

To express that an element Element1 is contained in another element Element2, the following

format is used: Element2.Element1. If an element's name consists of two or more combined words,

PascalCase is typically used, e.g. ImportantElement. Elements may be present either exactly once, or

the minimum and maximum occurrence as defined by ... .

— Attributes in an XML document are identified by a lower-case first letter and they are preceded

by an '@'-sign, e.g. @attribute. To point to a specific attribute @attribute contained in an element

Element, one may write Element@attribute. If an attribute's name consists of two or more combined

words, camelCase is typically used after the first word, e.g. @veryImportantAttribute. Attributes

may have assigned a status in the XML as mandatory (M), optional (O), optional with a default value

(OD), and conditionally mandatory (CM).

— Namespace qualification of elements and attributes is used as per XML standards, in the form of

namespace:Element or @namespace:attribute. The fully qualified namespace is provided in the

schema fragment associated with the declaration. External specifications extending the namespace

of DASH are expected to document the element name in the semantic table with an extension

namespace prefix.

— JSON items are identified by a lower-case first letter. If an item consists of two or more combined

words, camel-casing is typically used.

— Variables defined in the context of this document are specifically highlighted with italics, e.g.,

InternalVariable.

— The term "this clause" refers to the entire clause included within the same first heading number.

The term "this subclause" refers to all text contained in the subclause with the lowest hierarchy

heading.
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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
4 General overview
4.1 Sessions and session parameters

While the DASH viewing session per client is a unique interaction, the MPD is often cached on the Content

Delivery Network (CDN) and shared by multiple viewing sessions of the same asset. The session-based

description mechanism allows adding session-specific elements to segment URLs without generating

unique per-session MPDs.

Session parameter strings are strings pertaining to a specific time range on the timeline. These strings

are parsed by the Session-based description client and are translated into parameters to be added to

HTTP segment request(s) issued by the DASH client.

A Session-Based description Document (SBD) includes the time ranges and the corresponding strings,

along with additional metadata. The SBD is referenced in the MPD by its URL. This clause describes the

overall SBD data model.

For example, let parameters "p1" and "p2" to be expected carrying information in the query part of the

segment request URL. For time range 00:00:00-00:00:42, the "p1" value is "foo" and the "p2" value is 42.

For the time range 00:00:42-00:04:20, "p1" is "bar" and "p2" is 420. In the case of two-second segments,

the first 21 segments would include "p1=foo&p2=42" as a part of their URL query parameters, and the

following 109 segments would include "p1=bar&p2=420" as a part of the segment URL in the HTTP GET

request.

The information carried in SBD can be conceptually presented in a table with each row corresponding

to a time range, and each column corresponding to one named parameter. Table 1 demonstrates the

conceptual layout of SBD carrying the information for the above example.
Table 1 — Conceptual sidecar document layout
Start time p1 p2
00:00:00 foo 42
00:00:42 bar 420
00:04:20 null null
4.2 General architecture
Figure 1 shows the general architecture for session-based DASH operations.
Figure 1 — High-level architecture of session-based DASH operations.
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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)

In this figure, the media content is described by MPD, and the corresponding media segments are

delivered in the media delivery path. MPD also has a reference to an external document, Session-Based

Description (SBD) document, which defines the variables and their values for the current session. SBD

is parsed and interpreted by an SBD client.

This SBD client is conceptually a simple timed key-value store. It accepts requests for a named variable

value given a time range and returns a string value.

The DASH client uses the variables and the associated values provided in the SBD to derive an added

part to the segment URL’s query when the segment is requested using HTTP GET.

Note that there may be multiple session controllers controlling multiple aspects of the session, each of

which providing one SBD document (e.g., one controlling forensic watermarking and another controlling

access tokens).

Note This document does not preclude the use of newer versions of HTTP, such as HTTP/2, as this document

only relies on the existence of the GET method.
4.3 Timeline and orderline addressing

The SBD document may conceptually include one or more tables, each containing the key-value pair

assignments for different time intervals, as shown in Table 2.
Table 2 — An example of SBD timing table
Start time k k … k
1 2 n
t v v … v
1 1,1 1,2 1,n
t v v … v
2 2,1 2,2 2,n
… … … … …
t v v … v
m m,1 m,2 m,n

In Table 2, t indicates the moment i in the media timeline, and (k , v ) are the key-value pair j for time

i j i,j
interval (t , t ).
i i+1

Alternatively, The SBD document may conceptually include one or more tables, each containing the key-

value pair information for segments order as shown in Table 3.
Table 3 — An example of SBD order table
Order k k … k
1 2 n
n v v … v
1 1,1 1,2 1,n
n v v … v
2 2,1 2,2 2,n
… … … … …
n v v … v
m m,1 m,2 m,n

In Table 3, n indicates segment i and (k , v ) are the key-value pair j for all segments from segment i to

i j i,j
segment i + 1 but not including segment i + 1.
5 MPD signalling for SBD
5.1 General

To signal the session-based information in the DASH manifest, a descriptor is defined in this clause.

This descriptor shall be used in MPD, ISO/IEC 23009-1.
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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
5.2 SBD descriptor
5.2.1 General

An SBD descriptor is an EssentialProperty descriptor with URN “urn: mpeg: dash: sbd: 2020” as its @

schemeIdUri and may contain one or more KeyList elements, as is shown in Table 4.

5.2.2 Semantics
Table 4 — MPD EssentialProperty Descriptor attributes for session-based DASH
Element or Attribute Name Use Description
EssentialProperty
instantiation of EssentialProperty (defined in ISO/IEC 23009-
1) for session-based DASH operations
@schemeIdUri
M (string) shall be set to “urn: mpeg: dash: sbd: 2020”.
@value
M (string) URL of the SBD document for this session
@template
O template for applying to the key-value pair found in SBD
document. When the value of a Key@name in the @template is
found in the SBD document, its corresponding key-value pair
of SBD document shall replace the string between unescaped
‘$’ characters in the @template.
The @template value shall have no whitespace characters.
If absent, Key@name and its corresponding value in the SBD
document, separated by ‘=’, shall be added to the end of the
query, where each consecutive key-value pairs are separated
by ‘&’. The order of key-value pairs in the query is defined by
the order of Key elements in this descriptor.
Key
1..N a key name to be found in SBD document and its default value.
If absent, all keys and corresponding values in the correspond-
ing keyList of the SBD document shall be added to the (sub)
segment request URL query.
@name
M Name of the key of the SBD document to be added to the que-
ries for this session after processing described by @template.
This value shall be a string without whitespaces, start with a
letter, and contain only unreserved characters per RFC 3986.
If @name value does not appear in the keyList of SBD document,
the @name v a lue - @ defaultValue value pair shall be used in
the template or in the absence of the template.
@defaultValue
OD default value in key-value pair if @name value not found in SBD
document or if there is no value defined for a requested time
(‘null’)
range or segment number in the SBD document.
Key:

For attributes: M=Mandatory, O=Optional, OD=Optional with Default Value, CM=Conditionally Mandatory.

For elements: ... (N=unbounded)
Elements are bold; attributes are non-bold and preceded with an @.

The above EssentialProperty element may appear at one or more levels for the MPD hierarchical data

model, one or more times.

NOTE Adding parameterized queries to SBD URL can be achieved by using ISO/IEC 23009-1:2019, Annex I.

5.2.3 XML schema
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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)


xmlns:sbd="urn:mpeg:dash:sbd:2020" targetNamespace="urn:mpeg:dash:s
bd:2020" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified">








A electronic copy of the XML schema is provided at https:// standards .iso .org/ iso -iec/ 23009/ -8/ ed -1/

en.
6 SBD document format
6.1 Overview

SBD document is a sidecar document using the JSON format and shall conform to IETF RFC 8259. It

consists of a sequence of one or more KeyValue objects, which are defined in subclause 6.2.

This Clause defines the syntax of the document and provides a normative schema in subclause 6.2.2.

This schema uses the JSON Schema notation available at https:// tools .ietf .org/ html/ draft -bhutton -json

-schema -00.

The SBD document has MIME type application/dash-sbd+json normatively defined in Annex A.

6.2 KeyValue Object
6.2.1 Semantics

The KeyValue object defines one timing or order table in the SBD document, as shown in Table 5. The

timeline and orderline are array of objects. The semantics of these objects are described in Table 6

and Table 7, respectively.
Table 5 — KeyValue semantics
Element or Attribute Name Use Description
KeyValue
provides information on a single key-value pair in the query
string.
Key:

M=Mandatory, O=Optional, OD=Optional with Default Value, CM=Conditionally Mandatory.

JSON objects are bold; name-value pairs are non-bold.
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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
Table 5 (continued)
Element or Attribute Name Use Description
keylist
M (array of list of unique key names of key-value properties described
strings) in this element. Each key name shall be a string without
whitespaces, start with a letter, and contain only unreserved
characters per RFC 3986.
comment
O (string) a human-readable comment about this KeyValue
timescale
OD (integer) timescale in ticks per second for the @s and @d attributes.
Default value is 1 (i.e., by default, v@d is in seconds).
Default: 1
type
OD (string) possible values: “dynamic” , “static”
Default: “static”: the SBD document and its values shall not change
“static” during the streaming session.
“dynamic”: the SBD document and its value may be updated
every ttl seconds.
ttl
CM (integer) the minimum guaranteed duration in seconds that the dynamic
SBD is not updated.
This attribute shall not be present when “type”: “static”.
starttime
O (integer) anchor for the starting time of SBD (SBDStart) in NTP time.
This attribute shall not be present for MPD@type=’static’.
If absent, SBDStart is obtained as the following:
— If the SBD descriptor is included in the MPD element, the
anchor is MPD@availabilityStartTime.
— If the SBD descriptor is included in a Period’s element,
the anchor is the PeriodStart.
duration
O (integer) duration (in seconds) to which SBD is applied. If not present,
Timeline or Orderline elements will define the duration. If
present, the Timeline or Orderline outside of this duration
is ignored.
loop
OD (boolean) for value “true”, after running out of all Timeline or Orderline
elements, the new set of Timeline or Orderline element(s) is
Default:
added by repeating the same element until the session ends,
‘false’
i.e., all the remaining segment requests of the session shall
have query according to this element.
for value “false”, if the Timeline or Orderline element(s)
ends before the end of the session, no query is added to the
remaining segment requests in the session.
Timeline
array of values with their time values.
objects
Either Timeline or Orderline shall be present but not both.
Orderline
array of values with their order values.
objects
Either Timeline or Orderline shall be present but not both.
This item shall not be present when MPD@type=’dynamic’.
Key:

M=Mandatory, O=Optional, OD=Optional with Default Value, CM=Conditionally Mandatory.

JSON objects are bold; name-value pairs are non-bold.
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ISO/IEC 23009-8:2022(E)
Table 6 — timeline element semantics
Element or Attribute Name Use Description
CM (array of list of values in order matching their names in keylist ,
string) separated by white space. Default value is specified in Key@
defaultValue attribute.
Each value shall contain only unrestricted characters per
RFC 3986 Section 2.2. Namely, the permitted characters are
uppercase and lowercase letters, decimal digits, hyphen,
period, underscore, and tilde.
CM (integer) start of the time range to which the value applies. The anchor
of this time is the SBDStart parameter. SBDStart is obtained
as defined in starttime semantics.
Mandatory unless V@n addressing is used.
Only one of s or n attributes may be present, but not both.
CM (integer) starting number of the (sub)segment to which the value applies,
i.e for “n”:”5”, the first 4 (sub)segments are skipped and the
fifth (sub)segment is the starting (sub)segment.
If absent, the starting (sub)segment is the first (sub)segment
in corresponding MPD or Period element, dependi
...

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