Traditional Chinese medicine -- Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit

This document specifies the minimum requirements and test methods for Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit, which is derived from the plant of Lycium barbarum L. or Lycium chinense Mill. It is applicable to Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit that is sold and used as herbal raw materials in the international trade, including unprocessed and traditionally processed materials.

Médecine traditionnelle chinoise -- Baie de goji (baie de Lycium barbarum et de Lycium chinense)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Aug-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
10-Jul-2020
Completion Date
09-Jul-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23193
First edition
2020-08
Traditional Chinese medicine — Lycium
barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit
Médecine traditionnelle chinoise — Baie de goji (baie de Lycium
barbarum et de Lycium chinense)
Reference number
ISO 23193:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23193:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23193:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Descriptions .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Morphological features .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.1 Appearance ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.2 Colour ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1.3 Dimensions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.4 Fracture .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.5 Odour ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Microscopic characteristics .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Moisture ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.4 Total ash ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.5 Acid-insoluble ash ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.6 Water-soluble extractives .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.7 Thin-layer chromatogram (TLC) identification .......................................................................................................... 6

5.8 Content of polysaccharide ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.9 Content of marker compound .................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.10 Heavy metals ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.11 Pesticide residues ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.12 Sulfur dioxide residues .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Test methods ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.1 Macroscopic identification ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Determination of moisture content ...................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Determination of total ash content........................................................................................................................................ 7

7.4 Determination of acid-insoluble ash content ............................................................................................................... 7

7.5 Determination of water-solution extractives content ........................................................................................... 7

7.6 TLC identification ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.7 Determination of polysaccharide content ....................................................................................................................... 7

7.8 Determination of marker compound content .............................................................................................................. 7

7.9 Determination of heavy metals contents ......................................................................................................................... 7

7.10 Determination of pesticide residues contents ............................................................................................................. 7

7.11 Determination of sulfur dioxide residues contents ................................................................................................. 8

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9 Packaging, storage and transportation ......................................................................................................................................... 8

10 Marking and labelling ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Determination of water-soluble extractives ................................................................................... 9

Annex B (informative) TLC identification .....................................................................................................................................................10

Annex C (informative) Determination of polysaccharide content ......................................................................................11

Annex D (informative) Determination of betaine content ..........................................................................................................13

Annex E (informative) Reference values of national and regional limits of moisture,

total ash, water-soluble extractives, polysaccharides, betaine contents in Lycium

barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit ............................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23193:2020(E)

Annex F (informative) Reference information and methods for differentiating Lycium

barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill........................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23193:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 249, Traditional Chinese medicine.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 23193:2020(E)
Introduction

Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit, commonly called Lycium fruit or Lycii Fructus, is the dried

fruit of Lycium barbarum Linné or Lycium chinense Mill. (Fam. Solanaceae). Lycium fruit was firstly

recorded in the book ‘Divine Farmer’s Classic of Materia Medica’, and it has a long history in China, Korea,

Japan and other Southeast Asian nations, where it is used to nourish the liver and kidneys and replenish

essence to improve vision. Clinically, owing to its medicinal properties, it plays an important role in the

treatment of diseases such as immune suppression, cancer and diabetic retinopathy.

Additionally, Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit, with its sweet taste and warming property,

is widely used in functional food and cosmetics. Lycium fruit and its finished products also have a

very high reputation worldwide for their effectiveness, and account for a large market share in the

international trade of Chinese herbal medicines.

Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit is widely cultivated in the northwest of China, Korea and

Canada, among other places. However, the quality of Lycium fruit provided from different areas or by

different cultivators is quite different. In addition, though Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit

has been recorded in several pharmacopeia and standards, specifications and quality requirements

in these standards vary. Thus, there is a clear and urgent need to develop an international standard

for harmonizing the existing standards, as well as ensuring the safety and effectiveness of Lycium

barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit.

As national implementation may differ, national standards bodies are invited to modify the values

given in 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.8 and Clause 9 in their national standards. Examples of national and regional

values are given in Annex E.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23193:2020(E)
Traditional Chinese medicine — Lycium barbarum and
Lycium chinense fruit
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum requirements and test methods for Lycium barbarum and Lycium

chinense fruit, which is derived from the plant of Lycium barbarum L. or Lycium chinense Mill.

It is applicable to Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit that is sold and used as herbal raw

materials in the international trade, including unprocessed and traditionally processed materials.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1575, Tea — Determination of total ash
ISO 1577, Tea — Determination of acid-insoluble ash

ISO 18664, Traditional Chinese Medicine — Determination of heavy metals in herbal medicines used in

Traditional Chinese Medicine
ISO 20409, Traditional Chinese medicine — Panax notoginseng root and rhizome

ISO 21371, Traditional Chinese medicine — Labelling requirements of products intended for oral or topical use

ISO 22258, Traditional Chinese medicine — Determination of pesticide residues in natural products by gas

chromatography

ISO 22590, Traditional Chinese medicine — Determination of sulfur dioxide in natural products by titration

World Health Organization Quality control methods for herbal materials, 2011
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
Lycium barbarum fruit
dried ripe fruit of Lycium barbarum L. (Fam. Solanaceae)
3.2
Lycium chinense fruit
dried ripe fruit of Lycium chinense Mill. (Fam. Solanaceae)
3.3
batch

samples collected from the same particular place at the same time, of no more than 1 000 kg

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 23193:2020(E)
3.4
final sample
samples for the test required in this document

Note 1 to entry: Final samples may be packed in different materials meeting conditions for specific tests (e.g.

moisture or total ash).
4 Descriptions

The structure of Lycium barbarum L., Lycium chinense Mill. and the dried ripe fruit are shown in Figure 1.

Different features such as leaves, flowers and fruits in Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill.,

and methods for differentiating these two species, are given in Annex F.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 23193:2020(E)
a) Plant of Lycium barbarum L. b) Plant of Lycium Chinese Mill.

c) Dried ripe fruits (upper: Lycium barbarum fruit; lower: Lycium chinense fruit)

Key
1 fruit spur 5 pistil
2 flower 6 pistil stalk scar
3 corolla expended to show stamens 7 fruit stalk scar
4 stamen
Figure 1 — Structure of Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 23193:2020(E)
5 Requirements
5.1 Morphological features
5.1.1 Appearance

The fruit is nearly fusiform or elliptical. Pericarp is soft and externally roughly wrinkled. Sarcocarp is

pulpy, soft and tender.
5.1.2 Colour

The external surface is red or dark red with a pistil stalk scar (6) at the apex and a white fruit stalk scar

(7) at the base, as in Figure 1 c).
5.1.3 Dimensions

The fruit is 6 mm to 20 mm in length measured from the base to the end of the fruit and 3 mm to 10 mm

in diameter measured at the base of the fruit.
5.1.4 Fracture

20 to 50 seeds are present inside one fruit, kidney-shaped and nearly flat, ca. 2 mm; the external surface

of the seeds is pale yellow or yellowish brown in the fruit of Lycium barbarum L., while the seeds in

one fruit of Lycium chinense Mill. are numerous, kidney-shaped and nearly flat, 2,5 mm to 3 mm; the

external surface colour of the seeds is yellow.
5.1.5 Odour

The odour is slight, and the taste is at first sweet and then slightly bitter for Lycium chinense fruit, and

sweet and not bitter for Lycium barbarum fruit.
5.2 Microscopic characteristics

See Figure 2. The powder is yellowish-orange or reddish-brown. Epidermal cells of outer pericarp (1)

are polygonal or elongated-polygonal, about 60 μm in diameter, with straight or slightly wavy walls,

covered with a thick cuticle, with distinct, more-or-less parallel striations. Parenchymatous cells of

mesocarp (2) are thin-walled subpolygonal, containing reddish-orange or brownish-red spherical

aleurone granules (3). Fragments of starchy endosperm cells (4) contain oil droplets. Stone cells of testa

(5) are irregular polygonal, with distinct striations, thickened or slightly wavy walls.

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 23193:2020(E)
Key
1 epidermal cells of outer pericarp
2 parenchymatous cells of mesocarp
3 aleurone granu
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23193
ISO/TC 249
Traditional Chinese medicine — Lycium
Secretariat: SAC
barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit
Voting begins on:
2020­05­08
Médecine traditionnelle chinoise — Baie de goji (baie de Lycium
barbarum et de Lycium chinense)
Voting terminates on:
2020­07­03
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 23193:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23193:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23193:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Descriptions .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Morphological features .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.1 Appearance ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.2 Colour ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1.3 Dimensions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.4 Fracture .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.5 Odour ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Microscopic characteristics .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Moisture ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.4 Total ash ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.5 Acid­insoluble ash ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.6 Water-soluble extractives .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.7 Thin-layer chromatogram (TLC) identification .......................................................................................................... 6

5.8 Content of polysaccharide ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.9 Content of marker compound .................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.10 Heavy metals ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.11 Pesticide residues ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.12 Sulfur dioxide residues .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Test methods ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.1 Macroscopic identification ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Determination of moisture content ...................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Determination of total ash content........................................................................................................................................ 7

7.4 Determination of acid­insoluble ash content ............................................................................................................... 7

7.5 Determination of water-solution extractives content ........................................................................................... 7

7.6 TLC identification ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.7 Determination of polysaccharide content ....................................................................................................................... 7

7.8 Determination of marker compound content .............................................................................................................. 7

7.9 Determination of heavy metals contents ......................................................................................................................... 7

7.10 Determination of pesticide residues contents ............................................................................................................. 7

7.11 Determination of sulfur dioxide residues contents ................................................................................................. 8

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9 Packaging, storage and transportation ......................................................................................................................................... 8

10 Marking and labelling ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Determination of water-soluble extractives ................................................................................... 9

Annex B (informative) TLC identification .....................................................................................................................................................10

Annex C (informative) Determination of polysaccharide content ......................................................................................11

Annex D (informative) Determination of betaine content ..........................................................................................................13

Annex E (informative) Reference values of national and regional limits of moisture,

total ash, water-soluble extractives, polysaccharides, betaine contents in Lycium

barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit ............................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23193:2020(E)

Annex F (informative) Reference information and methods for differentiating Lycium

barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill........................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23193:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 249, Traditional Chinese medicine.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23193:2020(E)
Introduction

Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit, commonly called Lycium fruit or Lycii Fructus, is the dried

fruit of Lycium barbarum Linné or Lycium chinense Mill. (Fam. Solanaceae). Lycium fruit was firstly

recorded in the book ‘Divine Farmer’s Classic of Materia Medica’, and it has a long history in China, Korea,

Japan and other Southeast Asian nations, where it is used to nourish the liver and kidneys and replenish

essence to improve vision. Clinically, owing to its medicinal properties, it plays an important role in the

treatment of diseases such as immune suppression, cancer and diabetic retinopathy.

Additionally, Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit, with its sweet taste and warming property,

is widely used in functional food and cosmetics. Lycium fruit and its finished products also have a

very high reputation worldwide for their effectiveness, and account for a large market share in the

international trade of Chinese herbal medicines.

Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit is widely cultivated in the northwest of China, Korea and

Canada, among other places. However, the quality of Lycium fruit provided from different areas or by

different cultivators is quite different. In addition, though Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit

has been recorded in several pharmacopeia and standards, specifications and quality requirements

in these standards vary. Thus, there is a clear and urgent need to develop an international standard

for harmonizing the existing standards, as well as ensuring the safety and effectiveness of Lycium

barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit.

As national implementation may differ, national standards bodies are invited to modify the values

given in 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.8 and Clause 9 in their national standards. Examples of national and regional

values are given in Annex E.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23193:2020(E)
Traditional Chinese medicine — Lycium barbarum and
Lycium chinense fruit
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum requirements and test methods for Lycium barbarum and Lycium

chinense fruit, which is derived from the plant of Lycium barbarum L. or Lycium chinense Mill.

It is applicable to Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit that is sold and used as herbal raw

materials in the international trade, including unprocessed and traditionally processed materials.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1575, Tea — Determination of total ash
ISO 1577, Tea — Determination of acid-insoluble ash

ISO 18664, Traditional Chinese Medicine — Determination of heavy metals in herbal medicines used in

Traditional Chinese Medicine
ISO 20409, Traditional Chinese medicine — Panax notoginseng root and rhizome

ISO 21371, Traditional Chinese medicine — Labelling requirements of products intended for oral or topical use

ISO 22258, Traditional Chinese medicine — Determination of pesticide residues in natural products by GC

ISO 22590, Traditional Chinese medicine — Determination of sulfur dioxide in natural products by

titration
World Health Organization Quality control methods for herbal materials, 2011
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
Lycium barbarum fruit
dried ripe fruit of Lycium barbarum L. (Fam. Solanaceae)
3.2
Lycium chinense fruit
dried ripe fruit of Lycium chinense Mill. (Fam. Solanaceae)
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/FDIS 22258:2020.
2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 22590:2020.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23193:2020(E)
3.3
batch

samples collected from the same particular place at the same time, of no more than 1 000 kg

3.4
final sample
samples for the test required in this document

Note 1 to entry: Final samples may be packed in different materials meeting conditions for specific tests (e.g.

moisture or total ash).
4 Descriptions

The structure of Lycium barbarum L., Lycium chinense Mill. and the dried ripe fruit are shown in Figure 1.

Different features such as leaves, flowers and fruits in Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill.,

and methods for differentiating these two species, are given in Annex F.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23193:2020(E)
a) Plant of Lycium barbarum L. b) Plant of Lycium Chinese Mill.

c) Dried ripe fruits (upper: Lycium barbarum fruit; lower: Lycium chinense fruit)

Key
1 fruit spur
2 flower
3 corolla expended to show stamens
4 stamen
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23193:2020(E)
5 pistil
6 pistil stalk scar
7 fruit stalk scar
Figure 1 — Structure of Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruit
5 Requirements
5.1 Morphological features
5.1.1 Appearance

The fruit is nearly fusiform or elliptical. Pericarp is soft and externally roughly wrinkled. Sarcocarp is

pulpy, soft and tender.
5.1.2 Colour

The external surface is red or dark red with a pistil stalk scar (6) at the apex and a white fruit stalk scar

(7) at the base, as in Figure 1 c).
5.1.3 Dimensions

The fruit is 6 mm to 20 mm in length measured from the base to the end of the fruit and 3 mm to 10 mm

in diameter measured at the base of the fruit.
5.1.4 Fracture

20 to 50 seeds are present inside one fruit, kidney-shaped and nearly flat, ca. 2 mm; the external surface

of the seeds is pale yellow or yellowish brown in the fruit of Lycium barbarum L., while the seeds in

one fruit of Lycium chinense Mill. are numerous, kidney-shaped and nearly flat, 2,5 mm to 3 mm; the

external surface colour of the seeds is yellow.
5.1.5 Odour

The odour is slight, and the taste is at first sweet and then slightly bitter for Lycium chinense fruit, and

sweet and not bitter for Lycium barbarum fruit.
5.2 Microscopic characteristics

See Figure 2. The powder is yellowish­orange or reddish­brown. Epidermal cells of outer pericarp (1)

are polygonal or elongated-polygonal, about 60 μm in diameter, with straight or slightly wavy walls,

covered with a thick cuticle, with distinct, more­or­less parallel striations. Parenchymatous cells of

mesocarp (2) are thin­walled subpolygonal, containing reddish­orange or brownish­red spherical

aleurone granules (3). Fragments of starch
...

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