Smart community infrastructures — Review of existing activities relevant to metrics

ISO/TR 37150:2014 provides a review of existing activities relevant to metrics for smart community infrastructures. In ISO/TR 37150:2014, the concept of smartness is addressed in terms of performance relevant to technologically implementable solutions, in accordance with sustainable development and resilience of communities, as defined in ISO/TC 268. ISO/TR 37150:2014 addresses community infrastructures such as energy, water, transportation, waste and information and communications technology (ICT). It focuses on the technical aspects of existing activities which have been published, implemented or discussed. Economic, political or societal aspects are not analyzed in ISO/TR 37150:2014. NOTE ISO/TR 37150:2014 is not a recommendation document for best practices. Although sustainability objectives have been considered, the main subject of ISO/TR 37150:2014 is the analysis of existing methodologies for smart community infrastructures.

Infrastructures communautaires intelligentes — Revue des activités existantes applicables à la métrique

L'ISO/TR 37150:2014 fournit un examen des activités existantes relatives à la mesure des infrastructures communautaires intelligentes. Dans l'ISO/TR 37150:2014, le concept d'intelligence est abordé en termes de performance pour des solutions technologiquement réalisables, promouvant les concepts de développement durable et de résilience des communautés, tels que définis dans la norme ISO/TC 268. L'ISO/TR 37150:2014 traite des infrastructures communautaires liées notamment à l'énergie, à l'eau, aux transports, aux déchets et à la technologie de l'information et des communications (TIC). Il se concentre sur les aspects techniques des activités existantes qui ont été publiées, mises en ?uvre ou envisagées. Les aspects économiques, politiques ou sociétaux ne sont pas analysés dans l'ISO/TR 37150:2014.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Feb-2014
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
14-Feb-2014
Completion Date
14-Feb-2014
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 37150
First edition
2014-02-15
Smart community infrastructures —
Review of existing activities relevant
to metrics
Infrastructures communautaires intelligentes — Revue des activités
existantes applicables à la métrique
Reference number
ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
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© ISO 2014

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 Overview for developing this Technical Report ......................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Objectives..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Review of existing activities relevant to metrics ................................................................................................................. 7

5.1 Review method ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Summary of review ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Discussion on possible future directions .................................................................................................................................10

6.1 Desirable features of smart community infrastructure metrics ...............................................................10

6.2 Identified gaps and possible future directions for smart community

infrastructure metrics ....................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Discussion ................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4 Discussion on related areas and actions ........................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Identified relevant activities .......................................................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Examples of identified relevant activities .....................................................................................25

Annex C (informative) Results of the review on identified activities .............................................................................42

Annex D (informative) Attributes of identified activities ...........................................................................................................55

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................109

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 268/SC 1, Sustainable development in communities.

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
Introduction

Community infrastructures – energy, water, transportation, waste, information and communications

technology (ICT), etc. – support the operations and activities of communities and have a significant

impact on economic and social development. They are a means towards ensuring the delivery of goods and

services that promote economic prosperity and growth, and contribute to the quality of life. Insufficient,

inadequate community infrastructures can create obstacles to achieving a change in the distribution of

relative incomes through the growth process to favour the poor (pro-poor growth). Furthermore, the

demand for community infrastructures, as scalable and integrable products, will continue to expand

significantly in the decades ahead, driven by major factors of change, such as population growth and

urbanization.

It has long been argued that human activity is surpassing the capacity of the Earth. Community

infrastructures developing in line with global population growth sometimes have less desirable

consequences to sustainability. This is because the imperative for further infrastructure (i.e. accelerated

population growth) conflicts with a path to sustainability. As a result, there is a need for community

infrastructures to play a role in sustainable development to balance economic, social and environmental

aspects and to meet the needs of communities more effectively and efficiently.

This indicates an urgent need to develop and implement more effective and efficient technological

solutions in terms of environmental impact, economic efficiency and quality of life. Such solutions

are often referred to as “smart.” A number of plans and projects to build “smart cities” are currently

underway. In addition, there are increases in international trade for community infrastructure products

and services.

In planning and procuring community infrastructures to contribute to sustainable development, a wide

range of evaluation concepts and metrics are available or under consideration. Some of these evaluation

methods are not publicly available. Though they are helpful, their complexity, redundancy and lack of

transparency make it difficult for public and private buyers (e.g. governments, city planners, investors,

operators of community infrastructures) to evaluate multiple proposals or plans consistently and

fairly, thereby increasing the burden of decision making. Different concepts and metrics are creating

uncertainty in which infrastructure vendors have difficulty in developing new technology without an

appropriate International Standard.

The purpose of standardization in the field of smart community infrastructures is to promote the

international trade of community infrastructure products and services and disseminate information

about leading-edge technologies to improve sustainability in communities by establishing harmonized

product standards to evaluate their technical performances contributing to sustainability of

communities. The users and associated benefits of these metrics are illustrated in Figure 1.

In this Technical Report, the concept of smartness is addressed in terms of performance relevant to

technologically implementable solutions, in accordance with sustainable development and resilience of

communities as defined in ISO/TC 268.

This Technical Report reviews existing activities relevant to metrics for “smart” community

infrastructures and provides directions for further standardization. This Technical Report discusses

metrics which is designed to help buyers to evaluate technical performances of community infrastructure

products and services for procurement and, through the development of future technical standards in

this area, may additionally be used in real-time monitoring for the operation of an existing community

infrastructure. The users and associated benefits of these metrics are illustrated in Figure 1.

It is expected that this Technical Report will be useful to the following individuals/groups:

— national and local governments;
— regional organizations;
— community planners;
— developers;
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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Contribution
ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)

— community infrastructure operators (e.g in the field of energy, water, waste, transportation, ICT);

— community infrastructure vendors (e.g. constructors, engineering firms, system integrators or

component manufacturers);
— non-governmental organizations (e.g.. consumer groups).

This Technical Report uses a model of the community functions in Table 1 and reviews activities relevant

to metrics for community infrastructures.
Table 1 — Layers of a community
Layers Examples of functions
Community services Education, healthcare, safety and security, tourism, etc.

Community facilities Residences, commercial buildings, ofice buildings, factories,

hospitals, schools, recreation facilities, etc.
Community infrastructures Energy, water, transportation, waste, ICT, etc.
NOTE "Water" includes sewage and wastewater as well as drinking water.
As illustrated in Table 1:

— Functions of community infrastructures are fundamental to support the other two layers;

— Products and services of community infrastructures are more technology-oriented, more

internationally-tradable than those in other layers and therefore appropriate for international

standardization.
NOTE 1 This compilation of existing activities is indicative only.
This Technical Report is intended to be used in the following ways:
— as a reference document

— to analyze the commonalities and gaps in existing activities relevant to metrics on smart community

infrastructures
— to review the value of deploying smart community infrastructures
— as a basis for future standardization

— to assist stakeholders to have a better understanding of state-of-the-art smart community

infrastructures around the world

NOTE 2 The environmental, social and economic subsystems of the global system interact and are

interdependent. They are often referred to with phrases such as the three dimensions or pillars of sustainability.

[SOURCE: ISO/DGuide 82:2013 3.1].

NOTE 3 OECD states that a pace and pattern of economic growth that helps poor women and men to participate

in, contribute to and benefit from it is in short pro poor growth.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
Benefits:
Buyers
-Easier planning;
-Easier infrastructure procurement;
Country, nation, governments,
-Easier purchase decisions;
developers, operators, etc.
-Easier management of multiple providers
Standardized metrics
Community infrastructures
as a integrable and
scalable products
Benefits:
Providers
-Better understanding of buyer needs;
Vendors,
-More efficient and effective global sales;
consultants, etc.
-More efficient and effective R&D
Figure 1 — Users of the metrics and associated benefits
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved vii
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Review of existing
activities relevant to metrics
1 Scope

This Technical Report provides a review of existing activities relevant to metrics for smart community

infrastructures.

In this Technical Report, the concept of smartness is addressed in terms of performance relevant to

technologically implementable solutions, in accordance with sustainable development and resilience of

communities, as defined in ISO/TC 268.

This Technical Report addresses community infrastructures such as energy, water, transportation,

waste and information and communications technology (ICT). It focuses on the technical aspects of

existing activities which have been published, implemented or discussed. Economic, political or societal

aspects are not analyzed in this Technical Report.

NOTE This Technical Report is not a recommendation document for best practices. Although sustainability

objectives have been considered, the main subject of this Technical Report is the analysis of existing methodologies

for smart community infrastructures.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
buyer

person who aims to get possession of a good, service and/or right through providing an acceptable

equivalent value, usually in money, to the person providing such a good, service and/or right

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002, 3.8]
3.2
environmental impact

any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an

organization’s environmental aspects
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2004, 3.7]
3.3
interoperability

ability of systems to provide services to and accept services from other systems and to use the services

so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together
[SOURCE: ISO 21007-1:2005, 2.30]
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
3.4
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation

from natural resources to final disposal
[SOURCE: ISO 14044:2006, 3.1]
3.5
metric
the defined measurement method and the measurement scale

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14598-1:1999, 4.20, modified — Note 1 and Note 2 have been removed.]

3.6
pro-poor growth

stimulate economic growth for the benefit of poor people (primarily in the economic sense of poverty)

[SOURCE: OECD, 2008]

Note 1 to entry: Pro-poor growth can be defined as absolute, where the benefits from overall growth in the

economy, or relative, which refers to targeted efforts to increase the growth specifically among poor people.

EXAMPLE A pace and pattern of economic growth that helps poor women and men to participate in, contribute

to and benefit from.
3.7
provider

person or organization involved in or associated with the delivery of products and/or services

[SOURCE: ISO/TR 12773-1:2009, 2.40, modified]
3.8
snapshot
capture of the status of a data resource at a given moment in time
[SOURCE: ISO 12620:2009, 3.6.2]
3.9
sustainable development

development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations

to meet their own needs
[SOURCE: The U.N. Brundtland Commission, 1987]
4 General
4.1 Overview for developing this Technical Report

In order to propose the directions of future standardization in the field of smart community

infrastructures, this Technical Report collects and analyzes existing activities relevant to metrics. This

Technical Report also describes desirable features of the community infrastructure metrics suitable

to improve the sustainability of the community (4.2.2). In addition, this Technical Report identifies

gaps between these desirable features and the reviewed activities and proposes future directions for

standardization in the field of smart community infrastructures.
2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
a) Objecve seng
(Contribuon to sustainability from
community infrastructure perspecve: 4.2)
c) Review of
b) Desirable features of
relevant acvies
smart community infrastructure
(Clause 5)
metrics (6.1)
d) Gap idenficaon &
future direcons (6.2)
e) Discussion (6.3)
Figure 2 — Approach for developing this Technical Report

a) The objectives of this Technical Report are to create a non-exhaustive repository of information and

documents and to provide directions for future standardization (See 4.2).

b) By considering lessons from existing relevant activities with regard to metrics, this Technical Report

describes desirable features of smart community infrastructure metrics necessary to contribute to

sustainability (See 6.1).

c) This Technical Report collects and reviews the following two types of activities relevant to

community infrastructure metrics (See 5.1):
1) International Standards, concepts and theoretical frameworks; and,
2) projects.

d) This Technical Report identifies gaps between the existing relevant activities and the desirable

features by mapping c) onto b) above. Taking the identified gaps into account, this Technical Report

proposed future directions for standardization in the field of smart community infrastructure

metrics (See 6.2).

e) This Technical Report discusses future possible areas of standardization related to the field of

smart community infrastructure metrics.
4.2 Objectives
4.2.1 Background

In line with the concept of sustainable development and promoting pro-poor growth (as emphasized

by OECD), enabling a pace and pattern of growth that enhances the ability of poor women and men to

participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth will be critical in achieving a sustainable trajectory

out of poverty and meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). All 193 United Nations member

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)

states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve these goals by 2015. Although

a number of countries have demonstrated that progress in achieving the MDGs is possible, efforts need

to be intensified in order to make this a reality.

As the OECD-DAC Guidelines on Poverty Reduction show, poverty has multiple and interlinked causes

[7]

and dimensions: economic, human, political, socio-cultural and protective/security. It is further

recognized that insufficient, inadequate community infrastructure is among the most pressing

[7]

obstacles to achieving pro-poor growth. By raising labour productivity and lowering production

and transaction costs, community infrastructures – energy, water, transportation, ICT, etc. – enhance

economic activities and so contribute to growth, which is essential for poverty reduction.

Community infrastructures are a priority on the international development agenda. Investment in

community infrastructures is an important enabler of communities and nations in achieving the MDGs,

of which there are eight international development goals: 1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger;

2) achieving universal primary education; 3) promoting gender equality and empowering women; 4)

reducing child mortality rates; 5) improving maternal health; 6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and

other diseases; 7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and, 8) developing a global partnership for

development. Table 2 outlines links between community infrastructures and seven of the eight MDGs

listed above.

It has long been argued that the activity of human being is surpassing the capacity of the Earth. Community

infrastructures are increasingly developing and operating in line with global population growth. This

can have less desirable consequences. For example, turning the spotlight firmly on the inherent tensions

between the imperative for further community infrastructures (i.e. growth) and sustainability. As a

result, there is a need for community infrastructures to play a role in sustainable development to balance

economic, social and environmental aspects and to meet the needs of communities more effectively and

efficiently.

That situation indicates an urgent need to develop and share more effective and efficient solutions in

terms of environmental impacts and the quality of life. Such solutions are often referred to as “smart.” A

number of plans and projects to build “smart cities” are currently underway and the international trade

of community infrastructures has become more common than before.

In general, International Standardization helps facilitate international trade by reducing technical

barriers among the countries. However, there are currently no International Standards in the field of

smart community infrastructures, e.g. harmonized metrics to evaluate them as integrable and scalable

products.
4.2.2 Objective of this Technical Report

Taking into account the background information described in 4.2.1, the objectives of this Technical

Report are:

— to create a non-exhaustive repository of information that will enable the creation of a future

International Standard for community infrastructures;

— to provide directions for future standardization to improve the sustainability of communities by

providing a common language for and access to knowledge about smart community infrastructures

to support market activity.

NOTE This Technical Report acknowledges the necessity of consistency among related existing International

Standards, work items under development (e.g. ISO/WD 37101 and ISO/WD 37120) and the technical standard for

community infrastructures.
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ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5

Table 2 — Links between community infrastructures and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Gender equality and Environmental sustain-
Infrastructure sector
Poverty and hunger Primary education Health
women’s empowerment ability
(MDG 1) (MDG 2) (MDG 4, 5, 6)
(MDG 3) (MDG 7)

- modern energy services - electricity and light- - improved cooking can - permits cold chain - efficient cooking and

increase productivity of ing allows studying and reduce time/labour bur- for vaccines, reagents, switch to modern fuels

human labour, while ena- educational tools and den and reduce indoor air sterilization, operation (LPG) can reduce demand

bling enterprise develop- services in schools (com- pollution of essential laboratory for charcoal or other

ment and income puters, projectors, etc.) - street lighting improves equipment and operating biomass sources reducing

- energy can increase pro- and promotes teacher women’s safety theatres pressure on local ecosys-

ductivity and help reduce retention - modern energy can be tems from fuel collection

post-harvest losses - more efficient cooking safer (i.e. less accidents) - more efficient agriculture

Energy

- more efficient energy can reduce time spent - electricity enables (including fertilizer, mecha-

use (i.e. cooking, light- fetching wood and give pumped clean water and nization) can reduce need

ing) reduces expenditures more time for studying purification for additional land clearing

on less efficient energy - increases hours of facil- - improved cooking can
resources ity operation/ night-time reduce greenhouse gas
- improved cooking can services emissions and black carbon
reduce fuel and related - helps retain qualified
labour demands staff

- facilitates market access - can improve students’ - reduces time and trans- - increases access to - improved public transport

and reduces costs of trade, access to school, reducing port burden and eases health facilities services reduces overall

inputs prices, and monop- drop-out rates, particu- independent movement - reduces emergency environmental impact

Transport oly power of agricultural larly for girls for women response times
middlemen - Can save time, and - improved roads can
- reduces social/ family increase access to health be safer for drivers and
travel costs services for women pedestrians
[16]
[SOURCE: Freeman, K.: Infrastructure from the Bottom Up, 2011, modified. ]

NOTE This report documented progress and lessons learned from the first five years of the Millennium Village Project (MVP) with a focus on investments made in infrastructure

[16]

and services related to energy, transportation, communications and piped water supply.

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ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
6 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
Table 2 (continued)
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Gender equality and Environmental sustain-
Infrastructure sector
Poverty and hunger Primary education Health
women’s empowerment ability
(MDG 1) (MDG 2) (MDG 4, 5, 6)
(MDG 3) (MDG 7)

- increases access to - enables distance learn- - reduces isolation of - increases access to - improves natural

weather, market and ing, access to educational working at home emergency care resource information

income-related informa- media and communica- - enables education at - supports improved gathering, mapping and

tion tions home medical information monitoring

- enables extension, - aids in teacher retention - enables emergency com- systems (ChildCount),

Information and

outreach and other train- - improves record-keep- munication and reporting ‘distance medicine’, and

communications

ing for increased incomes ing and school manage- of violence access to health educa-

technology (ICT)
(agriculture, business) ment tion media
- improves access to
and quality of public
and community health
systems

-irrigation (combining - rainwater harvesting - improved/piped water - clean water is essential - increased availability of

improved water access can reduce water gather- sources or systems for health services water and sanitation can

and energy) can dramati- ing labour for schools by reduces women’s time/ - cleaner drinking water improve local environ-

cally raise agricultural children labour burden of fetching reduces water-borne ments

Water and Sanitation
productivity - reduced water-borne water diseases
disease, improves school - safe disposal of medical
attendance waste prevents spread of
disease
[16]
[SOURCE: Freeman, K.: Infrastructure from the Bottom Up, 2011, modified. ]

NOTE This report documented progress and lessons learned from the first five years of the Millennium Village Project (MVP) with a focus on investments made in infrastructure

[16]

and services related to energy, transportation, communications and piped water supply.

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ISO/TR 37150:2014(E)
5 Review of existing activities relevant to metrics
5.1 Review method
5.1.1 Collect information on existing activities relevant to metrics
5.1.1.1 Points of consideration

This Technical Report is intended to discuss metrics to evaluate technical performances of community

infrastructures on a community-wide basis. There are several views of “smartness” and “infrastructures.”

Those who are responsible for this document, ISO TC 268/SC 1/WG 1 therefore applied a wide scope in

sampling the existing relevant activities with regard to metrics in order to avoid specific biases.

In order to take various needs in the world into account
...

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