Geosynthetics — Guidelines for the assessment of durability

This document provides guidelines for the assessment of the durability of geosynthetics, the object of which is to provide the design engineer with the necessary information, generally defined as changes in material properties or as partial safety factors, to ensure that the expected design life of a geosynthetic can be achieved with confidence. This document is not applicable to products designed to survive for only a limited time, such as erosion-control fabric based on natural fibres. This document is applicable to the durability of the geosynthetics and not to the durability of the geotechnical structure as a whole. NOTE The calculation of reduction factors for soil reinforcement applications is described in ISO/TR 20432.

Géosynthétiques — Lignes directrices concernant la durabilité

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Oct-2020
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
30-Oct-2020
Completion Date
30-Oct-2020
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 13434
Second edition
2020-10
Geosynthetics — Guidelines for the
assessment of durability
Géosynthétiques — Lignes directrices concernant la durabilité
Reference number
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.3 Abbreviated items ................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4 Generalized procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Available and required properties ......................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 Condition of acceptability ........................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2.2 Development of the required and available properties with time ........................................ 4

4.3 Design life .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Margin of safety ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5 End of life (function) .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.6 Durability study ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Constituents of geosynthetics ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1 Types of geosynthetic ......... ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.1 Polymeric durability considerations .............................................................................................................. 7

5.1.2 Geotextiles ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.3 Geosynthetic barriers or polymeric and bituminous geosynthetic barriers ............... 8

5.1.4 GBR-C ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.5 Geoblankets (GBL).......................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.6 Geogrids................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.7 Geonets ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.8 Geocells .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.9 Geomats ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.10 Geocomposites ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.11 Geofoam ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.12 Geospacers ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2 Individual polymer types ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Polypropylene (PP) .....................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.3 Flexible polypropylene (fPP) ..............................................................................................................................10

5.2.4 Polyethylene (PE) .........................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.5 Polyesters (i.e. PET, PEN) .......................................................................................................................................10

5.2.6 Flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC-P) ..............................................................................................................10

5.2.7 Polyamides (PA).............................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.8 Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) ......................................................................................11

5.2.9 Ethylene interpolymer alloy (EIA).................................................................................................................11

5.2.10 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) ......................................................................................................................11

5.2.11 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE)......................................................................................................11

5.2.12 Bitumen ................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.13 Aramid ...................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.14 Polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL) ........................................................................................................................................12

5.2.15 Polystyrene (PS) ............................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.16 Typical physical properties of polymeric geosynthetics ............................................................12

5.3 Manufacturing process..................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.2 Geotextiles ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.3 Geosynthetic barriers ...............................................................................................................................................14

5.3.4 Geogrids................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.5 Geonets ..................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)

5.3.6 Geocomposites ................................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.7 Geocells .................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.8 GBR-C ......................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.4 Recycled and reworked materials .......................................................................................................................................15

5.5 Additives, stabilizers, fillers and reinforcement scrims ...................................................................................16

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.5.2 Antioxidants ......................................................................................................................................................................16

5.5.3 Acid scavengers ..............................................................................................................................................................16

5.5.4 Metal ion deactivators ..............................................................................................................................................16

5.5.5 UV stabilizers ...................................................................................................................................................................17

5.5.6 Plasticizers .........................................................................................................................................................................17

5.5.7 Lubricants ...........................................................................................................................................................................17

5.5.8 Mineral fillers ...................................................................................................................................................................17

5.5.9 Scrims .....................................................................................................................................................................................17

6 Environmental factors that may lead to degradation .................................................................................................17

6.1 The environment above ground ............................................................................................................................................17

6.2 The environment below ground ...........................................................................................................................................18

6.3 Chemical and biological effects on a geosynthetic ................................................................................................19

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.2 Hydrolysis of PET and PA ......................................................................................................................................20

6.3.3 Oxidation of PE and PP ............................................................................................................................................20

6.3.4 Biochemical attack ......................................................................................................................................................20

6.3.5 Chemical effects on other geosynthetic barriers ..............................................................................20

6.4 Effects of load and mechanical damage ..........................................................................................................................22

6.4.1 Tensile load: Creep and creep-rupture ......................................................................................................22

6.4.2 Synergy of tensile load with environmental effects (environmental stress

cracking) ..............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.4.3 Effect of mechanical load on weathering and oxidation .............................................................23

6.4.4 Loading during installation: Mechanical damage ............................................................................23

6.4.5 Normal pressure: Compressive creep and penetration ..............................................................23

6.4.6 Abrasion and dynamic loading .........................................................................................................................23

7 Evidence of the durability of geosynthetics ..........................................................................................................................24

7.1 Historical development ................................................................................................................................................................24

7.2 Empirical evidence of durability from geosynthetics extracted from the soil ..............................24

7.2.1 Geotextiles ..........................................................................................................................................................................24

7.2.2 Geosynthetic barriers ...............................................................................................................................................25

7.2.3 Geogrids................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.3 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................................28

8 Procedure for assessment of durability ....................................................................................................................................28

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.1.1 Need for testing ..............................................................................................................................................................28

8.1.2 Testing concepts for lifetime index tests ..................................................................................................28

8.1.3 Scope of durability assessment ........................................................................................................................29

8.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.1 Material .................................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.2 Function and application .......................................................................................................................................29

8.2.3 Environment .....................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.4 Mechanism of degradation ...................................................................................................................................30

8.2.5 Design life ............................................................................................................................................................................30

8.2.6 The “end-of-life” criterion .....................................................................................................................................30

8.3 Degradation during storage and installation .............................................................................................................30

8.3.1 Weathering .........................................................................................................................................................................30

8.3.2 Mechanical damage ....................................................................................................................................................31

8.4 Short-, medium-, and long-term applications ...........................................................................................................31

8.5 Assessment of long-term durability ..................................................................................................................................32

8.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................32

8.5.2 Evidence from service ..............................................................................................................................................32

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)

8.5.3 Accelerated testing ......................................................................................................................................................33

8.6 Prediction of durability .................................................................................................................................................................37

8.6.1 Statement of the durability ..................................................................................................................................37

8.6.2 Level of confidence .....................................................................................................................................................37

8.7 Planning for future inspection ................................................................................................................................................37

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
ISO/TS 13434 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 221, Geosynthetics.

This first edition cancels and replaces ISO/TS 13434:2008, which has been technically revised. The

main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— standards and wording actualized;
— added product types in 5.1;
— updated subclauses 5.4, 8.4, 8.5 and Table 3.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
Geosynthetics — Guidelines for the assessment of
durability
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines for the assessment of the durability of geosynthetics, the object of

which is to provide the design engineer with the necessary information, generally defined as changes in

material properties or as partial safety factors, to ensure that the expected design life of a geosynthetic

can be achieved with confidence.

This document is not applicable to products designed to survive for only a limited time, such as erosion-

control fabric based on natural fibres.

This document is applicable to the durability of the geosynthetics and not to the durability of the

geotechnical structure as a whole.

NOTE The calculation of reduction factors for soil reinforcement applications is described in ISO/TR 20432.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10318-1, Geosynthetics — Part 1: Terms and definitions

ISO 13431, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products — Determination of tensile creep and creep rupture

behaviour

ISO 13438:2018, Geosynthetics — Screening test method for determining the resistance of geotextiles and

geotextile-related products to oxidation
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 10318-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.2 Symbols
A rate of degradation
A constant in Arrhenius equation
d 50 % soil gradation
E activation energy
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
M number-averaged molecular weight
M weight-averaged molecular weight
R universal gas constant (8,314 J/mol⋅K)
t glass transition temperature
T absolute temperature
3.3 Abbreviated items
CMD cross-machine direction
CPE chlorinated polyethylene
CSPE chlorosulfonated polyethylene
DSC differential scanning calorimetry
EIA ethylene interpolymer alloy
ENB ethylidene norbornene
EPDM ethylene propylene diene monomer
EPS expanded polystyrene
ESC environmental stress cracking
fPP flexible polypropylene
GBR-B bituminous geosynthetic barrier
GBR-C geosynthetic clay barrier
GBR-P polymeric geosynthetic barrier
HALS hindered amine light stabilizers
PE-HD high-density polyethylene
HP-OIT high-pressure oxidation induction time
KEE ketone ethylene ester
PE-LLD linear low-density polyethylene
MB modified bitumen
MD machine direction
OIT oxidation induction time
PA polyamide
PCM post-consumer material
PE polyethylene
PEN polyethylene naphthalate
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
PET polyethylene terephthalate
PIM post-industrial material
PP polypropylene
PS polystyrene
PVAL polyvinyl alcohol
PVC-P flexible polyvinyl chloride
RPP reinforced polypropylene
RWM reworked material
SBS styrene-butadiene-styrene
S-OIT oxidation induction time measured by standard method
XPS extruded polystyrene
UV ultraviolet
4 Generalized procedure
4.1 General

When a geosynthetic is used in a civil engineering structure, it is intended to perform a particular

function for a minimum expected time, called the design life. A geosynthetic is a generic term

describing a product, where at least one of the components is made from a synthetic or natural

polymer, in the form of a sheet, a strip or a three-dimensional structure, used in contact with soil and/

or other materials in geotechnical and civil engineering applications. Geosynthetic products comprise

geotextiles, geosynthetic barriers (polymeric, bituminous and geosynthetic clay liners), geogrids,

geonets, geocells, geostrips, geomats, geoblankets, geocomposites and geospacers. The eight functions

defined in ISO 10318-1 are barrier function, drainage, filtration, protection, reinforcement, separation,

stabilisation, stress relief for asphalt overlay and surface erosion control. Each function uses one or

more properties of the geosynthetic, such as tensile strength or water permeability for a geotextile and

impermeability to liquids for a geosynthetic barrier. These are referred to as functional properties.

Assessment of the durability of structures using geosynthetics requires a study of the effects of time

on the functional properties. The physical structure of the geosynthetic, the nature of the polymer

used, the manufacturing process, the physical and chemical environment, the conditions of storage

and installation, and the load supported by the geosynthetic are all parameters which govern the

durability. The main task is to understand and assess the evolution of the functional properties over the

entire design life. This problem is quite complex due to the com
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 13434
Second edition
Geosynthetics — Guidelines for the
assessment of durability
Géosynthétiques — Lignes directrices concernant la durabilité
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.3 Abbreviated items ................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4 Generalized procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Available and required properties ......................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 Condition of acceptability ........................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2.2 Development of the required and available properties with time ........................................ 4

4.3 Design life .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Margin of safety ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5 End of life (function) .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.6 Durability study ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Constituents of geosynthetics ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1 Types of geosynthetic ......... ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.1 Polymeric durability considerations .............................................................................................................. 7

5.1.2 Geotextiles ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1.3 Geosynthetic barriers or polymeric and bituminous geosynthetic barriers ............... 8

5.1.4 GBR-C ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.5 Geoblankets (GBL).......................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.6 Geogrids................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.7 Geonets ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.8 Geocells .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.9 Geomats ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.10 Geocomposites ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.11 Geofoam ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.12 Geospacers ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2 Individual polymer types ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Polypropylene (PP) .....................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.3 Flexible polypropylene (fPP) ..............................................................................................................................10

5.2.4 Polyethylene (PE) .........................................................................................................................................................10

5.2.5 Polyesters (i.e. PET, PEN) .......................................................................................................................................10

5.2.6 Flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC-P) ..............................................................................................................10

5.2.7 Polyamides (PA).............................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.8 Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) ......................................................................................11

5.2.9 Ethylene interpolymer alloy (EIA).................................................................................................................11

5.2.10 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) ......................................................................................................................11

5.2.11 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE)......................................................................................................11

5.2.12 Bitumen ................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.13 Aramid ...................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.14 Polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL) ........................................................................................................................................12

5.2.15 Polystyrene (PS) ............................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.16 Typical physical properties of polymeric geosynthetics ............................................................12

5.3 Manufacturing process..................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.2 Geotextiles ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.3 Geosynthetic barriers ...............................................................................................................................................14

5.3.4 Geogrids................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.5 Geonets ..................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)

5.3.6 Geocomposites ................................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.7 Geocells .................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.8 GBR-C ......................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.4 Recycled and reworked materials .......................................................................................................................................15

5.5 Additives, stabilizers, fillers and reinforcement scrims ...................................................................................16

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.5.2 Antioxidants ......................................................................................................................................................................16

5.5.3 Acid scavengers ..............................................................................................................................................................16

5.5.4 Metal ion deactivators ..............................................................................................................................................16

5.5.5 UV stabilizers ...................................................................................................................................................................17

5.5.6 Plasticizers .........................................................................................................................................................................17

5.5.7 Lubricants ...........................................................................................................................................................................17

5.5.8 Mineral fillers ...................................................................................................................................................................17

5.5.9 Scrims .....................................................................................................................................................................................17

6 Environmental factors that may lead to degradation .................................................................................................17

6.1 The environment above ground ............................................................................................................................................17

6.2 The environment below ground ...........................................................................................................................................18

6.3 Chemical and biological effects on a geosynthetic ................................................................................................19

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3.2 Hydrolysis of PET and PA ......................................................................................................................................20

6.3.3 Oxidation of PE and PP ............................................................................................................................................20

6.3.4 Biochemical attack ......................................................................................................................................................20

6.3.5 Chemical effects on other geosynthetic barriers ..............................................................................20

6.4 Effects of load and mechanical damage ..........................................................................................................................22

6.4.1 Tensile load: Creep and creep-rupture ......................................................................................................22

6.4.2 Synergy of tensile load with environmental effects (environmental stress

cracking) ..............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.4.3 Effect of mechanical load on weathering and oxidation .............................................................23

6.4.4 Loading during installation: Mechanical damage ............................................................................23

6.4.5 Normal pressure: Compressive creep and penetration ..............................................................23

6.4.6 Abrasion and dynamic loading .........................................................................................................................23

7 Evidence of the durability of geosynthetics ..........................................................................................................................24

7.1 Historical development ................................................................................................................................................................24

7.2 Empirical evidence of durability from geosynthetics extracted from the soil ..............................24

7.2.1 Geotextiles ..........................................................................................................................................................................24

7.2.2 Geosynthetic barriers ...............................................................................................................................................25

7.2.3 Geogrids................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.3 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................................28

8 Procedure for assessment of durability ....................................................................................................................................28

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.1.1 Need for testing ..............................................................................................................................................................28

8.1.2 Testing concepts for lifetime index tests ..................................................................................................28

8.1.3 Scope of durability assessment ........................................................................................................................29

8.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.1 Material .................................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.2 Function and application .......................................................................................................................................29

8.2.3 Environment .....................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.4 Mechanism of degradation ...................................................................................................................................30

8.2.5 Design life ............................................................................................................................................................................30

8.2.6 The “end-of-life” criterion .....................................................................................................................................30

8.3 Degradation during storage and installation .............................................................................................................30

8.3.1 Weathering .........................................................................................................................................................................30

8.3.2 Mechanical damage ....................................................................................................................................................31

8.4 Short-, medium-, and long-term applications ...........................................................................................................31

8.5 Assessment of long-term durability ..................................................................................................................................32

8.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................32

8.5.2 Evidence from service ..............................................................................................................................................32

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)

8.5.3 Accelerated testing ......................................................................................................................................................33

8.6 Prediction of durability .................................................................................................................................................................37

8.6.1 Statement of the durability ..................................................................................................................................37

8.6.2 Level of confidence .....................................................................................................................................................37

8.7 Planning for future inspection ................................................................................................................................................37

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
ISO/TS 13434 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 221, Geosynthetics.

This first edition cancels and replaces ISO/TR 13434:1998, which has been technically revised. The

main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— standards and wording actualized;
— added product types in 5.1;
— updated subclauses 5.4, 8.4, 8.5 and Table 3.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
Geosynthetics — Guidelines for the assessment of
durability
1 Scope

This Technical Specification provides guidelines for the assessment of the durability of geosynthetics,

the object of which is to provide the design engineer with the necessary information, generally defined

as changes in material properties or as partial safety factors, to ensure that the expected design life of a

geosynthetic can be achieved with confidence.

This Technical Specification is not applicable to products designed to survive for only a limited time,

such as erosion-control fabric based on natural fibres.

This Technical Specification is applicable to the durability of the geosynthetics and not to the durability

of the geotechnical structure as a whole.

NOTE The calculation of reduction factors for soil reinforcement applications is described in ISO/TR 20432.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10318-1, Geosynthetics — Part 1: Terms and definitions

ISO 13431, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products — Determination of tensile creep and creep rupture

behaviour

ISO 13438:2018, Geosynthetics — Screening test method for determining the resistance of geotextiles and

geotextile-related products to oxidation
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 10318-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.2 Symbols
A rate of degradation
A constant in Arrhenius equation
d 50 % soil gradation
E activation energy
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ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
M number-averaged molecular weight
M weight-averaged molecular weight
R universal gas constant (8,314 J/mol⋅K)
t glass transition temperature
T absolute temperature
3.3 Abbreviated items
CMD cross-machine direction
CPE chlorinated polyethylene
CSPE chlorosulfonated polyethylene
DSC differential scanning calorimetry
EIA ethylene interpolymer alloy
ENB ethylidene norbornene
EPDM ethylene propylene diene monomer
EPS expanded polystyrene
ESC environmental stress cracking
fPP flexible polypropylene
GBR-B bituminous geosynthetic barrier
GBR-C geosynthetic clay barrier
GBR-P polymeric geosynthetic barrier
HALS hindered amine light stabilizers
PE-HD high-density polyethylene
HP-OIT high-pressure oxidation induction time
KEE ketone ethylene ester
PE-LLD linear low-density polyethylene
MB modified bitumen
MD machine direction
OIT oxidation induction time
PA polyamide
PCM post-consumer material
PE polyethylene
PEN polyethylene naphthalate
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ISO/TS 13434:2020(E)
PET polyethylene terephthalate
PIM post-industrial material
PP polypropylene
PS polystyrene
PVAL polyvinyl alcohol
PVC-P flexible polyvinyl chloride
RPP reinforced polypropylene
RWM reworked material
SBS styrene-butadiene-styrene
S-OIT oxidation induction time measured by standard method
XPS extruded polystyrene
UV ultraviolet
4 Generalized procedure
4.1 General

When a geosynthetic is used in a civil engineering structure, it is intended to perform a particular

function for a minimum expected time, called the design life. A geosynthetic is a generic term

describing a product, where at least one of the components is made from a synthetic or natural

polymer, in the form of a sheet, a strip or a three-dimensional structure, used in contact with soil and/

or other materials in geotechnical and civil engineering applications. Geosynthetic products comprise

geotextiles, geosynthetic barriers (polymeric, bituminous and geosynthetic clay liners), geogrids,

geonets, geocells, geostrips, geomats, geoblankets, geocomposites and geospacers. The eight functions

defined in ISO 10318-1 are barrier function, drainage, filtration, protection, reinforcement, separation,

stabilisation, stress relief for asphalt overlayand surface erosion control. Each function uses one or

more properties of the geosynthetic, such as tensile strength or water permeability for a geotextile and

impermeability to liquids for a geosynthetic barrier. These are referred to as functional properties.

Assessment of the durability of structures using geosynthetics requires a study of the effects of time

on the functional properties. The physical structure of the geosynthetic, the nature of the polymer

used, the manufacturing process, the physical and chemical environment, the conditions of storage

and installation, and the load supported by the geosynthetic are all parameters which govern the

durability. The main task is t
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