Petroleum and natural gas industries — Downhole equipment — Packers and bridge plugs

La présente Norme internationale fournit les exigences pour les garnitures d'étanchéité et les bouchons de support pour utilisation dans les industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel. L'application de la présente Norme internationale est limitée aux seuls produits conformes à la définition de garniture d'étanchéité ou de bouchon de support utilisés par les industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel, pour les opérations dans le puits. La présente Norme internationale couvre uniquement les applications à l'intérieur d'un conduit. L'installation et la maintenance de ces équipements sont en dehors du domaine de la présente Norme internationale.

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Équipement de fond de trou — Garnitures d'étanchéité (packers) et bouchons mécaniques d'isolation de fond

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ISO 14310:2001 - Petroleum and natural gas industries -- Downhole equipment -- Packers and bridge plugs
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Petroleum and natural gas industries —
Downhole equipment — Packers and
bridge plugs
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Équipement de fond de trou —
Garnitures d'étanchéité (packers) et bouchons mécaniques d'isolation de

Reference number
ISO 14310:2001(E)
 ISO 2001

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ISO 14310:2001(E)
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©  ISO 2001
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ISO 14310:2001(E)
Contents Page
1 Scope .1
2 Normative references.1
3 Terms and definitions .1
4 Abbreviated terms .5
5 Functional specification.5
5.1 General.5
5.2 Functional characteristics .5
5.3 Well parameters .5
5.4 Operational parameters .6
5.5 Environmental compatibility .6
5.6 Well equipment compatibility.6
5.7 Quality control .7
5.8 Design validation .7
6 Technical specification .7
6.1 General.7
6.2 Technical characteristics.7
6.3 Design criteria.7
6.4 Design verification.9
6.5 Design validation .10
6.6 Design changes .14
6.7 Functional test parameters.15
6.8 Other validations .15
7 Supplier/manufacturer requirements .15
7.1 Data control.15
7.2 Documentation requirements.15
7.3 Product identification.16
7.4 Quality control .17
7.5 Functional test .21
8 Repair.21
Annex A (normative) Special validation grade with acceptance criterion of zero bubbles (V0) .22

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ISO 14310:2001(E)
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO
member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical
committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has
the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in
liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.
The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted
by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International
Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
ISO 14310 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore structures for
petroleum and natural gas industries, Subcommittee SC 4, Drilling and production equipment.
Annex A forms a normative part of this International Standard.
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ISO 14310:2001(E)
This International Standard has been developed by users/purchasers and suppliers/manufacturers of packers and
bridge plugs intended for use in the petroleum and natural gas industry worldwide. This International Standard is
intended to give requirements and information to both parties in the selection, manufacture, testing and use of
packers and bridge plugs. Further, this International Standard addresses supplier/manufacturer requirements which
set the minimum parameters with which suppliers/manufacturers shall comply to claim conformity with this
International Standard.
This International Standard has been structured with grades of increased requirements both in quality control and
design validation. These variations allow the user/purchaser to select the grade required for a specific application.
The three quality control grades provide the user/purchaser the choice of requirements to meet a specific
preference or application. Quality control grade Q3 is the minimum grade of quality offered by this product
standard. Quality control grade Q2 provides additional inspection and verification steps, and quality control grade
Q1 is the highest grade provided. Additional quality upgrades can be specified by the user/purchaser as
supplemental requirements.
Six standard design validation grades (V1 to V6) and one special design validation grade (V0) provide the
user/purchaser the choice of requirements to meet a specific preference or application. Design validation grade V6
is the minimum grade and represents equipment where the validation method has been defined by the
supplier/manufacturer. The complexity and severity of the validation testing increases as the grade number
Design validation grade V6 and quality control grade Q3 represent equipment designed and manufactured
consistent with minimum industry practice. These grades are sufficient for a number of applications; however, some
applications could require and justify the higher grades of quality control and design validation defined by this
International Standard.
Users of this International Standard should be aware that requirements above those outlined in this International
Standard may be needed for individual applications. This International Standard is not intended to inhibit a
supplier/manufacturer from offering, or the user/purchaser from accepting, alternative equipment or engineering
solutions. This may be particularly applicable where there is innovative or developing technology. Where an
alternative is offered, the supplier/manufacturer should identify any variations from this International Standard and
provide details.

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Petroleum and natural gas industries — Downhole equipment —
Packers and bridge plugs
1 Scope
This International Standard provides requirements for packers and bridge plugs for use in the petroleum and
natural gas industry. Application of this International Standard is limited to those products meeting the definition of
a packer or bridge plug intended for petroleum and natural gas industry subsurface operations.
This International Standard applies only to product applications within a conduit. Installation and maintenance of
these products is outside the scope of this International Standard.
2 Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of
this International Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these
publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For
undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC
maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO 2859-1:1999, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes — Part 1: Sampling plans indexed by
acceptable quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection
ISO 3601-1, Fluid power systems — O-rings — Part 1: Inside diameters, cross sections, tolerances and size
identification code
ISO 3601-3, Fluid power systems — O-rings — Part 3: Quality acceptance criteria
ISO 9000:2000, Quality management systems — Fundamentals and vocabulary
ISO 11960, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells
NACE MR0175, Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this International Standard, the following terms and definitions apply. Quality control terms not
defined herein are defined in ISO 9000.
product comprised of more than one component
bridge plug
mechanical device installed in and used for blocking fluid (liquid or gas) communication in the conduit and not
installed in a designed receptacle
pipe extending from the surface and intended to line the walls of a drilled well
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ISO 14310:2001(E)
casing size
nominal casing OD as specified in ISO 11960
individual part of an assembly
casing, tubing or liner, either metallic or non-metallic
design validation
process of proving the packer or bridge plug design by a test to demonstrate conformance of the product to one of
the design validation grades.
NOTE Six standard design validation grades (V6 to V1) are specified in 6.5 and one special design validation grade (V0)
specified in annex A.
design verification
activities performed at appropriate stages of process output which ensure that the end product conforms to the
supplier's/manufacturer's technical specification
NOTE These activities are described in 6.4.
drift diameter
minimum ID of a packer, expressed as the OD of the drift bar utilized during assembly verification, as outlined in
end connection
thread or other mechanism connecting the packer or bridge plug to the conduit
exposed component
flow-wetted component, internally wetted component and/or component contacted by well fluid below the packing
cf. flow-wetted component (3.13), internally wetted component (3.18)
extrusion gap
radial gap between the maximum rated casing ID and the minimum OD immediately adjacent to the packing
flow-wetted component
component that comes in direct contact with the dynamic movement of well fluids in the flow stream
cf. exposed component (3.11), internally wetted component (3.18)
gauge OD
maximum specified product OD
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ISO 14310:2001(E)
category or rank given to different requirements for quality or design validation
heat traceable
traceable back to a unique heat treatment (heat) of material
inflatable packing element
packer or bridge plug packing element energized to form a seal by applying fluid pressure directly to the element
internally wetted component
flow-wetted component and any component out of the flow stream, but contacted by well fluids through a port or
other passage to the flow-wetted area
cf. exposed component (3.11), flow-wetted component (3.13)
job lot
batch of material or components that have undergone the same process or series of processes
job lot traceable
the ability for parts to be identified as originating from a job lot which identifies the included heat(s)
pipe not extending from the surface and intended to line the walls of a drilled well
component, or components, of a packer that contains the end connections and provides a conduit through the
process and actions performed by an equipment supplier/manufacturer that are necessary to provide finished
component(s), assemblies, and related documentation, that fulfil the requests of the user/purchaser, and meet the
standards of the supplier/manufacturer
NOTE Manufacturing begins when the supplier/manufacturer receives the order, and is completed at the moment the
component(s), assemblies, and related documentation are surrendered to a transportation provider.
NACE service
packers or bridge plugs whose Type 1 components are manufactured from materials that comply with
cf. Type 1 component (3.39), standard service (3.34)
non-fulfilment of a specified requirement
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ISO 14310:2001(E)
mechanical device, not installed in a designed receptacle, used for blocking fluid (liquid or gas) communication
through the annular space between conduits by sealing off the space between them
packing element
seal on a packer or bridge plug that blocks fluid communication by sealing on the ID of the conduit
cf. bridge plug (3.2), packer (3.26)
permanent packer [bridge plug]
packer [bridge plug] that has no design feature for intact removal from the conduit, necessitating substantial
destruction for its removal
pressure reversal
changing the pressure differential from above to below the product or vice versa
repositionable packer [bridge plug]
packer [bridge plug] that meets the definition of retrievable packer [bridge plug] (3.31) and has a design feature
facilitating relocation inside the conduit (without removal) while re-establishing its intended function
retrievable packer [bridge plug]
packer [bridge plug] that has a design feature facilitating removal from the conduit substantially intact
device providing a barrier to the passage of liquid and/or gas
shear device
component designed to disconnect under a predetermined load
standard service
packer or bridge plug whose components may or may not be manufactured from materials that comply with
substantive design change
change to the design, identified by the supplier/manufacturer, that affects the performance of the product in the
intended service condition
temperature cycle range
specified range of temperature fluctuation at which the product is designed to operate
NOTE The temperature cycle range is applicable anywhere within the product’s temperature range.
temperature range
specified range of temperature at which the product is designed to operate
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ISO 14310:2001(E)
pipe placed within a well to serve as a production or injection conduit
Type 1 component [weld]
component [weld] that isolates pressure and/or may be loaded in tension
NOTE The tension may be the result of axial loads on the packer or bridge plug during run-in, setting, in situ, retrieval, or
any other source.
Type 2 component [weld]
component [weld] that does not meet the criteria of a Type 1 component [weld]
4 Abbreviated terms
AQL Acceptance quality limit
COC Certificate of compliance
EDS Equipment data sheet
ID Inside diameter
MTR Material test report
NDE Non-destructive examination
OD Outside diameter
QC Quality control
5 Functional specification
5.1 General
The user/purchaser shall prepare a functional specification to order products which conform with this International
Standard and specify the following requirements and operating conditions, as applicable, and/or identify the
supplier’s/manufacturer’s specific product. These requirements and operating conditions may be conveyed by
means of a dimensional drawing, data sheet or other suitable documentation.
5.2 Functional characteristics
The user/purchaser shall specify, as applicable, the following functional characteristics:
 packer or bridge plug;
 permanent, retrievable or repositionable.
5.3 Well parameters
The user/purchaser shall specify, as applicable, the following well parameters:
 dimensions, material, grade of the casing and tubing;
 end connections above/below the packer or bridge plug;
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ISO 14310:2001(E)
 well angle from the vertical at the setting position of the packer or bridge plug;
 deviations and restrictions that packer or bridge plug must pass through;
 configuration of tubing (single or multiple strings) and other lines (electrical/hydraulic) that must pass through
or by-pass the packer;
 relationship of packer or bridge plug with other well devices/tubing/casing by means of a well schematic
drawing, if applicable;
 the expected minimum and maximum values of production/injection pressures, pressure differentials,
temperatures and flow rates;
 any other relevant well parameter(s).
5.4 Operational parameters
The user/purchaser shall specify, as applicable, any of the following operational parameters:
 installation method, including conveyance method and setting method;
 setting depth;
 retrieving or repositioning method, if applicable;
 the anticipated loading conditions, including combined loading (pressure, tension/compression) and torque,
applied to the packer or bridge plug prior to and during setting, during use, and during retrieving;
 size, type and configuration of devices to be run through the packer, if applicable;
 any other relevant operational parameters.
5.5 Environmental compatibility
5.5.1 General
Material compatibility shall be specified according to 5.5.2 and/or 5.5.3.
5.5.2 Well environment
The user/purchaser shall identify the density, chemical/physical composition, and the condition of the fluid and/or
its components, including solid (sand production, scale, etc.), liquid and/or gaseous, to which the packer or bridge
plug is exposed during its full life cycle.
5.5.3 Product materials requirements Materials for metallic and non-metallic components shall be designated for standard service (3.34) or
NACE service (3.24). Components may be grouped as flow-wetted components (3.13), internally wetted components (3.18),
exposed components (3.11), and other components.
5.6 Well equipment compatibility
The user/purchaser shall identify, as applicable, the following:
 top and bottom tubular connection(s), the material and dimensions of the connections to the conduit(s);
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ISO 14310:2001(E)
 internal receptacle profile(s), bore dimensions(s), outside diameter, inside diameter and their respective
 size, type and configuration of other products and conduits to be used in connection with this product.
5.7 Quality control
The quality control grade shall be specified. This International Standard provides three grades (Q3, Q2 and Q1) of
quality control, as shown in 7.4.
5.8 Design validation
The design validation grade shall be specified. This International Standard provides six standard design validation
grades (V6 to V1), as shown in 6.5, and one special design validation grade (V0), as shown in annex A.
6 Technical specification
6.1 General
The supplier/manufacturer shall prepare the technical specification which responds to the requirements defined in
the functional specification. The supplier/manufacturer shall also provide to the user/purchaser the product data
defined in 7.2.1.
6.2 Technical characteristics
The following criteria shall be met.
 The packer/bridge plug shall locate and seal at the specified location and remain so until intentional
intervention defines otherwise. Exceptions to this are the effects of casing failure.
 While located and in service, the packer/bridge plug shall perform in accordance with the functional
 Where applicable, the packer/bridge plug shall not compromise well intervention operations.
6.3 Design criteria
6.3.1 Materials
Materials and/or service shall be stated by the supplier/manufacturer and shall be suitable for the environment
specified in the functional specification.
The user/purchaser may specify, in the functional specification, materials for the specific corrosion environment.
Should the manufacturer propose to use another material, the manufacturer shall state that this material has
performance characteristics suitable for all parameters specified. This applies to metallic and non-metallic
6.3.2 Performance rating
The supplier/manufacturer shall state the pressure, temperature and axial performance ratings, as applicable for
the products. For packers and bridge plugs verified to grade V4 through grade V0, a rated performance envelope is
required. This envelope is a graph that illustrates the combined effects of differential pressure and axial loads on a
packer or bridge plug.
An example envelope is illustrated in Figure 1. The area within the boundaries defines the rated performance
envelope. The lines forming the boundary of the envelope are defined by the various failure modes for the packer
or bridge plug.
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ISO 14310:2001(E)
Rated performance envelopes shall meet the following criteria.
 The failure modes shall represent the supplier's/manufacturer's maximum ratings.
 “Above” and “below” on the pressure axis is defined as above and below the product and not internal to the
product. If the envelope includes ratings based on pressure internal to the product, this shall be specified with
the envelope or handled as an additional graph.
 Products with IDs shall be represented with the ID not plugged unless specified with the envelope.
 Shear devices shall be represented at 100 % of their minimum shear value.
 The effects of the end connections shall not be included.
 The minimum and maximum casing or tubing IDs shall be specified with the envelope. The envelope shall be
applicable over this entire specified ID range.
 Axis and sign convention shall be oriented as shown in Figure 1.
 More than one graph may be displayed with the envelope if a legend is included for explanation. For example,
various shear device options can be displayed, as shown in Figure 2.
 The product(s) covered by the envelope shall be specified with the envelope.

NOTE Points labelled “A” are intersection points of two or more failure modes.
Figure 1 — Example of a rated performance envelope
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ISO 14310:2001(E)

Figure 2 — Example of shear device options
6.4 Design verification
6.4.1 General
Design verification shall be performed to ensure that each packer and bridge plug design meets the
supplier’s/manufacturer’s technical specifications. Design verification shall include one or more of the following:
design reviews, design calculations, physical tests, comparison with similar designs and historical records of
defined operating conditions.
6.4.2 Scaling General
Within the same casing or tubing size, scaling may be used to validate size variations in a product family in
accordance with the requirements and limitations of and This applies to products validated to grade
V5 through grade V1, in accordance with 6.5. Product family for scaling
A product family is a group of assemblies that meets the following design requirements:
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ISO 14310:2001(E)
 configuration: the design principles for the geometry, materials and functionality are the same;
 design stress levels: the design stress levels in relation to material mechanical properties are based on the
same criteria. Limitations of scaling
Scaling is allowed to qualify a product family within a given casing or tubing size with the following limitations.
 A test shall be run on the product with the largest extrusion gap (see 3.12).
 A test shall be run on the product(s) with the thinnest and thickest cross-section packing element(s).
 Packing element and extrusion components shall be of the same geometry and materials as the tested
 ID of the packing element(s) and OD of the component under the packing element(s) shall be the same as the
tested product.
 Scaling shall not be used to cover products with higher pressure ratings, higher temperature range, larger
temperature cycle range, higher axial load rating

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