Information technology -- Data protocol for radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management

This document specifies rules and code structures associated with the data constructs for RFID for item management. In particular, it: — defines the application family identifier (AFI), including the range of code values that are available to use for RFID for item management; — defines the data format, including the range of code values that are available to use for RFID for item management; — describes the Object Identifier structure used for RFID for item management; — specifies the function of the Object Identifier for the Unique Item Identifier (UII); — specifies the function of the Object Identifier for other item attendant data. NOTE Conventionally in International Standards, long numbers are separated by a space character as a "thousands separator". This convention has not been followed in this document because the arcs of an Object Identifier are defined by a space separator (according to ISO/IEC 8824 and ISO/IEC 8825). As the correct representation of these arcs is vital to this document, all numeric values have no space separators except to denote a node between two arcs of an Object Identifier. For additional clarity, Object Identifiers are presented in bold text.

Technologies de l'information -- Protocole de données relatif à l'identification par radiofréquence (RFID) pour la gestion d'objets

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Published
Publication Date
04-Feb-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
29-Dec-2018
Completion Date
05-Feb-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 15961-3
First edition
2019-02
Information technology — Data
protocol for radio frequency
identification (RFID) for item
management —
Part 3:
RFID data constructs
Technologies de l'information — Protocole de données relatif à
l'identification par radiofréquence (RFID) pour la gestion d'objets —
Partie 3: Constructions de données RFID
Reference number
ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)
ISO/IEC 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 Conformance of encoders .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Conformance of decoders .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Application Family Identifier (AFI) ................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 General .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 AFI values .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 AFI assignment ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Monomorphic-UIIs and AFI ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Self-assignment of AFIs ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.6 AFI extension mechanism ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

6 Data format ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Data format values ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Data format assignment by the Registration Authority ....................................................................................... 7

6.4 Self-assignment of data formats 29 and 30 .................................................................................................................... 7

6.4.1 Data format 29 ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4.2 Data format 30 ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.5 Data format extension mechanism ........................................................................................................................................ 7

7 Object Identifiers ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 General use of Object Identifiers in open application environments ...................................................... 8

7.3 Use of Object Identifiers in closed application environments ....................................................................... 9

7.4 Object Identifier for the Unique Item Identifier ......................................................................................................... 9

7.5 Object Identifiers for other item attendant data ....................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) First, second and third arcs of Object Identifier tree..........................................................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http: //patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

This first edition of ISO/IEC 15961-3, together with ISO/IEC 15961-1, ISO/IEC 15961-2 and ISO/

IEC 15961-4, cancels and replaces ISO/IEC 15961:2004, which has been technically revised.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 15961 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)
Introduction

The technology of radio frequency identification (RFID) is based on non-contact electronic

communication across an air interface. The structure of the bits stored on the memory of the RFID

tag is invisible and accessible between the RFID tag and the interrogator only by the use of the

appropriate air interface protocol, as specified in the appropriate part of ISO/IEC 18000. The transfer

of data between the application and the interrogator in open systems requires data to be presented in

a consistent manner on any RFID tag that is part of that open system. Application commands from the

application and responses from the interrogator also require being processed in a standard way. This

is not only to allow equipment to be interoperable, but in the special case of the data carrier, for the

data to be encoded on the RFID tag in one system implementation for it to be read at a later time in a

completely different and unknown system implementation. The data bits stored on each RFID tag must

be formatted in such a way as to be reliably read at the point of use if the RFID tag is to fulfil its basic

objective.

Manufacturers of RFID equipment (interrogators, RFID tags, etc.) and the users of RFID technology

require a standard-based data protocol for RFID for item management. ISO/IEC 15961 and ISO/

IEC 15962 specify this data protocol, which is independent of any of the air interface standards defined

in ISO/IEC 18000. As such, the data protocol is a consistent component in the RFID system that may

independently evolve to include additional air interface protocols. The International Standards that

comprise the data protocol are as follows:

— ISO/IEC 15961-1 , which defines the transfer of data to and from the application, supported by

appropriate application commands and responses;

— ISO/IEC 15961-2 , which defines the registration procedure of RFID data constructs to ensure that

the data protocol supports new applications, in a relatively straightforward manner, as they adopt

RFID technology. This can be achieved by the Registration Authority publishing regular updates of

RFID data constructs that have been assigned, and as a means of incorporating these updates into

the processes of ISO/IEC 15961-1;

— this document (ISO/IEC 15961-3), which defines the data constructs and the rules that govern

their use;

— ISO/IEC 15961-4, which defines the transfer of data associated with sensors and batteries to and

from the application, supported by appropriate application commands and responses;

— ISO/IEC 15962, which specifies the overall process and the methodologies developed to format the

application data into a structure to store on the RFID tag.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)
Information technology — Data protocol for radio
frequency identification (RFID) for item management —
Part 3:
RFID data constructs
1 Scope

This document specifies rules and code structures associated with the data constructs for RFID for

item management. In particular, it:

— defines the application family identifier (AFI), including the range of code values that are available

to use for RFID for item management;

— defines the data format, including the range of code values that are available to use for RFID for item

management;
— describes the Object Identifier structure used for RFID for item management;

— specifies the function of the Object Identifier for the Unique Item Identifier (UII);

— specifies the function of the Object Identifier for other item attendant data.

NOTE Conventionally in International Standards, long numbers are separated by a space character as a

“thousands separator”. This convention has not been followed in this document because the arcs of an Object

Identifier are defined by a space separator (according to ISO/IEC 8824 and ISO/IEC 8825). As the correct

representation of these arcs is vital to this document, all numeric values have no space separators except to

denote a node between two arcs of an Object Identifier. For additional clarity, Object Identifiers are presented in

bold text.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 9834-1, Information technology — Procedures for the operation of object identifier registration

authorities: General procedures and top arcs of the international object identifier tree — Part 1

ISO/IEC 15961-2 ,Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management:

Data protocol — Part 2: Registration of RFID data constructs

ISO/IEC 15962, Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management —

Data protocol: data encoding rules and logical memory functions
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following terms, definitions and abbreviated terms apply.

1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/IEC/FDIS 15961-2:2018.

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
Application Family Identifier

mechanism used in the data protocol and the air interface protocol to select a class of RFID tags relevant

to an application, or aspect of an application, and to ignore further communications with other classes

of RFID tags with different identifiers
3.1.2
arc
specific branch of a hierarchical Object Identifier tree

Note 1 to entry: The top three arcs of Object Identifiers relevant to RFID, compliant with ISO/IEC 9834-1, are

defined in Annex A.
3.1.3
data format

mechanism used in the data protocol to identify how Object Identifiers are encoded on the RFID tag,

and (where possible) identify a particular data dictionary for the set of relevant Object Identifiers for a

specific application
3.1.4
Object

well-defined piece of information, definition or specification which requires a name in order to identify

its use in an instance of communication
3.1.5
Object Identifier

value (distinguishable from all other such values) which is associated with an Object

3.1.6
Relative-OID

Object Identifier comprising the remaining arc or arcs positioned after a common Root-OID (for the

first and subsequent arcs)

Note 1 to entry: The common Root-OID is often implied by other data constructs and not encoded in the RFID tag.

3.1.7
Root-OID

particular Object Identifier that constitutes the first, second and subsequent common arcs of a set of

Object Identifiers (hence the common root)

Note 1 to entry: The Root-OID followed immediately by the Relative-OID equates to the complete Object Identifier.

3.1.8
Unique Item Identifier

mechanism that uniquely identifies a specific entity (e.g. a product, transport unit, returnable asset)

during its life within a particular domain and scope of a code system

Note 1 to entry: When used with this data protocol, the particular Object Identifier that defines the Unique Item

Identifier relies on the fact that each instance of its Object is required to be unique and unambiguous with respect

to all other related Objects.
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ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)
3.2 Abbreviated terms
AFI Application Family Identifier
DSFID Data Storage Format Identifier
OID Object Identifier
RA Registration Authority
UII Unique Item Identifier
4 Conformance
4.1 Conformance of encoders

In addition to the conformance requirements for encoders as defined in ISO/IEC 15962, an encoder

claiming conformance to this document shall access the data constructs register and provide the

necessary additional encoding rules are defined by the particular data construct(s). These include:

— the recognition of a valid AFI;

— the recognition of a valid data format, including the capability to construct the DSFID, or extended

DSFID if appropriate;

— the recognition of the common Root-OID for data to be encoded so that only the Relative-OID is

encoded;

— the use of relevant tables for encoding as defined by the data format and registration of the data

constructs, including Packed Objects, Tag Data Profiles and encoding that is declared in the data

constructs register;

— the recognition of AFIs associated with Monomorphic-UIIs that require explicitly defined

encoding rules.
Declarations of conformance shall be based on one of the following:

— for all registrations up to a particular publication date of the data constructs register;

— for one or more specific registrations, in which case the declaration shall refer to the specific

registration(s).
4.2 Conformance of decoders

In addition to the conformance requirements for decoders as defined in ISO/IEC 15962, a decoder

claiming conformance to this document shall access the data constructs register and provide the

necessary additional encoding rules are defined by the particular data construct(s). These include:

— the recognition of a valid AFI;

— the recognition of a valid data format, including the capability to de-construct the DSFID, or extended

DSFID if appropriate;

— the recognition of the common Root-OID for data to be pre-pended to the Relative-OID that is

encoded;

— the use of relevant tables for decoding as defined by the data format and registration of the data

constructs, including Packed Objects, Tag Data Profiles and encoding that is declared in the data

constructs register;
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)

— the recognition of AFIs associated with Monomorphic-UIIs that require explicitly defined

decoding rules.
Declarations of conformance shall be based on one of the following:

— for all registrations up to a particular publication date of the data constructs register;

— for one or more specific registrations, in which case the declaration shall refer to the specific

registration(s).
5 Application Family Identifier (AFI)
5.1 General

The Application Family Identifier (AFI) is a data protocol mechanism that enables selective addressing

of RFID tags to achieve an efficient use of radio communications. The AFI is generally supported by a

mechanism at the air interface, enabling the use of the AFI in application commands defined in ISO/

IEC 15961-1 to be converted into air interface commands. Such commands maintain communication

with RFID tags with the selected AFI and generally ignore RFID tags with different encoded AFIs.

The value of the AFI for RFID for item management can be stored on the RFID tag in some form, or can

be determined by the air interface services if these are sufficiently specific. It is a single byte value,

although provisions are made below for an extension mechanism in case the set of single byte AFIs

becomes fully utilised.
5.2 AFI values

The AFI is encoded as a byte value, with possible extensions to multiple bytes to meet future application

needs. The commands and responses of ISO/IEC 15961-1 require the AFI to be represented as decimal

values, whereas the processes of ISO/IEC 15962 and the air interface protocols (ISO/IEC 18000) require

the AFI to be represented as hexadecimal values. Both forms are used in Table 1.

For compatibility with other RFID protocols and standards, the AFIs assigned in accordance with ISO/

IEC 15961-2 are restricted to:
— AFIs 0 to 15 (00 to 0F );
16 16
— AFIs 144 to 206 (90 to CE ).
16 16
5.3 AFI assignment

AFIs in the range 144 to 206 (90 to CE ) shall be assigned in accordance with ISO/IEC 15961-2. The RA

16 16

is also responsible for assigning AFIs in the range 1 to 15 (01 to 0F ) for closed system applications.

16 16

Details of assigned AFIs, together with the other data constructs associated with particular application

standards, are available on the data constructs register published by the RA. A copy of the register of

RFID data constructs can be obtained from the dedicated website of the RA for ISO/IEC 15961-2 at:

https: //www .iso .org/iso/maintenance _agencies .htm.
5.4 Monomorphic-UIIs and AFI

There is a class of UII that is declared directly by the AFI without reference to a data format. A UII that

is declared in this manner is defined as a Monomorphic-UII, and needs to be properly registered in

accordance with ISO/IEC 15961-2. A Monomorphic-UII shall either be the only encoded data in a dedicated

UII memory bank, or be the only data element encoded on an RFID tag with a single encoding memory.

The encoding process uses the rules that are defined for a specific AFI on the data constructs register

to carry out the encoding, resulting in the absence of a DSFID and other syntactical components. The

decoding process, on recognising the specific AFI, interprets the bytes on the tag without the need for a

DSFID in the first byte.
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ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)
Table 1 — Allocated AFIs for RFID for item management
ISO/IEC 15961 ISO/IEC 15962 Function
(Decimal) (Hexadecimal)
0 00 AFI not configured

1 to 3 01 to 03 Assigned to closed application environments, which allows up to three

means of selection across the air interface
4 04 Assigned to closed system data under the control of the manufacturer of
the item associated with the RFID tag, when encoded in RFID tags with
partitioned memory
5 05 Assigned to closed system data under the control of the transport company
of the item associated with the RFID tag, when encoded in RFID tags with
partitioned memory
6 06 Assigned to closed system data under the control of the end user of the
item associated with the RFID tag, when encoded in RFID tags with par-
titioned memory
7 07 Assigned to closed systems control of re-circulating items (e.g. library
items, media, returnable assets)

8 to 15 08 to 0F Reserved for allocation by ISO/IEC 15961-2 RA to other closed system data

or applications
16 to 143 10 to 8F Not assigned by ISO/IEC 15961-2 RA
144 to 206 90 to CE Assigned in accordance with ISO/IEC 15961-2
207 CF Reserved as an extension code for multiple byte AFI for RFID for item
management
208 to 255 D0 to FF Not assigned by ISO/IEC 15961-2 RA

NOTE As AFIs 8 to 15 (08 to 0F ) are assigned a function, this will be declared on the RFID data constructs

16 16
register.
5.5 Self-assignment of AFIs

A limited range of AFIs is available for self-assignment by users for closed application environments.

NOTE ISO/IEC 19762 defines closed application environment as “application which is intended for use by a

closed group of users” and further notes that “[a] closed group of users is typically within a single organisation or

subject to a specific agreement."

Users of RFID technology in closed application environments have up to three AFI codes 1 to 3 (01

to 03 ) that they may use without registration. This allows the AFI to distinguish between different

closed applications if necessary.

There can also be occasions where closed system data can be encoded separately from open system

data (e.g. in RFID tags with partitioned memory). One of the partitioned memories could contain closed

system data on some occasions and open system data on others. The AFI codes 4 to 15 (04 to 0F )

16 16

are available for this purpose, and shall only be used as defined in Table 1. A copy of the register of RFID

data constructs can be obtained from the dedicated website of the RA for ISO/IEC 15961-2 at: https:

//www .iso .org/iso/maintenance _agencies .htm.
5.6 AFI extension mechanism

AFI value CF is reserved to extend the AFI mechanism beyond the 64 code points defined in Table 1.

NOTE The precise mechanism has not been defined yet. In defining it, due consideration will be given to the

implications for the air interface protocols and RFID tag architectures defined in ISO/IEC 18000.

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/IEC 15961-3:2019(E)
6 Data format
6.1 General

The prime purpose of the data format is to provide a link between the Object Identifier structure of

ISO/IEC 9834-1 and the application data, which can be in the form of a data dictionary or specification

of a set of data elements.

EXAMPLE Data format 10 indicates that the Root-OID 1 0 15961 10 is assigned to the data elements known

as Data Identifiers as defined in ISO/IEC 15418.

The data format is usually a component in the encoding of Object Identifiers in any memory space where

it is possible to encode application data. This applies whether the data is a Unique Item Identifier or is

optional item-related data. There is an exception to this rule for Monomorphic-UIIs that are properly

registered in accordance with ISO/IEC 15961-2 (see 5.4).

A secondary purpose of the data format is to enable the Object Identifier to be truncated when encoded

on the RFID tag, without the loss of uniqueness. The data format is encoded once as part of the system

information, and because of the one-to-one mapping between the data format and the Root-OID, this

does not need to be encoded for any data Objects encoded on the RFID tag.

When called in the application commands of ISO/IEC 15961-1, and encoded in the RFID tag, the data

format is the last 5 bits of the DSFID (previously called the storage format) byte value.

6.2 Data format values

Data format values 0 to 30 (00000 to 11110 ) are currently available for directly encoding in a single

2 2
byte DSFID.

Data format 31 signals an extension mechanism when the basic set becomes fully utilized. As such, data

format 31 can never be assigned to an application. The extended data formats cover the range from 32

to 287. The representation in the RFID tag is specified in ISO/IEC 15962, and the encoding is spread

over two bytes: the DSFID and the Extended-Data-Format byte.
The range of values is shown in Table 2.
Table 2 — Allocated data formats for RFID for item management
ISO/IEC 15961 Function
(Decimal)
0 This value is also the default for an RFID tag yet to be formatted.
1 Full featured

This data format supports any type of data format where the full OBJECT IDENTIFIER is

encoded. Its prime purpose is to enable heterogeneous data (i.e. from different data diction-

aries) to be encoded on the one RFID tag. For example, it could be used to encode data from

different open system applications and also to encode closed system data unambiguously,

using the ISO/IEC 9834-1 registered Object Identifiers for each application.
2 Root-OID encoded

This data format is used when all the data on the RFID tag have a common Root-OID, but

where this does not comply with one of the specific Root-OIDs for the data formats assigned

by the Registration Authority.

3 to 28 Only to be allocated in accordance with ISO/IEC 15961-2. The pre-assignment of this range

of values was permissible in the previous edition, ISO/IEC 15961:2004.

29 Assigned to closed application environments where the encoded data is encoded to the rules

of ISO/IEC 15961-1 and ISO/IEC 15962.
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