This document defines a test method to evaluate the interference rejection performance of tags covered by ISO/IECÂ 18000-63 and a heterogeneous wireless system using different access technologies, e.g. radio frequency identification and cell phone network. It specifies the general requirements and test requirements. The test method in this document makes it possible to compare the relative interference rejection performance among tags under a single wireless interference environment. In addition, this document can be used in a benchmarking test according to requirements in a given application or service.

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This document specifies the design and use of the RFID Emblem: an easily identified visual guide that indicates the presence of radio frequency identification (RFID). It does not address the location of the RFID Emblem on a label. Specific placement requirements are left to application standards developers. This document also specifies an RFID Index, which can be included in the RFID Emblem and which addresses the complication added by the wide range of RFID tags in existence (frequency, protocol and data structure). The RFID Index is a two-character code that provides specific information about tags and interrogators. Successful reading of RFID tags requires knowledge of the frequency, protocol and data structure information provided by the RFID Index.

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This document defines test methods for performance characteristics of RFID tags for item management and specifies the general requirements and test requirements for tags which are applicable to the selection of devices for an application. The summary of the test reports forms a unified tag datasheet.

  • Standard
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    51 pages
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This document describes test methods for determining the conformance of security crypto suites defined in ISO/IEC 29167-16. This document contains conformance tests for all mandatory and applicable optional functions. The conformance parameters are the following: — parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability; — protocol including commands and replies; — nominal values and tolerances. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in this document are to be applied exclusively to RFID tags and interrogators defined in the ISO/IEC 18000 series using ISO/IEC 29167-16.

  • Standard
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  • Draft
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This document specifies the procedural requirements to maintain identities and outlines the obligations of the Registration Authority.

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    3 pages
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This document defines test methods for performance characteristics of RFID interrogators and specifies the general requirements and test requirements for interrogators which are applicable to the selection of the devices for an application. The summary of the test reports forms a unified interrogator datasheet.

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This document describes numbering systems that are available for the identification of RF tags and assigns various allocation classes to various agencies that issue manufacturer codes. The unique ID can be used: — for the traceability of the integrated circuit itself for quality control in its manufacturing process; — for the traceability of the RF tag during its manufacturing process and along its lifetime; — for the completion of the reading in a multi-antenna configuration; — by the anti-collision mechanism to inventory multiple tags in the reader's field of view; and — for the traceability of the item to which the RF tag is attached.

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This document describes test methods for determining the conformance of security crypto suites defined in ISO/IEC 29167‑10. This document contains conformance tests for all mandatory and applicable optional functions. The conformance parameters are the following: — parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability; — protocol including commands and replies; — nominal values and tolerances. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in this document are intended to be applied exclusively to RFID Tags and Interrogators defined in the ISO/IEC 15693 series and in the ISO/IEC 18000 series using ISO/IEC 29167‑10.

  • Standard
    45 pages
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This document defines how to use the RFID air interface standards of the ISO/IEC 18000 series that are based on backscatter technology for localization of RFID tags, specifically tags which are ISO/IEC 18000‑4, ISO/IEC 18000‑61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 compliant. This document specifies the physical and logical requirements for localization. The system comprises interrogators, also known as readers, and tags, also known as labels. An interrogator receives information from a tag by transmitting a modulated RF signal to the tag and the tag responds by modulating the reflection coefficient of its antenna, thereby backscattering an information signal to the interrogator. The modulated RF signal for data exchange is based on the relevant part of the ISO/IEC 18000 series and, in addition, there is a superimposed modulated RF signal with the same or different carrier frequency intended for localization. This document describes the signals required for localization, the method to derive localization information from the signals received by the interrogator and the requirements onto tags and interrogators.

  • Standard
    15 pages
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This document specifies the procedural requirements to maintain specific RFID data constructs. The data constructs are associated with managing open and closed applications that utilise RFID systems which conform to the data protocol defined in other parts of ISO/IEC 15961 and ISO/IEC 15962, and the air interface protocols of ISO/IEC 18000. It also outlines the obligations of the Registration Authority and the application administrators, with respect to: — the allocation of AFIs to particular applications defined by the application administrator; — the allocation of data formats to particular applications defined by the application administrator; — the registration of Root-OIDs, compliant with ISO/IEC 9834-1, to any Unique Item Identifiers used in applications defined by the application administrator; — the registration of Root-OIDs, compliant with ISO/IEC 9834-1, to any other data used in applications defined by the application administrator; — the registration of various table-driven encoding schemes, compliant with ISO/IEC 15962.

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This document defines the test methods for determining the performance characteristics of chirp spread spectrum (CSS) real time locating system (RTLS) equipment including tags and readers which are applicable to the selection of equipment that conforms to ISO/IEC 24730‑5 for specific applications. This document does not apply to the testing in relation to regulatory or similar requirements. The RTLS equipment performance parameters included in this document only include the chirp spread spectrum (CSS) radio frequencies link between tags and readers. Unlike ISO/IEC 18305, the tests in this document apply exclusively to RTLS equipment defined in ISO/IEC 24730‑5 unless specified otherwise.

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This document defines the Rabin-Montgomery (RAMON) crypto suite for the ISO/IEC 18000 series of air interfaces standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite for security for RFID devices that can be referred to by ISO/IEC for air interface standards and application standards. This document specifies a crypto suite for Rabin-Montgomery (RAMON) for air interface for RFID systems. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. This document defines various authentication methods and methods of use for the cipher. A Tag and an Interrogator can support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

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This document describes methods for determining conformance to the security crypto suite defined in ISO/IEC 29167‑21. This document contains conformance tests for all mandatory functions. The conformance parameters are the following: — parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability, — protocol including commands and replies, — nominal values and tolerances. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in this document are intended to be applied exclusively to RFID tags and interrogators defined in the ISO/IEC 18000 series using ISO/IEC 29167‑21.

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This document describes methods for determining conformance to the security crypto suite defined in ISO/IEC 29167‑22. This document contains conformance tests for all mandatory functions. The conformance parameters are the following: — parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability; — protocol including commands and replies; — nominal values and tolerances. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in this document are intended to be applied exclusively to RFID tags and interrogators defined in the ISO/IEC 18000‑ series using ISO/IEC 29167‑22.

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This document specifies rules and code structures associated with the data constructs for RFID for item management. In particular, it: — defines the application family identifier (AFI), including the range of code values that are available to use for RFID for item management; — defines the data format, including the range of code values that are available to use for RFID for item management; — describes the Object Identifier structure used for RFID for item management; — specifies the function of the Object Identifier for the Unique Item Identifier (UII); — specifies the function of the Object Identifier for other item attendant data. NOTE Conventionally in International Standards, long numbers are separated by a space character as a "thousands separator". This convention has not been followed in this document because the arcs of an Object Identifier are defined by a space separator (according to ISO/IEC 8824 and ISO/IEC 8825). As the correct representation of these arcs is vital to this document, all numeric values have no space separators except to denote a node between two arcs of an Object Identifier. For additional clarity, Object Identifiers are presented in bold text.

  • Standard
    13 pages
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This document defines the crypto suite for SPECK for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interfaces standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite for security for RFID devices that can be referred to by ISO committees for air interface standards and application standards. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. SPECK is a symmetric block cipher that is parameterized in both its block length and key length. In this document, a variety of block/key length options are supported. This document defines various methods of use for the cipher. A Tag and an Interrogator can support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

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This document defines the crypto suite for SIMON for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interfaces standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite for security for RFID devices that can be referred by ISO committees for air interface standards and application standards. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. SIMON is a symmetric block cipher that is parameterized in both its block length and key length. In this standard, a variety of block/key length options are supported. This document defines various methods of use for the cipher. A Tag and an Interrogator can support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

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This document describes test methods for determining the conformance of security crypto suites with the specifications given in ISO/IEC 29167‑19. This document contains conformance tests for all mandatory and optional functions. The conformance parameters are the following: — parameters that apply directly, affecting system functionality and inter-operability; — protocol including commands and replies; — nominal values and tolerances. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in this document are exclusively applicable in relation to RFID tags and interrogators defined in the ISO/IEC 18000 series using a reference to this document.

  • Standard
    17 pages
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This document defines the air interface for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices operating in the 2,45 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band used in item management applications. This document provides a common technical specification for RFID devices that can be used by ISO committees developing RFID application standards. This document is intended to allow for compatibility and to encourage inter-operability of products for the growing RFID market in the international marketplace. This document defines the forward and return link parameters for technical attributes including, but not limited to, operating frequency, operating channel accuracy, occupied channel bandwidth, maximum equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP), spurious emissions, modulation, duty cycle, data coding, bit rate, bit rate accuracy, bit transmission order, and where appropriate, operating channels, frequency hop rate, hop sequence, spreading sequence, and chip rate. This document further defines the communications protocol used in the air interface. This document contains four modes. Mode 1 is an interrogator talks first with passive tag. Mode 2 is a tag talks first with battery-assisted passive tag. Mode 3 is a globally available, ubiquitous network supporting (but not limited to) the logistics and transportation industry; agnostic to any device, commercial or otherwise, requiring global availability. Mode 4 is a configurable data rate active RFID system. It provides the functions of long range objects identification and environmental sense, and it is intended to realize the low cost device and low power consumption, long range identification, fast and reliable tags access. The detailed technical differences between the modes are shown in the parameter tables.

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ISO/IEC 19823-13:2018 describes test methods for determining the conformance of security crypto suites with the specifications given in ISO/IEC 29167‑13. ISO/IEC 19823-13:2018 contains conformance tests for all mandatory and optional functions. The conformance parameters are the following: - parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability; - protocol including commands and replies; and - nominal values and tolerances. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in this document are applied exclusively to RFID tags and interrogators defined in the ISO/IEC 18000 series using ISO/IEC 29167‑13.

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    21 pages
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ISO/IEC 21277:2018 defines test methods to measure the performance of crypto suites of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices (tags and interrogators) for item management as specified in ISO/IEC 18000‑63 and ISO/IEC 29167 (all parts). These test methods measure the crypto suite system performance (tags and interrogators) against the crypto suite outcomes as required by the desired set of use case requirements for a specific application/service. These test methods are used as an extension of ISO/IEC 18046‑1 but can be used in a standalone manner. Crypto suite performance can vary substantially between crypto suites, implementations of a crypto suite for tags and interrogators and crypto suite outcomes in specific interrogation scenarios. Tag crypto functions require time and energy to complete successfully. The desired crypto strength and method influence the time and energy required. "Crypto suite performance" is therefore defined in this document as "the shortest time to complete a crypto outcome at a given read distance in relation to the RF power available". This document provides guidelines in the evaluation of the measurement results. The test methods do not measure crypto capabilities which include crypto strength, suitability and robustness. They neither measure random generator performance nor deal with key management.

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ISO/IEC 29167-10:2017 specifies the crypto suite for AES-128 for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interfaces standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite for security for RFID devices that might be referred by ISO committees for air interface standards and application standards. ISO/IEC 29167-10:2017 specifies a crypto suite for AES-128 for an air interface for RFID systems. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. ISO/IEC 29167-10:2017 specifies various authentication methods and methods of use for the encryption algorithm. A Tag and an Interrogator can support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

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ISO/IEC 18047-6 defines test methods for determining the conformance of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices (tags and interrogators) for item management with the specifications given in ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64, but does not apply to the testing of conformity with regulatory or similar requirements. The test methods require only that the mandatory functions, and any optional functions which are implemented, are verified. This can, in appropriate circumstances, be supplemented by further, application-specific functionality criteria that are not available in the general case. The interrogator and tag conformance parameters in ISO/IEC 18047-6 are the following: - type-specific conformance parameters including nominal values and tolerances; - parameters that apply directly affecting system functionality and inter-operability. Parameters that are already included in regulatory test requirements are not included in ISO/IEC 18047-6. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in ISO/IEC 18047-6 are intended to be applied exclusively to RFID tags and interrogators defined in ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64.

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ISO/IEC TS 29167-15:2017 defines a coding suite based on an exclusive or (XOR) operation for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interfaces standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. In particular, it specifies the use of XOR as a basic way to hide plain data in the identity authentication and secure communication procedures. The coding suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. ISO/IEC TS 29167-15:2017 defines various authentication methods and methods of use for the XOR. A tag and an interrogator may support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

  • Technical specification
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ISO/IEC 18305:2016 identifies appropriate performance metrics and test & evaluation scenarios for localization and tracking systems, and it provides guidance on how best to present and visualize the T&E results. It focuses primarily on indoor environments.

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ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016 provides a set of application commands and their associated responses for the following functions: - to start and stop battery assistance; - to select and de-select a particular sensory function supported by the RFID tag; - to set sensor parameters both initially and ongoing; - to start and stop the sensor monitoring the environment; - to access sensor data; - to establish the battery status. ISO/IEC 24753 defines the encoding rules for identifying sensors, their functions, their delivered measurements, and the processing rules for sensor data. As such, it receives commands as defined in ISO/IEC 15961-4:2016 and provides the information that is required for the appropriate responses.

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ISO/IEC 18046-4:2015 defines test methods for performance characteristics of HF RFID gates in libraries for item management and specifies the general requirements and test requirements for HF RFID gates in libraries which are applicable to the selection of the gates for an application. The summary of the test reports form a unified tag datasheet. It does not apply to testing in relation to regulatory or similar requirements.

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ISO/IEC 29167-16:2015 describes a crypto suite based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) for the ISO/IEC 18000‑ series of standards protocol. In particular, it specifies the use of Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key agreement in a secure channel establishment and the use of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) in an authentication mechanism. ISO/IEC 29167-16:2015 specifies a crypto suite for ECDSA-ECDH for air interface for RFID systems. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. ISO/IEC 29167-16:2015 defines a mutual authentication method and methods of use for the cipher. A Tag and an Interrogator may support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported. Key update is not supported in this international standard.

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ISO/IEC 18000-3:2015 defines the air interface for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices operating in the 860 MHz to 960 MHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band used in item management applications. It provides a common technical specification for RFID devices that can be used by ISO committees developing RFID application standards. This part of ISO/IEC 18000 is intended to allow for compatibility and to encourage inter-operability of products for the growing RFID market in the international marketplace. It defines the forward and return link parameters for technical attributes including, but not limited to, operating frequency, operating channel accuracy, occupied channel bandwidth, maximum effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP), spurious emissions, modulation, duty cycle, data coding, bit rate, bit rate accuracy, bit transmission order, and, where appropriate, operating channels, frequency hop rate, hop sequence, spreading sequence, and chip rate. It further defines the communications protocol used in the air interface. ISO/IEC 18000-3:2015 specifies the physical and logical requirements for a passive-backscatter, Interrogator-Talks-First (ITF) systems. The system comprises Interrogators, also known as readers, and tags, also known as labels. An Interrogator receives information from a tag by transmitting a continuous-wave (CW) RF signal to the tag; the tag responds by modulating the reflection coefficient of its antenna, thereby backscattering an information signal to the Interrogator. The system is ITF, meaning that a tag modulates its antenna reflection coefficient with an information signal only after being directed to do so by an Interrogator. In detail, ISO/IEC 18000-3:2015 contains Type C. Type C uses PIE in the forward link and a random slotted collision-arbitration algorithm. ISO/IEC 18000-3:2015 specifies physical interactions (the signalling layer of the communication link) between Interrogators and tags, logical operating procedures and commands between Interrogators and Tags, the collision arbitration scheme used to identify a specific tag in a multiple-tag environment, optional security commands that allow the use of crypto suites of ISO/IEC 29167.

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ISO/IEC 29167-14:2015 defines the cryptographic suite for AES using OFB mode (AES OFB) for the ISO/IEC 18000‑63 air interface standard for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common cryptographic suite for security for RFID devices that can be referenced by ISO committees for air interface standards and application standards. ISO/IEC 29167-14:2015 specifies a cryptographic suite for AES OFB for air interface for RFID systems. The cryptographic suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. ISO/IEC 29167-14:2015 defines various authentication methods and methods of use for the cipher. A tag and an interrogator can support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

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ISO/IEC 24770-62:2015 defines the test methods for determining the performance characteristics of Ultra Wide Band (UWB) real time locating system (RTLS) equipment including tags and readers which are applicable to the selection of equipment that conforms to ISO/IEC 24730-62 for specific applications. It does not apply to the testing in relation to regulatory or similar requirements. The RTLS equipment performance parameters included in ISO/IEC 24770-62:2015 only include the Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radio frequencies link between tags and readers. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in ISO/IEC 24770-62:2015 apply exclusively to RTLS equipment defined in ISO/IEC 24730-62.

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ISO/IEC 24769-62:2015 defines the test methods for determining the conformance of Ultra Wide Band real-time locating system (RTLS) tags with the specifications given in the corresponding parts of ISO/IEC 24730‑62, but does not apply to the testing of conformity with regulatory or similar requirements. The test methods require only that the mandatory functions, and any optional functions which are implemented, be verified. This may in appropriate circumstances, be supplemented by further, application specific functionality criteria that are not available to the general case. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in ISO/IEC 24769-62:2015 apply exclusively to RTLS tags defined in ISO/IEC 24730-62.

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ISO/IEC 24769-61:2015 defines the test methods for determining the conformance of Ultra Wide Band real-time locating system (RTLS) tags with the specifications given in the corresponding parts of ISO/IEC 24730-61, but does not apply to the testing of conformity with regulatory or similar requirements. The test methods require only that the mandatory functions, and any optional functions which are implemented, be verified. This may in appropriate circumstances, be supplemented by further, application specific functionality criteria that are not available to the general case. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in ISO/IEC 24769-61:2015 apply exclusively to RTLS tags defined in ISO/IEC 24730-61.

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ISO/IEC 24770-61:2015 defines the test methods for determining the performance characteristics of Ultra Wide Band (UWB) real time locating system (RTLS) equipment including tags and readers which are applicable to the selection of equipment that conforms to ISO/IEC 24730-6 for specific applications. It does not apply to the testing in relation to regulatory or similar requirements. The RTLS equipment performance parameters included in ISO/IEC 24770-61:2015 only include the Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radio frequencies link between tags and readers. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in ISO/IEC 24770-61:2015 apply exclusively to RTLS equipment defined in ISO/IEC 24730-6.

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ISO/IEC 29167-17:2015 defines the cryptoGPS cryptographic suite for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interfaces standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite for security for RFID devices that might be referred by ISO committees for air interface standards and application standards. ISO/IEC 29167-17:2015 defines a lightweight mechanism using asymmetric techniques and providing a unilateral authentication mechanism whose security is related to the difficulty of taking discrete logarithms on elliptic curves.

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    39 pages
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ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015 defines the Crypto Suite for Grain-128A for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interface standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite for security for RFID devices that might be referred by ISO committees for air interface standards and application standards ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015 specifies a crypto suite for Grain-128A for air interface for RFID systems. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. ISO/IEC 29167-13:2015 defines various authentication methods and methods of use for the cipher. A tag and an interrogator might support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

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    39 pages
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ISO/IEC 29167-12:2015 defines the crypto suite for ECC-DH for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interfaces standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite with Diffie-Hellmann-based authentication using ECC (elliptic curve cryptography) over binary fields for security for RFID devices that may be referred by ISO committees for air interface standards and application standards. ISO/IEC 29167-12:2015 specifies a crypto suite for ECC-DH for air interface for RFID systems. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. ISO/IEC 29167-12:2015 defines various authentication methods and methods of use for the cipher. A Tag and an Interrogator may support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

  • Standard
    39 pages
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ISO/IEC 18000-7:2014 defines the air interface for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices operating as an active RF tag in the 433 MHz band used in item management applications. It provides a common technical specification for RFID devices that can be used by ISO technical committees developing RFID application standards. ISO/IEC 18000-7:2014 is intended to allow for compatibility and to encourage inter-operability of products for the growing RFID market in the international marketplace. It defines the forward and return link parameters for technical attributes including, but not limited to, operating frequency, operating channel accuracy, occupied channel bandwidth, maximum power, spurious emissions, modulation, duty cycle, data coding, bit rate, bit rate accuracy, bit transmission order, and, where appropriate, operating channels, frequency hop rate, hop sequence, spreading sequence, and chip rate. It further defines the communications protocol used in the air interface.

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  • Standard
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ISO/IEC 29167-1:2014 defines the architecture for security services for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interfaces standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. Its purpose is to provide a common technical specification for optional security services for RFID devices that may be used by ISO committees developing RFID application standards. ISO/IEC 29167-1:2014 defines various security features called security mechanisms that can be implemented by a tag depending on the application. A tag may support one, a subset, or all of the specified security mechanisms. For an interrogator it is possible to get information about the security mechanisms that are actually implemented and supported by a tag. Moreover, it has been considered that adding new security mechanisms remains possible. Besides signalling the presence of certain security services, further details of the mechanisms such as utilized encryption algorithm and key length also need to be specified and accessible. ISO/IEC 29167-1:2014 defines the requirements for crypto suites defined in further parts of ISO/IEC 29167 and furthermore defines how crypto suites identifiers are assigned to the various parts of ISO/IEC 29167.

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ISO/IEC 29167-11:2014 defines the crypto suite for PRESENT-80 for the ISO/IEC 18000 air interface standards for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices. The crypto suite is defined in alignment with existing air interfaces. Its purpose is to provide a common crypto suite for security for RFID devices that may be referred by ISO committees for air interface standards and application standards. PRESENT-80 is a symmetric block cipher that can process data blocks of 64 bits, using a key length of 80 bits. ISO/IEC 29167-11:2014 defines various authentication methods and methods of use for the cipher. A Tag and an Interrogator may support one, a subset, or all of the specified options, clearly stating what is supported.

  • Standard
    14 pages
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ISO/IEC 24791-3:2014 defines interfaces for device management of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. Interfaces are defined that provide for discovery, configuration, initialization and monitoring of RFID systems within the Software System Infrastructure (SSI). It only deals with devices that provide RFID related services. It does not distinguish the form factor of such RFID devices. ISO/IEC 24791-3:2014 provides two distinct interface sets, one based on the EPCglobal Discovery, Configuration, and Initialization (DCI) standard and the IETF SNMP RFCs and the other based on the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) Device Profile for Web Services (DPWS) standard. The definition of the Device Profile for RFID is referred to in ISO/IEC 24791-3:2014 as the RFID Device Management Profile, or RDMP. Each interface option set provides interface definitions that provide ISO/IEC 24791-3 Client Endpoints and Services Endpoints with the mechanisms for: discovery of the RFID devices and services on a local or remote subnet; a firmware upgrade service; a management service that implements configuration related functions; a monitoring service for reporting alerts, diagnostics, and performance information. The two interface set definitions provided by ISO/IEC 24791-3:2014 allow for clients and services endpoints to implement and provide the services based on the specific characteristics of the RFID system to be implemented.

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  • Standard
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ISO/IEC 24730-1:2014 enables software applications to utilize a real-time locating system (RTLS) infrastructure to locate assets with RTLS transmitters attached to them. It defines a boundary across which application software uses facilities of programming languages to collect information contained in RTLS tag blinks received by the RTLS infrastructure.

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    17 pages
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ISO/IEC 24730-62:2013 defines the air-interface for real time locating systems (RTLS) using a physical layer Ultra Wide Band (UWB) signalling mechanism (based on IEEE 802.15.4a UWB). This modulation scheme employs high rate pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) 16 MHz or 64 MHz, and a combination of burst position modulation (BPM) and binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) giving an extremely high level of performance with a fully coherent receiver. In addition to defining the air interface protocol (AIP) in terms of the physical layer modulation, ISO/IEC 24730-62:2013 also defines the AIP in terms of the messages sent over the air. This AIP supports simple one-way communication of a basic blink that may be used for a one-way Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) based RTLS, where mobile tags periodically transmit the blink message which is received by an infrastructure consisting of a number of fixed reader nodes. This AIP also optionally supports bidirectional communication and two-way ranging between the readers and tags of an RTLS. The support of two-way ranging depends on additionally including a UWB receiver in the tag and UWB transmitters in the reader infrastructure. The mandatory default operational mode ensures interoperability between tags and infrastructure from various manufacturers, while the availability of several options offers flexibility to the developer of the infrastructure to adapt the behaviour of the overall system to the specific needs of his application.

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ISO/IEC 24730-61:2012 defines the physical layer (PHY) and tag management layer (TML) of an ultra wide band (UWB) air interface protocol that supports one directional simplex communication readers and tags of a real time locating system (RTLS). This protocol is best utilized for low-data-rate wireless connectivity with fixed, portable, and moving devices with very limited battery consumption requirements.

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ISO/IEC 24769-2:2013 defines the test methods for determining the conformance of 2,4 GHz real-time locating system (RTLS) tags with the specifications given in the corresponding subclauses of ISO/IEC 24730-2, but does not apply to the testing of conformity with regulatory or similar requirements. The test methods require only that the mandatory functions, and any optional functions which are implemented, be verified. This may in appropriate circumstances be supplemented by further, application-specific functionality criteria that are not available to the general case. The RTLS tag conformance parameters included in ISO/IEC 24769-2:2013 include the mandatory direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) 2,4 GHz radio frequency beacon. It also includes the optional on-off keyed, frequency shift keyed (OOK/FSK) short-range radio frequency link and the optional magnetic air interface. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in ISO/IEC 24769-2:2013 apply exclusively to RTLS tags defined in ISO/IEC 24730-2.

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    28 pages
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ISO/IEC 15961-1:2013 focuses on the abstract interface between an application and the data processor, and includes the specification and definition of application commands and responses. It allows data and commands to be specified in a standardized way, independent of the particular air interface of ISO/IEC 18000. ISO/IEC 15961-1:2013 provides guidelines on how data shall be presented as objects; defines the structure of Object Identifiers, based on ISO/IEC 9834-1; specifies the commands that are supported for transferring data between an application and the radio frequency identification (RFID) tag; specifies the responses that are supported for transferring data between the RFID tag and the application; does not specify any required transfer syntax with ISO/IEC 15962, but provides the non-normative information to provide backward compatibility with ISO/IEC 15961:2004.

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    142 pages
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The data protocol used to exchange information in a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for item management is specified in ISO/IEC 15961 and in ISO/IEC 15962:2013. Both International Standards are required for a complete understanding of the data protocol in its entirety; but each focuses on one particular interface: ISO/IEC 15961 addresses the interface with the application system. ISO/IEC 15962:2013 deals with the processing of data and its presentation to the RF tag, and the initial processing of data captured from the RF tag. ISO/IEC 15962:2013 focuses on encoding the transfer syntax, as defined in ISO/IEC 15961 according to the application commands defined in ISO/IEC 15961. The encodation is in a Logical Memory as a software analogue of the physical memory of the RFID tag being addressed by the interrogator. ISO/IEC 15962:2013 defines the encoded structure of object identifiers; specifies the data compaction rules that apply to the encoded data; specifies a Precursor for encoding syntax features efficiently; specifies formatting rules for the data, e.g. depending on whether a directory is used or not; defines how application commands, e.g. to lock data, are transferred to the Tag Driver; specifies processes associated with sensory information and the transfers to the Tag Driver; defines other communication to the application.

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ISO/IEC 18000-6:2013 defines the air interface for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices operating in the 860 MHz to 960 MHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band used in item management applications. It provides a common technical specification for RFID devices that can be used by ISO committees developing RFID application standards. It is intended to allow for compatibility and to encourage inter-operability of products for the growing RFID market in the international marketplace. It defines the forward and return link parameters for technical attributes including, but not limited to, operating frequency, operating channel accuracy, occupied channel bandwidth, maximum effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP), spurious emissions, modulation, duty cycle, data coding, bit rate, bit rate accuracy, bit transmission order, and, where appropriate, operating channels, frequency hop rate, hop sequence, spreading sequence, and chip rate. It further defines the communications protocol used in the air interface. ISO/IEC 18000-6:2013 together with ISO/IEC 18000-61, ISO/IEC 18000-62, ISO/IEC 18000-63 and ISO/IEC 18000-64 specifies the physical and logical requirements for a passive-backscatter, Interrogator-Talks-First (ITF) or tag-only-talks-after-listening (TOTAL) RFID system. The system comprises Interrogators, also known as readers, and tags, also known as labels. An Interrogator receives information from a tag by transmitting a continuous-wave (CW) RF signal to the tag; the tag responds by modulating the reflection coefficient of its antenna, thereby backscattering an information signal to the Interrogator. The system is ITF, meaning that a tag modulates its antenna reflection coefficient with an information signal only after being directed to do so by an Interrogator, or TOTAL, meaning that a tag modulates its antenna reflection coefficient with an information signal upon entering an Interrogator's field after first listening for Interrogator modulation in order to determine if the system is ITF or not. ISO/IEC 18000-6:2013 contains one mode with four types. The detailed technical differences between the four types are shown in the associated parameter tables. Types A, B and C are ITF. Type A uses Pulse-Interval Encoding (PIE) in the forward link and an adaptive ALOHA collision-arbitration algorithm. Type B uses Manchester in the forward link and an adaptive binary-tree collision-arbitration algorithm. Type C uses PIE in the forward link and a random slotted collision-arbitration algorithm. Type D is TOTAL based on Pulse Position Encoding or Miller M=2 encoded subcarrier.

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    9 pages
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ISO/IEC 24791-5:2012 defines an interface within the Software System Infrastructure (SSI) that provides RFID system control components with low-level access to RFID interrogators for the purpose of optimizing RFID data access and control operations. This interface is designed to be modular with the ability to support multiple RFID air protocols. However, in ISO/IEC 24791-5:2012, the only RFID air protocol supported is Type C of ISO/IEC 18000-6.

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    19 pages
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ISO/IEC 24770:2012 defines the test methods for determining the performance characteristics of 2,4 GHz real-time locating system (RTLS) equipment including tags, readers, and exciters which are applicable to the selection of equipment that conforms to ISO/IEC 24730-2 for specific applications. ISO/IEC 24770:2012 does not apply to the testing in relation to regulatory or similar requirements. The RTLS equipment performance parameters included in ISO/IEC 24770:2012 include the mandatory direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) 2,4 GHz radio frequency beacon link between tags and readers. It includes the optional on-off keyed/frequency shift keyed (OOK/FSK) short range radio frequency link between tags and programmers. It also includes the optional magnetic air-interface between exciters and tags and between programmers and tags. Unless otherwise specified, the tests in ISO/IEC 24770:2012 apply exclusively to RTLS equipment defined in ISO/IEC 24730-2.

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    10 pages
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