Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4: Environmental control

This document addresses environmental control within data centres based upon the criteria and classifications for “availability”, “security” and “energy efficiency enablement” within ISO/IEC 22237‑1. This document specifies requirements and recommendations for the following: a) temperature control; b) fluid movement control; c) relative humidity control; d) particulate control; e) vibration; f) physical security of environmental control systems.

Technologie de l’information — Installation et infrastructures de centres de traitement de données — Partie 4: Contrôle environnemental

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Publication Date
28-Oct-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
29-Oct-2021
Completion Date
29-Oct-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 22237-4
First edition
2021-10
Information technology — Data centre
facilities and infrastructures —
Part 4:
Environmental control
Technologie de l’information — Installation et infrastructures de
centres de traitement de données —
Partie 4: Contrôle environnemental
Reference number
ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)
© ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Environmental control within data centres ........................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.1 Design input ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1.2 Functional elements ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1.3 Requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.1.4 Recommendations............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Environmental control of data centre spaces ............................................................................................................. 6

5.2.1 Building entrance facilities ....................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.2 Personnel entrance(s) .................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.3 Docking/loading bay(s) ................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.4 Generator space(s) including fuel storage ................................................................................................... 6

5.2.5 Transformer space(s)...................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.6 Electrical distribution space(s) ............................................................................................................................. 7

5.2.7 Telecommunication spaces(s) ................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2.8 Main distributor spaces(s) ......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.9 Computer room space(s) and associated testing space(s) ............................................................. 7

5.2.10 Electrical space(s) ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.2.11 Mechanical space(s) ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.12 Control room space(s) .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.13 Office space(s) ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.14 Storage and holding space(s) ................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.15 Accommodation of UPS equipment .................................................................................................................... 9

6 Availability ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Availability Class design options ........................................................................................................................................... . 9

6.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.2.2 Computer room and telecom space(s) .......................................................................................................... 10

6.2.3 UPS space ............................................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.3 Environmental control system capacity planning with respect to expansion .......................... 17

6.4 Environmental control system capacity planning with respect to resilience ............................ 17

7 Physical security ...............................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18

7.2 Protection against unauthorized access ...................................................................................................................... 18

8 Energy efficiency enablement ............................................................................................................................................................18

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18

8.2 Measurement of temperature ................................................................................................................................................ 18

8.2.1 External temperature ................................................................................................................................................. 18

8.2.2 Computer room temperature ............................................................................................................................... 18

8.3 Measurement of relative humidity .................................................................................................................................... 19

8.3.1 External relative humidity ..................................................................................................................................... 19

8.3.2 Computer room relative humidity ................................................................................................................... 20

8.4 Measurement of air pressure.................................................................................................................................................. 20

8.5 Coolant flow rates ............................................................................................................................................................................. 20

iii
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)

8.6 Heat removal ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 20

8.7 Outside air ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 20

Annex A (informative) Overview of the requirements for environmental conditions ...............................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance

are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria

needed for the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives or

www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html. In the IEC, see www.iec.ch/understanding-standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 39, Sustainability, IT & Data Centres.

This first edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC TS 22237-4:2018), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes are as follows:

— availability requirements have been aligned with ISO/IEC 22237-1 and ISO/IEC 22237-3;

— figures have been updated.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 22237 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards

body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html and

www.iec.ch/national-committees.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)
Introduction

The unrestricted access to internet-based information demanded by the information society has led to

an exponential growth of both internet traffic and the volume of stored/retrieved data. Data centres

are housing and supporting the information technology and network telecommunications equipment

for data processing, data storage and data transport. They are required both by network operators

(delivering those services to customer premises) and by enterprises within those customer premises.

Data centres need to provide modular, scalable and flexible facilities and infrastructures to easily

accommodate the rapidly changing requirements of the market. In addition, energy consumption

of data centres has become critical, both from an environmental point of view (reduction of carbon

footprint), and with respect to economic considerations (cost of energy) for the data centre operator.

The implementation of data centres varies in terms of:
a) purpose (enterprise, co-location, co-hosting or network operator facilities);
b) security level;
c) physical size; and
d) accommodation (mobile, temporary and permanent constructions).
NOTE Cloud services can be provided by all data centre types mentioned.

The needs of data centres also vary in terms of availability of service, the provision of security and

the objectives for energy efficiency. These needs and objectives influence the design of data centres in

terms of building construction, power distribution, environmental control, telecommunications cabling

and physical security. Effective management and operational information are required to monitor

achievement of the defined needs and objectives.

The ISO/IEC 22237 series specifies requirements and recommendations to support the various parties

involved in the design, planning, procurement, integration, installation, operation and maintenance of

facilities and infrastructures within data centres. These parties include:

1) owners, operators, facility managers, ICT managers, project managers, main contractors;

2) consultants, architects, building designers and builders, system and installation designers, auditors

and commissioning agents;
3) suppliers of equipment; and
4) installers, maintainers.

At the time of publication of this document, the ISO/IEC 22237 series comprises the following

documents:

— ISO/IEC 22237-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 1:

General concepts;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2:

Building construction;

— ISO/IEC 22237-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 3: Power

distribution;

— ISO/IEC 22237-4 (this document), Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures —

Part 4: Environmental control;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-5, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 5:

Telecommunications cabling infrastructure;
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 6:

Security systems;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-7, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 7:

Management and operational information.

The inter-relationship of the specifications within the ISO/IEC 22237 series is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the ISO/IEC 22237 series of documents

ISO/IEC TS 22237-2 to ISO/IEC TS 22237-6 specify requirements and recommendations for particular

facilities and infrastructures to support the relevant classification for “availability”, “physical security”

and “energy efficiency enablement” selected from ISO/IEC 22237-1.

This document, ISO/IEC 22237-4, addresses the environmental control facilities and infrastructure

within data centres together with the interfaces for monitoring the performance of those facilities

and infrastructures in line with ISO/IEC TS 22237-7 (in accordance with the requirements of

ISO/IEC 22237-1).

ISO/IEC TS 22237-7 addresses the operational and management information (in accordance with the

requirements of ISO/IEC 22237-1).

This document is intended for use by and collaboration between architects, building designers and

builders, and system and installation designers.

The ISO/IEC 22237 series does not address the selection of information technology and network

telecommunications equipment, software and associated configuration issues.
vii
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)
Information technology — Data centre facilities and
infrastructures —
Part 4:
Environmental control
1 Scope

This document addresses environmental control within data centres based upon the criteria and

classifications for “availability”, “security” and “energy efficiency enablement” within ISO/IEC 22237-1.

This document specifies requirements and recommendations for the following:
a) temperature control;
b) fluid movement control;
c) relative humidity control;
d) particulate control;
e) vibration;
f) physical security of environmental control systems.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14644-8, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 8: Classification of air cleanliness

by chemical concentration (ACC)

ISO 16890-1, Air filters for general ventilation — Part 1: Technical specifications, requirements and

classification system based upon particulate matter efficiency (ePM)

ISO/IEC 22237-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 1: General

concepts

ISO/IEC 22237-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 3: Power

distribution

ISO/IEC/TS 22237-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 6:

Security systems

IEC 61439-1, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies — Part 1: General rules

IEC 62040-3, Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) — Part 3: Method of specifying the performance and

test requirements
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
access floor

system consisting of completely removable and interchangeable floor panels that are supported on

adjustable pedestals connected by stringers to allow the area beneath the floor to be used by building

services
Note 1 to entry: Also known as raised floor.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TS 22237-2:2018, 3.1.1 – modified: added note 1 to entry]
3.1.2
comfort environmental control

control which produces an environment which is appropriate for the effective performance of personnel

in a given space
3.1.3
dew point

temperature at which the water vapour in a gas begins to deposit as a liquid or ice, under standardized

conditions
3.1.4
direct fresh air cooling

cooling system that uses the external air that can be filtered to cool the IT equipment in the data centre

3.1.5
diesel rotary uninterruptible power system
DRUPS

system where the output waveform is produced by a rotating machine that is mechanically connected

to a flywheel stored energy source, and the flywheel stored energy source is coupled to a backup engine

with an electro-magnetic clutch
3.1.6
inlet air temperature
temperature of the (cold) air entering the rack or IT equipment
3.1.7
relative humidity

ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the vapour pressure of water vapour in moist air to the saturation

vapour pressure with respect to water or ice at the same temperature
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-705:1995, 705-05-09]
3.1.8
return air temperature

temperature of the (warm) air re-entering the environmental control system, e.g. the air handling unit

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)
3.1.9
rotary uninterruptible power system
rotary UPS

system where the output waveform is produced by a rotating machine, using either batteries or

flywheel as stored energy source
3.1.10
static uninterruptible power system
static UPS

system where the output waveform is produced by electronic circuits, using either batteries or flywheel

as stored energy source
3.1.11
supply air temperature

temperature of the (cold) air leaving the environmental control system e.g. the air handling unit

3.1.12
ventilation

supply of air motion in a space by circulation or by moving air through the space

Note 1 to entry: Ventilation can be produced by any combination of natural or mechanical supply and exhaust.

Note 2 to entry: Such systems can include partial treatment such as heating, relative humidity (3.1.7) control,

filtering or purification, and, in some cases, evaporative cooling.
3.2 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the abbreviated terms given in ISO/IEC 22237-1 and the following

apply.
AHU air handling unit
DX direct expansion cooling unit
IT information technology
ICT information and communication technology
4 Conformance
For a data centre to conform to this document:

a) it shall feature an environmental control solution that meets the requirements of Clauses 5 and 6;

b) it shall feature an approach to physical security in relation to the environmental control solution

that meets the requirements of Clause 7;

c) it shall feature an energy efficiency enablement solution that meets the requirements of the

relevant Granularity Level of Clause 8;
d) local regulations, including safety, shall be met.

The required Class of the Environmental Control system of a data centre is based on the required

Availability Class of the data centre.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)
5 Environmental control within data centres
5.1 General
5.1.1 Design input

Power supply, distribution and environmental control are important primary facilities and

infrastructures of a data centre and have inter-related design aspects:
a) power supplied to IT equipment which is converted to heat output;
b) power supplied to the environmental control system to remove the heat output.
Figure 2 — Logical representation of environmental control of data centre spaces
5.1.2 Functional elements

The environmental control system is one of the most important parts of the data centre infrastructure.

Excessive variations of temperature or relative humidity can directly affect the functional capability of

the data centre and its infrastructures.

The functional elements of the environmental control system are divided into supply and distribution

elements. The division of environmental control systems into supply and distribution reflects energy

efficiency where data centres use multiple cooling sources in various combinations (e.g. cold water

from public grids, non-dedicated central cooling plants, geothermal systems, rivers, and compressor

systems).

Supply elements relate to the generation of temperature-controlled fluids. Distribution elements relate

to the distribution of fluids generated by the supply elements. Distribution elements are differentiated

in devices (units) and paths. See Table 1 for examples of these elements.

It should be noted that for environmental control systems the electrical energy flow is into the

system and the thermal flow is from within the controlled environment outwards to the uncontrolled

environment (exhausted from the building).

Some environmental systems combine the function of supply and distribution elements.

Table 1 — Examples of supply and distribution elements
Functional element(s)
Area Fluid
Device/Functional ele- Path/Functional
ment element
Supply Water/Refrigerant External water supply, Pipe system
chiller, pump(s), condens-
ing unit
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22237-4:2021(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Functional element(s)
Area Fluid
Device/Functional ele- Path/Functional
ment element
Air Outside air intake, filter(s), Duct/Plenum system
heat exchanger
Distribution Water/Refrigerant Pump(s), heat exchanger Pipe system
Air CRAC, CRAH, louvres, AHU Duct/Plenum system
5.1.3 Requirements

The approach taken for the design of the environmental control system shall take into account available

technology, physical security, data centre availability, maintenance and future extension (continuity of

service).

Physical data centre location and external conditions (minimum, median and maximum external

temperature and humidity rate) have to be taken into account for the selection of the functional

elements.

The design of the environmental control system and the selection and installation of functional

elements shall take into consideration the effect of vibration on the data centre spaces.

The design of the environmental control system and the selection and installation of functional elements

shall take into consideration the effect of friction and/or obstruction in the pathways for temperature-

controlled fluids. Operational controls shall be provided to ensure no degradation of fluid flow due to

changes in the pathways (see ISO/IEC TS 22237-7).

During the design phase, the requirement for the number of air changes per unit time and air pressure

shall be established.
In all data centre spaces, the requirements for air quality shall be considered.

In all spaces with a risk of damage to static-sensitive equipment from electro-static discharge,

the relative humidity shall be maintained in accordance with the instructions of the supplier of the

equipment to be accommodated. Where no information exists or where the equipment manufacturer is

not specified, a minimum dew point of 5,5 °C shall be maintained.

Where direct fresh air cooling solutions are chosen, the requirements analysis and the resulting

methodology of monitoring and control is of prime importance. In these circumstances, particular

consideration shall be given to the control of contaminants.

For guidance on the ventilation requirements of activated gaseous suppression systems that have been

discharged, see ISO/IEC TS 22237-6.
An overview of the requirements on environmental conditions is given in Annex A.
5.1.4 Recommendations

Opportunities for reductions in energy consumption exist where wider tolerances of temperature and

relative humidity can be accepted in defined data centre spaces (see CLC/TR 50600-99-1).

Measurements are requested at various points in the text to provide insight, the ability to analyse and

ultimately to improve energy efficiency.

Devices of the environmental control system with integrated vibration decoupling for all rotating parts

(e.g. fan, compressor) or low vibration parts should be
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
22237-4
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 39
Information technology — Data centre
Secretariat: ANSI
facilities and infrastructures —
Voting begins on:
2021-07-30
Part 4:
Voting terminates on:
Environmental control
2021-09-24
Technologie de l’information — Installation et infrastructures de
centres de traitement de données —
Partie 4: Contrôle environnemental
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Environmental control within data centres ............................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 Design input ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Functional elements ........................................................................................................................................... ........... 4

5.1.3 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.4 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Environmental control of data centre spaces ............................................................................................................... 5

5.2.1 Building entrance facilities ..................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 Personnel entrance(s) ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.3 Docking/loading bay(s) ............................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.4 Generator space(s) including fuel storage ................................................................................................. 6

5.2.5 Transformer space(s) .................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2.6 Electrical distribution space(s) ........................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.7 Telecommunication spaces(s) .............................................................................................................................. 7

5.2.8 Main distributor spaces(s) ...................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.9 Computer room space(s) and associated testing space(s) .......................................................... 7

5.2.10 Electrical space(s) ...................................................................... ..................................................................................... 8

5.2.11 Mechanical space(s) ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.12 Control room space(s) ................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2.13 Office space(s) .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.14 Storage and holding space(s) ................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2.15 Accommodation of UPS equipment ................................................................................................................. 8

6 Availability .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Availability Class design options ............................................................................................................................................. 9

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Computer room and telecom space(s) .......................................................................................................10

6.2.3 UPS space ............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.3 Environmental control system capacity planning with respect to expansion ..............................17

6.4 Environmental control system capacity planning with respect to resilience ................................17

7 Physical security ................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Protection against unauthorized access ........................................................................................................................18

8 Energy efficiency enablement .............................................................................................................................................................18

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2 Measurement of temperature .................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.1 External temperature ...............................................................................................................................................18

8.2.2 Computer room temperature .............................................................................................................................18

8.3 Measurement of relative humidity .....................................................................................................................................19

8.3.1 External relative humidity ....................................................................................................................................19

8.3.2 Computer room relative humidity .................................................................................................................20

8.4 Measurement of air pressure ..................................................................................................................................................20

8.5 Coolant flow rates ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)

8.6 Heat removal ..........................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.7 Outside air ................................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Overview of the requirements for environmental conditions ..................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives or www .iec .ch/ members

_experts/ refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html. In the IEC, see www .iec .ch/ understanding -standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 39, Sustainability, IT & Data Centres.

This first edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC TS 22237-4:2018), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— availability requirements have been aligned with ISO/IEC 22237-1 and ISO/IEC 22237-3;

— figures have been updated.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 22237 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html and www .iec .ch/ national

-committees.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)
Introduction

The unrestricted access to internet-based information demanded by the information society has led to

an exponential growth of both internet traffic and the volume of stored/retrieved data. Data centres

are housing and supporting the information technology and network telecommunications equipment

for data processing, data storage and data transport. They are required both by network operators

(delivering those services to customer premises) and by enterprises within those customer premises.

Data centres need to provide modular, scalable and flexible facilities and infrastructures to easily

accommodate the rapidly changing requirements of the market. In addition, energy consumption

of data centres has become critical, both from an environmental point of view (reduction of carbon

footprint), and with respect to economic considerations (cost of energy) for the data centre operator.

The implementation of data centres varies in terms of:
a) purpose (enterprise, co-location, co-hosting or network operator facilities);
b) security level;
c) physical size; and
d) accommodation (mobile, temporary and permanent constructions).
NOTE Cloud services can be provided by all data centre types mentioned.

The needs of data centres also vary in terms of availability of service, the provision of security and

the objectives for energy efficiency. These needs and objectives influence the design of data centres in

terms of building construction, power distribution, environmental control, telecommunications cabling

and physical security. Effective management and operational information are required to monitor

achievement of the defined needs and objectives.

The ISO/IEC 22237 series specifies requirements and recommendations to support the various parties

involved in the design, planning, procurement, integration, installation, operation and maintenance of

facilities and infrastructures within data centres. These parties include:
1) owners, facility managers, ICT managers, project managers, main contractors;

2) consultants, architects, building designers and builders, system and installation designers;

3) suppliers of equipment; and
4) installers, maintainers.

At the time of publication of this document, the ISO/IEC 22237 series comprises the following

documents:

— ISO/IEC 22237-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 1:

General concepts;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2:

Building construction;

— ISO/IEC 22237-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 3: Power

distribution;

— ISO/IEC 22237-4 (this document), Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures —

Part 4: Environmental control;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-5, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 5:

Telecommunications cabling infrastructure;
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 6:

Security systems;

— ISO/IEC TS 22237-7, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 7:

Management and operational information.

The inter-relationship of the specifications within the ISO/IEC 22237 series is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the ISO/IEC 22237 series of documents

ISO/IEC TS 22237-2 to ISO/IEC TS 22237-6 specify requirements and recommendations for particular

facilities and infrastructures to support the relevant classification for “availability”, “physical security”

and “energy efficiency enablement” selected from ISO/IEC 22237-1.

This document, ISO/IEC 22237-4, addresses the environmental control facilities and infrastructure

within data centres together with the interfaces for monitoring the performance of those facilities

and infrastructures in line with ISO/IEC TS 22237-7 (in accordance with the requirements of

ISO/IEC 22237-1).

ISO/IEC TS 22237-7 addresses the operational and management information (in accordance with the

requirements of ISO/IEC 22237-1).

This document is intended for use by and collaboration between architects, building designers and

builders, and system and installation designers.

The ISO/IEC 22237 series does not address the selection of information technology and network

telecommunications equipment, software and associated configuration issues.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)
Information technology — Data centre facilities and
infrastructures —
Part 4:
Environmental control
1 Scope

This document addresses environmental control within data centres based upon the criteria and

classifications for “availability”, “security” and “energy efficiency enablement” within ISO/IEC 22237-1.

This document specifies requirements and recommendations for the following:
a) temperature control;
b) fluid movement control;
c) relative humidity control;
d) particulate control;
e) vibration;
f) physical security of environmental control systems.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14644-8, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 8: Classification of air cleanliness

by chemical concentration (ACC)

ISO 16890-1, Air filters for general ventilation — Part 1: Technical specifications, requirements and

classification system based upon particulate matter efficiency (ePM)

ISO/IEC 22237-1:— , Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 1:

General concepts

ISO/IEC 22237-3:— , Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 3:

Power distribution

ISO/IEC/TS 22237-6, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 6:

Security systems

IEC 61439-1, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies — Part 1: General rules

IEC 62040-3, Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) — Part 3: Method of specifying the performance and

test requirements

1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-1:2021.

2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021.

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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
access floor

system consisting of completely removable and interchangeable floor panels that are supported on

adjustable pedestals connected by stringers to allow the area beneath the floor to be used by building

services
Note 1 to entry: Also known as raised floor.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TS 22237-2:2018, 3.1.1 – modified: added note 1 to entry]
3.1.2
comfort environmental control

control which produces an environment which is appropriate for the effective performance of personnel

in a given space
3.1.3
dew point

temperature at which the water vapour in a gas begins to deposit as a liquid or ice, under standardized

conditions
3.1.4
direct fresh air cooling

cooling system that uses the external air that can be filtered to cool the IT equipment in the data centre

3.1.5
diesel rotary uninterruptible power system
DRUPS

system where the output waveform is produced by a rotating machine that is mechanically connected

to a flywheel stored energy source, and the flywheel stored energy source is coupled to a backup engine

with an electro-magnetic clutch
3.1.6
inlet air temperature
temperature of the (cold) air entering the rack or IT equipment
3.1.7
relative humidity

ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the vapour pressure of water vapour in moist air to the saturation

vapour pressure with respect to water or ice at the same temperature
3.1.8
return air temperature

temperature of the (warm) air re-entering the environmental control system, e.g. the air handling unit

3.1.9
rotary uninterruptible power system
rotary UPS

system where the output waveform is produced by a rotating machine, using either batteries or

flywheel as stored energy source
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)
3.1.10
static uninterruptible power system
static UPS

system where the output waveform is produced by electronic circuits, using either batteries or flywheel

as stored energy source
3.1.11
supply air temperature

temperature of the (cold) air leaving the environmental control system e.g. the air handling unit

3.1.12
ventilation

supply of air motion in a space by circulation or by moving air through the space

Note 1 to entry: Ventilation can be produced by any combination of natural or mechanical supply and exhaust.

Note 2 to entry: Such systems can include partial treatment such as heating, relative humidity (3.1.7) control,

filtering or purification, and, in some cases, evaporative cooling.
3.2 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the abbreviated terms given in ISO/IEC 22237-1 and the following

apply.
AHU air handling unit
DX direct expansion cooling unit
IT information technology
ICT information and communication technology
4 Conformance
For a data centre to conform to this document:

a) it shall feature an environmental control solution that meets the requirements of Clauses 5 and 6;

b) it shall feature an approach to physical security in relation to the environmental control solution

that meets the requirements of Clause 7;

c) it shall feature an energy efficiency enablement solution that meets the requirements of the

relevant Granularity Level of Clause 8;
d) local regulations, including safety, shall be met.

The required Class of the Environmental Control system of a data centre is based on the required

Availability Class of the data centre.
5 Environmental control within data centres
5.1 General
5.1.1 Design input

Power supply, distribution and environmental control are important primary facilities and

infrastructures of a data centre and have inter-related design aspects:
a) power supplied to IT equipment which is converted to heat output;
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)
b) power supplied to the environmental control system to remove the heat output.
Figure 2 — Logical representation of environmental control of data centre spaces
5.1.2 Functional elements

The environmental control system is one of the most important parts of the data centre infrastructure.

Excessive variations of temperature or relative humidity can directly affect the functional capability of

the data centre and its infrastructures.

The functional elements of the environmental control system are divided into supply and distribution

elements. The division of environmental control systems into supply and distribution reflects energy

efficiency where data centres use multiple cooling sources in various combinations (e.g. cold water

from public grids, non-dedicated central cooling plants, geothermal systems, rivers, and compressor

systems).

Supply elements relate to the generation of temperature-controlled fluids. Distribution elements relate

to the distribution of fluids generated by the supply elements. Distribution elements are differentiated

in devices (units) and paths. See Table 1 for examples of these elements.

It should be noted that for environmental control systems the electrical energy flow is into the

system and the thermal flow is from within the controlled environment outwards to the uncontrolled

environment (exhausted from the building).

Some environmental systems combine the function of supply and distribution elements.

Table 1 — Examples of supply and distribution elements
Functional element(s)
Area Fluid
Device/Functional ele- Path/Functional
ment element
Supply Water/Refrigerant External water supply, Pipe system
chiller, pump(s), condens-
ing unit
Air Outside air intake, filter(s), Duct/Plenum system
heat exchanger
Distribution Water/Refrigerant Pump(s), heat exchanger Pipe system
Air CRAC, CRAH, louvres, AHU Duct/Plenum system
5.1.3 Requirements

The approach taken for the design of the environmental control system shall take into account available

technology, physical security, data centre availability, maintenance and future extension (continuity of

service).
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ISO/IEC FDIS 22237-4:2021(E)

Physical data centre location and external conditions (minimum, median and maximum external

temperature and humidity rate) have to be taken into account for the selection of the functional

elements.

The design of the environmental control system and the selection and installation of functional

elements shall take into consideration the effect of vibration on the data centre spaces.

The design of the environmental control system and the selection and installation of functional elements

shall take into consideration the effect of friction and/or obstruction in the pathways for temperature-

controlled fluids. Operational controls shall be provided to ensure no degradation of fluid flow due to

changes in the pathways (see ISO/IEC TS 22237-7).

During the design phase, the requirement for the number of air changes per unit time and air pressure

shall be established.
In all data centre spaces, the requirements for air quality shall be considered.

In all spaces with a risk of damage to static-sensitive equipment from electro-static discharge,

the relative humidity shall be maintained in accordance with the instructions of the supplier of the

equipment to be accommodated. Where no information exists or where the equipment manufacturer is

not specified, a minimum dew point of 5,5 °C shall be maintained.

Where direct fresh air cooling solutions are chosen, the requirements analysis and the resulting

methodology of monitoring and control is of prime importance. In these circumstances, particular

consideration shall be given to the control of contaminants.
For guidance on the ventilation requirements of activated gaseous suppress
...

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