Basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems

ISO/TR 15916:2015 provides guidelines for the use of hydrogen in its gaseous and liquid forms as well as its storage in either of these or other forms (hydrides). It identifies the basic safety concerns, hazards and risks, and describes the properties of hydrogen that are relevant to safety. Detailed safety requirements associated with specific hydrogen applications are treated in separate International Standards. "Hydrogen" in this paper means normal hydrogen (1H2), not deuterium (2H2) or tritium (3H2).

Considérations fondamentales pour la sécurité des systèmes à l'hydrogène

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Dec-2015
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
30-Nov-2015
Completion Date
03-Dec-2015
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Technical report
ISO/TR 15916:2015 - Basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems
English language
62 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 15916
Second edition
2015-12-15
Basic considerations for the safety of
hydrogen systems
Considérations fondamentales pour la sécurité des systèmes à
l’hydrogène
Reference number
ISO/TR 15916:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 15916:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 15916:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Overview of hydrogen applications ...............................................................................................................................................13

4.1 Basic hydrogen infrastructure ................................................................................................................................................13

4.1.1 Categories of infrastructure ................................................................................................................................13

4.1.2 Production ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

4.1.3 Storage and transport ...............................................................................................................................................13

4.1.4 Hydrogen use applications ...................................................................................................................................14

4.2 Typical hydrogen system components ............................................................................................................................15

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

4.2.2 Storage vessels ................................................................................................................................................................15

4.2.3 Fluid delivery lines, piping, joints, and seals ........................................................................................15

4.2.4 Flow controls ...................................................................................................................................................................15

4.2.5 Pressure-relief systems ...........................................................................................................................................16

4.2.6 Detection components .............................................................................................................................................16

4.2.7 Other components .......................................................................................................................................................16

4.2.8 Considerations for conditions external to the system ..................................................................16

4.3 Hydrogen fuel ........................................................................................................................................................................................16

4.4 Environmental effects ....................................................................................................................................................................17

5 Basic properties of hydrogen................................................................................................................................................................17

5.1 General properties ............................................................................................................................................................................17

5.1.1 Atomic and molecular properties ..................................................................................................................17

5.1.2 Appearance and general characteristics ..................................................................................................18

5.2 Selected thermophysical properties ..................................................................................................................................18

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.2.2 Selected thermophysical properties of gaseous hydrogen .......................................................18

5.2.3 Selected thermophysical properties of cryogenic liquid hydrogen ..................................18

5.3 Basic combustion properties ...................................................................................................................................................19

5.3.1 General remark on safety characteristics ................................................................................................19

5.3.2 Selected combustion properties of hydrogen ......................................................................................19

5.3.3 Explosions...........................................................................................................................................................................20

5.3.4 Deflagration .......................................................................................................................................................................20

5.3.5 Detonation ..........................................................................................................................................................................21

5.3.6 Flammability limits .....................................................................................................................................................21

5.3.7 Ignition energy and minimum ignition energy as applied to deflagration .................22

6 Safety considerations for the use of gaseous and liquid hydrogen ...............................................................23

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

6.2 Hazards involved as a consequence of the properties of hydrogen .......................................................24

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.2.2 Gaseous hydrogen ........................................................................................................................................................24

6.2.3 Liquid hydrogen ............................................................................................................................................................24

6.3 Factors involved in combustion hazards .......................................................................................................................25

6.3.1 Aspects of combustion .............................................................................................................................................25

6.3.2 Non-premixed combustion processes ........................................................................................................25

6.3.3 Explosions...........................................................................................................................................................................26

6.4 Factors involved in pressure hazards ...............................................................................................................................26

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................26

6.4.2 Gaseous storage .............................................................................................................................................................27

6.4.3 Liquid hydrogen ............................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 15916:2015(E)

6.5 Factors involved in low temperature hazards ...........................................................................................................27

6.6 Factors involved in hydrogen embrittlement hazards .......................................................................................27

6.6.1 Hydrogen embrittlement .......................................................................................................................................27

6.6.2 Hydrogen attack ............................................................................................................................................................28

6.7 Health hazards .....................................................................................................................................................................................28

6.7.1 Cold burns...........................................................................................................................................................................28

6.7.2 High temperature burns .........................................................................................................................................28

6.7.3 Asphyxiation .....................................................................................................................................................................28

6.8 Team approach and education/training needed for the safe use of hydrogen .............................28

7 Mitigation and control of hazards and risks .........................................................................................................................28

7.1 General mitigation and control of hazards and risk ............................................................................................28

7.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

7.1.2 Lessons learned from past experience ......................................................................................................29

7.1.3 Addressing hazards ....................................................................................................................................................30

7.1.4 Minimizing the severity of the consequences of hazards ..........................................................30

7.2 Mitigation of design hazards and risks ...........................................................................................................................31

7.2.1 Inherently safer design ............................................................................................................................................31

7.2.2 Considerations in the selection of suitable construction material ....................................31

7.2.3 Considerations for vessels and components ........................................................................................32

7.2.4 Prevention of overpressure .................................................................................................................................33

7.2.5 Considerations for piping, joints, and connections .........................................................................33

7.2.6 Cleaning considerations .........................................................................................................................................34

7.2.7 Component considerations ..................................................................................................................................34

7.3 Prevention and mitigation of fire and explosion hazards and risks ......................................................35

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................35

7.3.2 Prevention of unwanted hydrogen/oxidizer mixtures ................................................................35

7.3.3 Ignition ..................................................................................................................................................................................36

7.3.4 Deflagration and detonation ...............................................................................................................................37

7.3.5 Oxygen enrichment.....................................................................................................................................................37

7.4 Detection considerations ............................................................................................................................................................38

7.4.1 Hydrogen gas detection ..........................................................................................................................................38

7.4.2 Fire detection ...................................................................................................................................................................38

7.5 Considerations for facilities ......................................................................................................................................................39

7.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................39

7.5.2 Locations ...................................................................... ........................................................................................................39

7.5.3 Exclusion areas ...............................................................................................................................................................40

7.5.4 Protecting barricades ...............................................................................................................................................40

7.5.5 Safety control equipment ......................................................................................................................................40

7.5.6 Disposal of hydrogen .................................................................................................................................................41

7.5.7 Buildings ..............................................................................................................................................................................41

7.5.8 Ventilation ..........................................................................................................................................................................42

7.5.9 Electrical components ........................................................................................................................................... ...42

7.5.10 Alarms and warning devices ..............................................................................................................................43

7.5.11 Fire protection and fire fighting ......................................................................................................................43

7.6 Considerations for operations ................................................................................................................................................44

7.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................44

7.6.2 Operating procedures ...............................................................................................................................................44

7.6.3 Personal protective equipment ........................................................................................................................44

7.6.4 Cool-down...........................................................................................................................................................................45

7.6.5 Transportation ................................................................................................................................................................45

7.6.6 Storage and transfer operations ......................................................................................................................45

7.6.7 Safety procedures.........................................................................................................................................................46

7.7 Recommended practices for organizations .................................................................................................................48

7.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................48

7.7.2 Control through organizational policies and procedures ..........................................................48

7.7.3 Use of approved procedures and checklists ..........................................................................................48

7.7.4 Conduct appropriate reviews ............................................................................................................................48

7.7.5 Approved maintenance and quality control programmes ........................................................48

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 15916:2015(E)

7.7.6 Personnel education/training ...........................................................................................................................48

7.7.7 Hazard and operability assessment .............................................................................................................49

Annex A (informative) Hydrogen properties ............................................................................................................................................50

Annex B (informative) Hydrogen combustion data............................................................................................................................54

Annex C (informative) Material data .................................................................................................................................................................57

Annex D (informative) Other storage options ..........................................................................................................................................61

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................62

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 15916:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 197, Hydrogen technologies.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TR 15916:2004), which has been

technically revised.
vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 15916:2015(E)
Introduction

The focus of this Technical Report is on the relatively new hydrogen energy applications. The intent is to

provide, those unfamiliar with the technology, a basis upon which to understand the safety issues. This

Technical Report concerns itself with applications that derive their utility from the chemical reactions

of hydrogen and does not apply to applications based on nuclear processes.

Traditionally, hydrogen has been used extensively in the petrochemical and chemical industries and in

smaller quantities in the electronics, steel-producing, glass-making, and food hydrogenation industries.

In energy applications, the first significant use of hydrogen has appeared in space programmes. This is

changing, given the promise that hydrogen brings as an efficient energy carrier and a fuel with minimal

environmental impact. Systems are being developed that produce hydrogen using variety of energy

sources and feedstocks such as sunlight, wind, biomass, hydro power and fossil fuels, for use in energy

applications for home and office heating, generation of electricity and transportation.

The safe use of hydrogen as a fuel is a primary ISO goal as it seeks to facilitate the rapid emergence of

these hydrogen technologies. A key element in the safe use of hydrogen is to understand its unique safety-

related properties and related phenomena, and that there are acceptable engineering approaches to

controlling the hazards and risks associated with the use of hydrogen. This Technical Report describes

the hazards associated with the use and presence of hydrogen, discusses the properties of hydrogen

relevant to safety, and provides a general discussion of approaches taken to mitigate hydrogen hazards.

The aim of this Technical Report is to promote the acceptance of hydrogen technologies by providing

key information to regulators and by educating people involved with hydrogen safety issues.

The development of International Standards to eliminate barriers to international trade and to simplify

the arduous regulatory process by providing hydrogen-specific standards to allow implementation for

rapidly emerging technologies was among the needs identified by the ISO/TC 197. This Technical Report

is one of many documents that have been developed, or are in the process of being developed, by ISO.

Detailed safety requirements associated with specific hydrogen applications are treated in separate

International Standards. This Technical Report provides an informative reference for those separate

standards as a common, consistent source of safety-related hydrogen information. This should result in

a reduction in duplication and possible inconsistencies in these separate standards.

The considerations presented in this Technical Report are broad, general, and attempt to address most

aspects of hydrogen safety. The degree to which these guidelines are applied will vary according to

the specifics of the application (such as the conditions and quantity of hydrogen involved, and the way

in which the hydrogen is used). Industrial users may find large portions of the guidelines, presented

herein, applicable for their operations. It is not expected that the general public will be required to apply

this degree of knowledge to safely operate a hydrogen appliance. It is anticipated that good appliance

design, coupled with appropriate care in installation, will reduce the degree of safety considerations to

levels that are deemed acceptable by the public for common appliances. The manufacturers of hydrogen

appliances will need to consider these guidelines to tailor sufficient specific information for the

operation of their appliances, in the environment in which they are to be used, and for the audience that

will use them. Readers are encouraged to keep these points in mind as they consider the information

presented in this Technical Report. Hydrogen has been safely used in many different applications over

many years. Adherence to the principles presented in this Technical Report can lead to a continuation of

the safe and sustainable use of hydrogen.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 15916:2015(E)
Basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems
1 Scope

This Technical Report provides guidelines for the use of hydrogen in its gaseous and liquid forms as well as

its storage in either of these or other forms (hydrides). It identifies the basic safety concerns, hazards and

risks, and describes the properties of hydrogen that are relevant to safety. Detailed safety requirements

associated with specific hydrogen applications are treated in separate International Standards.

1 2 3

“Hydrogen” in this paper means normal hydrogen ( H ), not deuterium ( H ) or tritium ( H ).

2 2 2
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11114-4, Transportable gas cylinders — Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas

contents — Part 4: Test methods for selecting metallic materials resistant to hydrogen embrittlement

ISO 11119 (all parts), Gas cylinders — Refillable composite gas cylinders and tubes — Design,

construction and testing
ISO 14687 (all parts), Hydrogen fuel — Product specification
ISO 16110 (all parts), Hydrogen generators using fuel processing technologies

ISO 16111, Transportable gas storage devices — Hydrogen absorbed in reversible metal hydride

ISO 17268, Gaseous hydrogen land vehicle refuelling connection devices
ISO 19880-1 , Gaseous hydrogen — Fueling stations — Part 1: General requirements
ISO 19881 , Gaseous hydrogen — Land and vehicle fuel tanks
ISO 19884 , Gaseous hydrogen — Cylinders and tubes for stationary storage
ISO 22734 (all parts), Hydrogen generators using water electrolysis process
ISO 26142, Hydrogen detection apparatus — Stationary applications
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
ambient conditions
AIT
local surr
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.