Space systems -- Space-based services for a high accuracy positioning system with safety requirements

This document provides requirements and recommendation for space-based systems that, using satellite radionavigation services, provide high accuracy positioning of rovers. It is particularly intended for rovers whose operation requires meeting specific safety requirements, including in situations of low visibility. This document also provides methods to verify the system requirements, as well as complementary information on particular applications (Annex A), mobile mapping systems (Annex B) and augmented positioning (Annexes C and D).

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Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Jul-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
29-Jun-2021
Completion Date
29-Jun-2021
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 22591
First edition
2021-07
Space systems — Space-based services
for a high accuracy positioning system
with safety requirements
Reference number
ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Service system and risks .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 Service system ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Risks ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Rover safety requirements......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Usage of accurate map data (safety provision 1) ...................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Indication of positioning quality (safety provision 2) .......................................................................................... 4

6.4 Collision avoidance to the obstacles on the course (safety provision 3) .............................................. 5

6.5 Dropping avoidance from the course edge (safety provision 4) .................................................................. 5

6.6 Damaging avoidance through the work (safety provision 5) ......................................................................... 5

6.7 Collision avoidance to other vehicles or pedestrians (safety provision 6) ......................................... 5

6.8 Positioning supplement in GNSS unavailable area (safety provision 7) ............................................... 5

7 System specifications ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Requirements of usage of high accuracy map .............................................................................................................. 6

7.2.1 Accuracy of map data ................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2.2 Human machine interface ........................................................................................................................................ 6

7.2.3 Maintenance of map data ......................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Requirements of high accuracy positioning .................................................................................................................. 7

7.3.1 Positioning accuracy ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3.2 Positioning method ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.3 Reception of augmentation data ........................................................................................................................ 8

7.3.4 Positioning quality (safety provision 2) ...................................................................................................... 8

7.3.5 Usage of integrated positioning (safety provision 7) ....................................................................... 8

7.3.6 Real-time property ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.7 Improvement of availability ................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Verification ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.1 Verification of highly accurate map ....................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.1 Accuracy of map data ................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.2 Human machine interface ........................................................................................................................................ 9

8.1.3 Maintenance of map data ......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Verification of highly accurate positioning ..................................................................................................................10

8.2.1 Positioning accuracy ..................................................................................................................................................10

8.2.2 Positioning method ....................................................................................................................................................11

8.2.3 Reception of augmentation data .....................................................................................................................11

8.2.4 Positioning quality ......................................................................................................................................................11

8.2.5 Usage of integrated positioning .......................................................................................................................11

8.2.6 Real-time property ......................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (Informative) Examples of application ....................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (Informative) Mobile mapping system ....................................................................................................................................18

Annex C (Informative) Augmented GNSS positioning ......................................................................................................................19

Annex D (Informative) Space-based precise augmentation with fast convergence .........................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
Introduction

This document is a technical specification of space-based services. Space systems provide a huge merit

for the society and economy in each country today; and space-based services contribute to people’s

quality of life across the world. Space systems should be utilized furthermore in the industry worldwide

in the future.

Space systems are utilized in the application of other areas. Therefore, this document has harmonized

the content in the GNSS (global navigation satellite system) relevant area as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Standardization of space-based services: GNSS relevant area

Space systems often become the last hope for people in harsh weather conditions to ensure the safety of

life. This document is intended to ensure the safety with the power of space systems.

The operation of moving machines under such harsh conditions is difficult and unsafe for machine

operators. For example, snow removal work with a snowplough is very difficult and unsafe for non-

skilled workers. It is necessary to have experience and skills to operate the vehicle near the edges and

features of a course. Because it takes a long period of training time to learn the operation skills for

manoeuvring a work vehicle, it is becoming a serious problem in areas with heavy snow to secure the

highly skilled workers who operate these vehicles and to maintain a continuous plan for subsequent

replacement due to the retirement of skilled workers.

The purpose of this document is to mainly determine the safety requirements for a space-based high

accuracy positioning system by which vehicles can be operated safely even in low visibility conditions

with less experienced operators having minimum experience and skills.

This document refers to some general systems such as agricultural machines, road cleaning machines

or construction machines which require positioning accuracy. It applies to general works such as

staying the course, docking, and unloading works.

In general, it is difficult and dangerous to operate machines in low visibility due to harsh optical

conditions. In such situations, the machine’s positioning system requires a high degree of accuracy. This

document considers the following two distinctive features commonly observed in the high accuracy

positioning applications requiring safety.

— Generally speaking, a rover needs to be operated in situations where image sensors (cameras or

LiDARs or both) cannot be used and the risk of accidents becomes higher.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)

— In addition, a machine needs to be operated in close proximity to various kinds of obstacles such as

signals, signs and guide-rails on boundary lines because of its purpose. This is the main reason for

the necessity of having skilled operators.

Ultimately, this document aims to help system design by which a rover can be operated safely even in

low visibility situations with less experienced operators to contribute to improving the quality of life

through the space-based service.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
Space systems — Space-based services for a high accuracy
positioning system with safety requirements
1 Scope

This document provides requirements and recommendation for space-based systems that, using

satellite radionavigation services, provide high accuracy positioning of rovers. It is particularly

intended for rovers whose operation requires meeting specific safety requirements, including in

situations of low visibility. This document also provides methods to verify the system requirements,

as well as complementary information on particular applications (Annex A), mobile mapping systems

(Annex B) and augmented positioning (Annexes C and D).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 18197:2015, Space systems — Space based services requirements for centimetre class positioning

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
satellite radionavigation
satellite radiodetermination (3.2) used for radionavigation (3.3)
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-725:1994, 725-12-51]
3.2
satellite radiodetermination
radiodetermination (3.4) which makes use of a satellite system
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-725:1994, 725-12-49]
3.3
radionavigation

radiodetermination (3.4) used for the purpose of navigation, including obstruction warning

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-725:1994, 725-12-50]
3.4
radiodetermination

determination of the position, velocity and/or other characteristics of an object, or the obtaining of

information relating to these characteristics, by means of radio waves
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-725:1994, 725-12-48]
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
3.5
safety
state where an acceptable level of risk (3.6) is not exceeded
Note 1 to entry: Risk relates to:
— fatality,
— injury or occupational illness,
— damage to hardware or facilities,
— damage to an element of an interfacing manned system,
— the main functions of a system itself,
— pollution of the environment, atmosphere or outer space, and
— damage to public or private property.

[SOURCE: ISO 10795:2019, 3.210, modified — Note 1 to entry has been generalized for activities on

planets or moons.]
3.6
risk

undesirable situation or circumstance that has both a likelihood of occurring and a potentially negative

consequence on a project

Note 1 to entry: Risks arise from uncertainty due to a lack of predictability or control of events. Risks are inherent

to any project and can arise at any time during the project life cycle; reducing these uncertainties reduces the

risk.
[SOURCE: ISO 17666:2016, 3.1.12]
3.7
accuracy

closeness of agreement between a test result or measurement result and the true value

Note 1 to entry: In practice, the accepted reference value is substituted for the true value.

Note 2 to entry: The term “accuracy”, when applied to a set of test or measurement results, involves a combination

of random components and a common systematic error or bias component.
Note 3 to entry: Accuracy refers to a combination of bias and precision.

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.3.1, modified — In note 3 to entry, “trueness” has been changed to “bias”.]

3.8
integrity

measure of the trust that can be placed in the correctness of the information supplied by a navigation

system and that includes the ability of the system to provide timely warnings to users when the system

should not be used for navigation
[SOURCE: 2019 Federal Radionavigation Plan, DOT-VNTSC-OST-R-15-01, A.1.10]
3.9
dead reckoning

method to obtain a vehicle position by using a compass or inertial measurement or both, and which can

be connected with vehicle sensors which record a forward distance and steering direction

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
3.10
integrated positioning
positioning incorporating two or more positioning technologies

[SOURCE: ISO 19116:2019, 3.14, modified — "system" has been removed from the term and the

definition; note 1 to entry has been removed.]
3.11
mountainous district

district where necessary satellites are not visible for positioning regularly due to being blocked by

mountains
4 Abbreviated terms
DGNSS differential GNSS
GNSS global navigation satellite system
HDOP horizontal dilution of precision
IMU inertial measurement unit
LiDAR light detection and ranging
MMS mobile mapping system
RFID radio frequency identification
RMS root mean square
5 Service system and risks
5.1 Service system

The high accuracy positioning system for rovers is intended to serve general works such as staying the

course, docking, and unloading, as illustrated in Figure 2.
Figure 2 — System overview: work examples
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)

To establish this service system, it is necessary to clarify the target of the rover works. In this document,

the works have been classified into 4 categories by target works and object sizes as shown in Table 1.

The service system varies depending on the category of the target work. The object size is the size that

should be recognized by a precise positioning rover to execute the target work.
Table 1 — Categorization and target work
Work category Example of target work Guide of object size
in RMS
1 — Keep course edge or side line clear from dirt or 0,1 m to 0,25 m
snow
— Keep docking position between the vehicle and
the supply station such as power, fuel
2 — Keep side strip or side path clear 0,25 m to 0,5 m
3 — Keep course width or flatness roughly 0,5 m to 1 m
— Spread usable area of intersection
4 — Stay along the wide course Over 1 m
— Keep landing area

ISO 18197 applies to the work category 1. ISO 18197:2015, 5.4.1 also specifies metre class positioning,

which applies to the work categories 2 to 4.
5.2 Risks

The following risks are inherent to a rover making use of the high-accuracy positioning system:

a) collision to obstacles;
b) dropping from course edge;
c) damage through the works;
d) collision to other vehicles.
In order to manage these risks, Clause 6 specifies safety requirements.
6 Rover safety requirements
6.1 General

In order to establish general principles for a high accuracy positioning of rovers, it is important to

clarify the related rover safety requirements and recommendations. Seven rover safety provisions are

identified in 6.2 to 6.8. Depending on which safety provisions need be met, the positioning system can

vary. The specific system specifications and their verification are covered in the subsequent subclauses

as specified in Table 2.
6.2 Usage of accurate map data (safety provision 1)
The high accuracy positioning rover shall use the accurate map data.
6.3 Indication of positioning quality (safety provision 2)

The high accuracy positioning rover shall check the positioning quality and shall be operated depending

on the quality indication.
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ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
6.4 Collision avoidance to the obstacles on the course (safety provision 3)

The high accuracy positioning rover should give the alarm depending on the relative distance between

the feature and the obstacles on the map.
6.5 Dropping avoidance from the course edge (safety provision 4)

The high accuracy positioning rover should give the alarm depending on the relative distance between

the vehicle and the road edge on the map.
6.6 Damaging avoidance through the work (safety provision 5)

The high accuracy positioning rover should give the alarm by recognizing restricted area of work (e.g.

snow-throwing).
6.7 Collision avoidance to other vehicles or pedestrians (safety provision 6)

The high accuracy positioning rover should give the alarm depending on the relative distance between

the other vehicles or pedestrians by using proximity sensors.
6.8 Positioning supplement in GNSS unavailable area (safety provision 7)

The high accuracy positioning rover shall supplement the positioning by using supplemental sensors

or V2V/V2X (vehicle to vehicle/vehicle to X) communications or both when GNSS signals and/or GNSS

augmentation data are not available, for example in a mountainous district.
Table 2 — System specification and verification for safety
Safety provision System specification Verification Provision level

1. Usage of accurate map 7.2.1 Accuracy of map data 8.1.1 Verification of accu- Requirement

data racy of map data

2. Indication of 7.3.4 Positioning quality 8.2.4 Verification of posi- Requirement

positioning quality tioning quality
3. Collision avoidance to 7.2.2 Human machine inter- - Recommendation
the obstacles on the face
course
4. Dropping avoidance 7.2.2 Human machine inter- - Recommendation
from the course edge face
5. Damaging avoidance 7.2.2 Human machine inter- - Recommendation
by discharge face
6. Collision avoidance to 7.2.2 Human machine inter- - Recommendation
the other vehicle or face
pedestrians

7. Positioning 7.3.5 Usage of integrated posi- 8.2.5 Verification of usage Requirement

supplement in GNSS tioning of integrated positioning
unavailable area
7 System specifications
7.1 General
The following system specifications are derived from the safety provisions:
— usage of highly accurate map;
— high accuracy positioning.
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ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
7.2 Requirements of usage of high accuracy map
7.2.1 Accuracy of map data

This specification is derived from safety provision 1. Depending on the work category and safety

requirements, the accurate map data shall be prepared beforehand. The required accuracy is

summarized in Table 3. Respective applications can specify their values of threshold to be applied

based on this requirement.
Table 3 — Categorization of work and required accuracy of the map
Work category Accuracy of map in RMS Traditional
scale
(informative)
1 ≤ 0,1 m 1:100
2 ≤ 0,25 m 1:250
3 ≤ 0,5 m 1:500
4 ≤ 1 m 1:1 000

In addition, it shall be assured that the map data are up to date. It is effective to use MMS or equivalent

for efficient data collection (See Annex B).
7.2.2 Human machine interface

Regarding human machine interface, 3 main features (vehicle position, peripheral environment, and

positioning quality) shall be indicated. At the same time, the indication should not be a burden for

the operator. The details of the indication should be decided by the designer depending on the work

category and safety requirements. The required items of indication to be designed are as follows.

a) Rover position
The following items shall be designed.
1) Items to be indicated
Vehicle position and travel direction
2) Distance to course edge or obstacles
Method of expression
b) Peripheral environment
The following items shall be designed.
1) Items to be indicated
Course features, objects, discharge availability, etc
c) Positioning quality (safety provision 2)

Augmentation data receiving status, or integrity of positioning calculation, etc. which is mentioned

in 6.3 shall be indicated.
The recommended items of indication to be designed are as follows.
d) Alarm of proximity to course features (safety provision 3)
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)

Depending on the situation of the work target course, the necessity and the detail of the following

function should be decided.

— When the vehicle gets closer to the course features or structures than threshold, the alarm to be

given depending on the distance.
e) Alarm of dropping off from the course edge (safety provision 4)

Depending on the situation of the work target course, the necessity and the detail of the following

function should be decided.

— When the distance to the course edge gets closer than threshold, the alarm to be given depending

on the distance.
f) Alarm of work restriction (safety provision 5)

Depending on the situation of work target course, the necessity and the detail of the following func-

tion should be decided.

— The restricted area of discharge, and the current availability of work to be indicated.

g) Alarm of proximity to other vehicles or pedestrians (safety provision 6)

Depending on the situation of the work target, the necessity and the detail of the following function

should be decided.

— When the distance to the other vehicles or pedestrians gets closer than threshold, the alarm to

be given depending on the distance.
7.2.3 Maintenance of map data

The update period and method of map data updating shall be determined such that the accuracy of the

map satisfies the requirement at the time of work.
7.3 Requirements of high accuracy positioning
7.3.1 Positioning accuracy

Depending on the work category of the target, the necessary accuracy should be determined. The

required accuracy is summarized in Table 4. Respective applications can specify their values of

threshold to be applied using this requirement.

Table 4 — Categorization of safety-critical work and required accuracy for positioning

Accuracy for positioning in RMS
Work category
(Horizontal error)
1 ≤ 0,1 m
2 ≤ 0,25 m
3 ≤ 0,5 m
4 ≤ 1 m

Annex C specifies effective ways to achieve positioning accuracy. An augmentation service shall be

chosen to enable required accuracy.

ISO 18197 applies to the work category 1. ISO 18197:2015, 5.4.1 also specifies metre class positioning,

which applies to the work categories 2 to 4.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
7.3.2 Positioning method

The positioning method shall be highly accurate positioning by using augmented GNSS positioning (see

Annex C) and an external sensor such as IMU, radar, LiDAR, video camera.
7.3.3 Reception of augmentation data
According to the positioning method, rec
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 22591
First edition
Space systems — Space-based services
for a high accuracy positioning system
with safety requirements
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Service system and risks .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 Service system ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Risks ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Rover safety requirements......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Usage of accurate map data (safety provision 1) ...................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Indication of positioning quality (safety provision 2) .......................................................................................... 4

6.4 Collision avoidance to the obstacles on the course (safety provision 3) .............................................. 5

6.5 Dropping avoidance from the course edge (safety provision 4) .................................................................. 5

6.6 Damaging avoidance through the work (safety provision 5) ......................................................................... 5

6.7 Collision avoidance to other vehicles or pedestrians (safety provision 6) ......................................... 5

6.8 Positioning supplement in GNSS unavailable area (safety provision 7) ............................................... 5

7 System specifications ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Requirements of usage of high accuracy map .............................................................................................................. 6

7.2.1 Accuracy of map data ................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2.2 Human machine interface ........................................................................................................................................ 6

7.2.3 Maintenance of map data ......................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Requirements of high accuracy positioning .................................................................................................................. 7

7.3.1 Positioning accuracy ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3.2 Positioning method ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.3 Reception of augmentation data ........................................................................................................................ 8

7.3.4 Positioning quality (safety provision 2) ...................................................................................................... 8

7.3.5 Usage of integrated positioning (safety provision 7) ....................................................................... 8

7.3.6 Real-time property ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.7 Improvement of availability ................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Verification ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.1 Verification of highly accurate map ....................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.1 Accuracy of map data ................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.2 Human machine interface ........................................................................................................................................ 9

8.1.3 Maintenance of map data ......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Verification of highly accurate positioning ..................................................................................................................10

8.2.1 Positioning accuracy ..................................................................................................................................................10

8.2.2 Positioning method ....................................................................................................................................................11

8.2.3 Reception of augmentation data .....................................................................................................................11

8.2.4 Positioning quality ......................................................................................................................................................11

8.2.5 Usage of integrated positioning .......................................................................................................................11

8.2.6 Real-time property ......................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (Informative) Examples of application ....................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (Informative) Mobile mapping system ....................................................................................................................................18

Annex C (Informative) Augmented GNSS positioning ......................................................................................................................19

Annex D (Informative) Space-based precise augmentation with fast convergence .........................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
Introduction

This document is a technical specification of space-based services. Space systems provide a huge merit

for the society and economy in each country today; and space-based services contribute to people’s

quality of life across the world. Space systems should be utilized furthermore in the industry worldwide

in the future.

Space systems are utilized in the application of other areas. Therefore, this document has harmonized

the content in the GNSS (global navigation satellite system) relevant area as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Standardization of space-based services: GNSS relevant area

Space systems often become the last hope for people in harsh weather conditions to ensure the safety of

life. This document is intended to ensure the safety with the power of space systems.

The operation of moving machines under such harsh conditions is difficult and unsafe for machine

operators. For example, snow removal work with a snowplough is very difficult and unsafe for non-

skilled workers. It is necessary to have experience and skills to operate the vehicle near the edges and

features of a course. Because it takes a long period of training time to learn the operation skills for

manoeuvring a work vehicle, it is becoming a serious problem in areas with heavy snow to secure the

highly skilled workers who operate these vehicles and to maintain a continuous plan for subsequent

replacement due to the retirement of skilled workers.

The purpose of this document is to mainly determine the safety requirements for a space-based high

accuracy positioning system by which vehicles can be operated safely even in low visibility conditions

with less experienced operators having minimum experience and skills.

This document refers to some general systems such as agricultural machines, road cleaning machines

or construction machines which require positioning accuracy. It applies to general works such as

staying the course, docking, and unloading works.

In general, it is difficult and dangerous to operate machines in low visibility due to harsh optical

conditions. In such situations, the machine’s positioning system requires a high degree of accuracy. This

document considers the following two distinctive features commonly observed in the high accuracy

positioning applications requiring safety.

— Generally speaking, a rover needs to be operated in situations where image sensors (cameras or

LiDARs or both) cannot be used and the risk of accidents becomes higher.
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— In addition, a machine needs to be operated in close proximity to various kinds of obstacles such as

signals, signs and guide-rails on boundary lines because of its purpose. This is the main reason for

the necessity of having skilled operators.

Ultimately, this document aims to help system design by which a rover can be operated safely even in

low visibility situations with less experienced operators to contribute to improving the quality of life

through the space-based service.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 22591:2021(E)
Space systems — Space-based services for a high accuracy
positioning system with safety requirements
1 Scope

This document provides requirements and recommendation for space-based systems that, using

satellite radionavigation services, provide high accuracy positioning of rovers. It is particularly

intended for rovers whose operation requires meeting specific safety requirements, including in

situations of low visibility. This document also provides methods to verify the system requirements,

as well as complementary information on particular applications (Annex A), mobile mapping systems

(Annex B) and augmented positioning (Annexes C and D).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 18197:2015, Space systems — Space based services requirements for centimetre class positioning

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
satellite radionavigation
satellite radiodetermination (3.2) used for radionavigation (3.3)
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-725:1994, 725-12-51]
3.2
satellite radiodetermination
radiodetermination (3.4) which makes use of a satellite system
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-725:1994, 725-12-49]
3.3
radionavigation

radiodetermination (3.4) used for the purpose of navigation, including obstruction warning

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-725:1994, 725-12-50]
3.4
radiodetermination

determination of the position, velocity and/or other characteristics of an object, or the obtaining of

information relating to these characteristics, by means of radio waves
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-725:1994, 725-12-48]
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3.5
safety
state where an acceptable level of risk (3.6) is not exceeded
Note 1 to entry: Risk relates to:
— fatality,
— injury or occupational illness,
— damage to hardware or facilities,
— damage to an element of an interfacing manned system,
— the main functions of a system itself,
— pollution of the environment, atmosphere or outer space, and
— damage to public or private property.

[SOURCE: ISO 10795:2019, 3.210, modified — Note 1 to entry has been generalized for activities on

planets or moons.]
3.6
risk

undesirable situation or circumstance that has both a likelihood of occurring and a potentially negative

consequence on a project

Note 1 to entry: Risks arise from uncertainty due to a lack of predictability or control of events. Risks are inherent

to any project and can arise at any time during the project life cycle; reducing these uncertainties reduces the

risk.
[SOURCE: ISO 17666:2016, 3.1.12]
3.7
accuracy

closeness of agreement between a test result or measurement result and the true value

Note 1 to entry: In practice, the accepted reference value is substituted for the true value.

Note 2 to entry: The term “accuracy”, when applied to a set of test or measurement results, involves a combination

of random components and a common systematic error or bias component.
Note 3 to entry: Accuracy refers to a combination of bias and precision.

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.3.1, modified — In note 3 to entry, “trueness” has been changed to “bias”.]

3.8
integrity

measure of the trust that can be placed in the correctness of the information supplied by a navigation

system and that includes the ability of the system to provide timely warnings to users when the system

should not be used for navigation
[SOURCE: 2019 Federal Radionavigation Plan, DOT-VNTSC-OST-R-15-01, A.1.10]
3.9
dead reckoning

method to obtain a vehicle position by using a compass or inertial measurement or both, and which can

be connected with vehicle sensors which record a forward distance and steering direction

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3.10
integrated positioning
positioning incorporating two or more positioning technologies

[SOURCE: ISO 19116:2019, 3.14, modified — "system" has been removed from the term and the

definition; note 1 to entry has been removed.]
3.11
mountainous district

district where necessary satellites are not visible for positioning regularly due to being blocked by

mountains
4 Abbreviated terms
DGNSS differential GNSS
GNSS global navigation satellite system
HDOP horizontal dilution of precision
IMU inertial measurement unit
LiDAR light detection and ranging
MMS mobile mapping system
RFID radio frequency identification
RMS root mean square
5 Service system and risks
5.1 Service system

The high accuracy positioning system for rovers is intended to serve general works such as staying the

course, docking, and unloading, as illustrated in Figure 2.
Figure 2 — System overview: work examples
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To establish this service system, it is necessary to clarify the target of the rover works. In this document,

the works have been classified into 4 categories by target works and object sizes as shown in Table 1.

The service system varies depending on the category of the target work. The object size is the size that

should be recognized by a precise positioning rover to execute the target work.
Table 1 — Categorization and target work
Work category Example of target work Guide of object size
in RMS
1 — Keep course edge or side line clear from dirt or 0,1 m to 0,25 m
snow
— Keep docking position between the vehicle and
the supply station such as power, fuel
2 — Keep side strip or side path clear 0,25 m to 0,5 m
3 — Keep course width or flatness roughly 0,5 m to 1 m
— Spread usable area of intersection
4 — Stay along the wide course Over 1 m
— Keep landing area

ISO 18197 applies to the work category 1. ISO 18197:2015, 5.4.1 also specifies metre class positioning,

which applies to the work categories 2 to 4.
5.2 Risks

The following risks are inherent to a rover making use of the high-accuracy positioning system:

a) collision to obstacles;
b) dropping from course edge;
c) damage through the works;
d) collision to other vehicles.
In order to manage these risks, Clause 6 specifies safety requirements.
6 Rover safety requirements
6.1 General

In order to establish general principles for a high accuracy positioning of rovers, it is important to

clarify the related rover safety requirements and recommendations. Seven rover safety provisions are

identified in 6.2 to 6.8. Depending on which safety provisions need be met, the positioning system can

vary. The specific system specifications and their verification are covered in the subsequent subclauses

as specified in Table 2.
6.2 Usage of accurate map data (safety provision 1)
The high accuracy positioning rover shall use the accurate map data.
6.3 Indication of positioning quality (safety provision 2)

The high accuracy positioning rover shall check the positioning quality and shall be operated depending

on the quality indication.
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6.4 Collision avoidance to the obstacles on the course (safety provision 3)

The high accuracy positioning rover should give the alarm depending on the relative distance between

the feature and the obstacles on the map.
6.5 Dropping avoidance from the course edge (safety provision 4)

The high accuracy positioning rover should give the alarm depending on the relative distance between

the vehicle and the road edge on the map.
6.6 Damaging avoidance through the work (safety provision 5)

The high accuracy positioning rover should give the alarm by recognizing restricted area of work (e.g.

snow-throwing).
6.7 Collision avoidance to other vehicles or pedestrians (safety provision 6)

The high accuracy positioning rover should give the alarm depending on the relative distance between

the other vehicles or pedestrians by using proximity sensors.
6.8 Positioning supplement in GNSS unavailable area (safety provision 7)

The high accuracy positioning rover shall supplement the positioning by using supplemental sensors

or V2V/V2X (vehicle to vehicle/vehicle to X) communications or both when GNSS signals and/or GNSS

augmentation data are not available, for example in a mountainous district.
Table 2 — System specification and verification for safety
Safety provision System specification Verification Provision level

1. Usage of accurate map 7.2.1 Accuracy of map data 8.1.1 Verification of accu- Requirement

data racy of map data

2. Indication of 7.3.4 Positioning quality 8.2.4 Verification of posi- Requirement

positioning quality tioning quality
3. Collision avoidance to 7.2.2 Human machine inter- - Recommendation
the obstacles on the face
course
4. Dropping avoidance 7.2.2 Human machine inter- - Recommendation
from the course edge face
5. Damaging avoidance 7.2.2 Human machine inter- - Recommendation
by discharge face
6. Collision avoidance to 7.2.2 Human machine inter- - Recommendation
the other vehicle or face
pedestrians

7. Positioning 7.3.5 Usage of integrated posi- 8.2.5 Verification of usage Requirement

supplement in GNSS tioning of integrated positioning
unavailable area
7 System specifications
7.1 General
The following system specifications are derived from the safety provisions:
— usage of highly accurate map;
— high accuracy positioning.
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7.2 Requirements of usage of high accuracy map
7.2.1 Accuracy of map data

This specification is derived from safety provision 1. Depending on the work category and safety

requirements, the accurate map data shall be prepared beforehand. The required accuracy is

summarized in Table 3. Respective applications can specify their values of threshold to be applied

based on this requirement.
Table 3 — Categorization of work and required accuracy of the map
Work category Accuracy of map in RMS Traditional
scale
(informative)
1 ≤ 0,1 m 1:100
2 ≤ 0,25 m 1:250
3 ≤ 0,5 m 1:500
4 ≤ 1 m 1:1 000

In addition, it shall be assured that the map data are up to date. It is effective to use MMS or equivalent

for efficient data collection (See Annex B).
7.2.2 Human machine interface

Regarding human machine interface, 3 main features (vehicle position, peripheral environment, and

positioning quality) shall be indicated. At the same time, the indication should not be a burden for

the operator. The details of the indication should be decided by the designer depending on the work

category and safety requirements. The required items of indication to be designed are as follows.

a) Rover position
The following items shall be designed.
1) Items to be indicated
Vehicle position and travel direction
2) Distance to course edge or obstacles
Method of expression
b) Peripheral environment
The following items shall be designed.
1) Items to be indicated
Course features, objects, discharge availability, etc
c) Positioning quality (safety provision 2)

Augmentation data receiving status, or integrity of positioning calculation, etc. which is mentioned

in 6.3 shall be indicated.
The recommended items of indication to be designed are as follows.
d) Alarm of proximity to course features (safety provision 3)
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Depending on the situation of the work target course, the necessity and the detail of the following

function should be decided.

— When the vehicle gets closer to the course features or structures than threshold, the alarm to be

given depending on the distance.
e) Alarm of dropping off from the course edge (safety provision 4)

Depending on the situation of the work target course, the necessity and the detail of the following

function should be decided.

— When the distance to the course edge gets closer than threshold, the alarm to be given depending

on the distance.
f) Alarm of work restriction (safety provision 5)

Depending on the situation of work target course, the necessity and the detail of the following func-

tion should be decided.

— The restricted area of discharge, and the current availability of work to be indicated.

g) Alarm of proximity to other vehicles or pedestrians (safety provision 6)

Depending on the situation of the work target, the necessity and the detail of the following function

should be decided.

— When the distance to the other vehicles or pedestrians gets closer than threshold, the alarm to

be given depending on the distance.
7.2.3 Maintenance of map data

The update period and method of map data updating shall be determined such that the accuracy of the

map satisfies the requirement at the time of work.
7.3 Requirements of high accuracy positioning
7.3.1 Positioning accuracy

Depending on the work category of the target, the necessary accuracy should be determined. The

required accuracy is summarized in Table 4. Respective applications can specify their values of

threshold to be applied using this requirement.

Table 4 — Categorization of safety-critical work and required accuracy for positioning

Accuracy for positioning in RMS
Work category
(Horizontal error)
1 ≤ 0,1 m
2 ≤ 0,25 m
3 ≤ 0,5 m
4 ≤ 1 m

Annex C specifies effective ways to achieve positioning accuracy. An augmentation service shall be

chosen to enable required accuracy.

ISO 18197 applies to the work category 1. ISO 18197:2015, 5.4.1 also specifies metre class positioning,

which applies to the work categories 2 to 4.
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7.3.2 Positioning method

The positioning method shall be highly accurate positioning by using augmented GNSS positi

...

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