Fire safety engineering — Verification and validation protocol for building fire evacuation models

This document describes a protocol for the verification and validation of building fire evacuation models. This document mostly addresses evacuation model components as they are in microscopic (agent-based) models. Nevertheless, it can be adopted (entirely or partially) for macroscopic models if the model is able to represent the components under consideration. The area of application of the evacuation models discussed in this document includes performance-based design of buildings and the review of the effectiveness of evacuation planning and procedures. The evacuation process is represented with evacuation models in which people's movement and their interaction with the environment make use of human behaviour in fire theories and empirical observations[5]. The simulation of evacuation is represented using mathematical models and/or agent‑to‑agent and agent-to-environment rules. The area of application of this document relates to buildings. This document is not intended to cover aspects of transportation systems in motion (e.g. trains, ships) since specific ad-hoc additional tests may be required for addressing the simulation of human behaviour during evacuation in these types of systems[6]. This document includes a list of components for verification and validation testing as well as a methodology for the analysis and assessment of accuracy associated with evacuation models. The procedure for the analysis of acceptance criteria is also included. A comprehensive list of components for testing is presented in this document, since the scope of the testing has not been artificially restricted to a set of straightforward applications. Nevertheless, the application of evacuation models as a design tool can be affected by the numbers of variables affecting human behaviour under consideration. A high number of influences can hamper the acceptance of the results obtained given the level of complexity associated with the results. Simpler calculation methods, such as macroscopic models, capacity analyses or flow calculations, are affected to a lower extent by the need to aim at high fidelity modelling. In contrast, more sophisticated calculation methods (i.e. agent-based models) rely more on the ability to demonstrate that the simulation is able to represent different emergent behaviours. For this reason, the components for testing are divided into different categories, enabling the evacuation model tester to test an evacuation model both in relation to the degree of sophistication embedded in the model as well as the specific scope of the model application. In Annex A, a reporting template is provided to provide guidance to users regarding a format for presenting test results and exemplary application of verification and validation tests are presented in Annex B.

Ingénierie de la sécurité incendie — Protocole de vérification et de validation de modèles d'évacuation dans un bâtiment en cas d'incendie

Le présent document décrit un protocole pour la vérification et la validation des modèles d'évacuation incendie des bâtiments. Le présent document aborde principalement les composants des modèles d'évacuation tels qu'ils sont utilisés dans les modèles microscopiques (basés sur des agents). Il peut néanmoins être adopté (en tout ou en partie) pour des modèles macroscopiques si le modèle est en mesure de représenter les composants pris en considération. Le domaine d'application des modèles d'évacuation dont il est question dans le présent document comprend la conception des bâtiments basée sur les performances et l'examen de l'efficacité de la planification et des procédures d'évacuation. Le processus d'évacuation est représenté par des modèles d'évacuation dans lesquels le mouvement des personnes et leur interaction avec l'environnement font appel au comportement humain dans les théories portant sur les incendies et les observations empiriques[5]. La simulation de l'évacuation est représentée à l'aide de modèles mathématiques et/ou de règles agent à agent et agent à environnement. Le domaine d'application du présent document concerne les bâtiments. L'objectif du présent document n'est pas de couvrir les aspects des systèmes de transport en mouvement (par exemple, trains, navires), dans la mesure où des tests supplémentaires ad hoc spécifiques peuvent être requis pour simuler le comportement humain pendant l'évacuation de ces types de systèmes[6]. Le présent document comprend une liste de composants pour les tests de vérification et de validation ainsi qu'une méthodologie pour l'analyse et l'évaluation de l'exactitude associée aux modèles d'évacuation. La procédure d'analyse des critères d'acceptation est également incluse. Une liste complète des composants à tester est présentée dans le présent document, dans la mesure où le domaine d'application des tests n'a pas été artificiellement restreint à un ensemble d'applications simples. Toutefois, l'application des modèles d'évacuation comme outil de conception peut être affectée par le nombre de variables influant sur les comportements humains étudiés. Un grand nombre d'influences peut entraver l'acceptation des résultats obtenus étant donné le niveau de complexité associé aux résultats. Les méthodes de calculs plus simples telles que les modèles macroscopiques, les analyses de capacité ou les calculs de flux sont affectées dans une moindre mesure par la nécessité de viser une modélisation à haute fidélité. En revanche, les méthodes de calcul plus sophistiquées (c'est-à-dire les modèles basés sur des agents) reposent davantage sur la capacité à démontrer que la simulation est capable de représenter différents comportements émergents. Pour cette raison, les composants à tester sont divisés en différentes catégories, de sorte que le modèle d'évacuation puisse être testé à la fois en fonction du degré de sophistication intégré au modèle et du domaine d'application spécifique de l'application du modèle. L'Annexe A présente un modèle de rapport destiné à fournir des recommandations aux utilisateurs en ce qui concerne le format de présentation des résultats de test. L'Annexe B présente un exemple d'application des tests de vérification et de validation.

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Publication Date
18-Nov-2020
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6060 - International Standard published
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19-Nov-2020
Completion Date
19-Nov-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20414
First edition
2020-11
Fire safety engineering — Verification
and validation protocol for building
fire evacuation models
Ingénierie de la sécurité incendie — Protocole de vérification et
de validation de modèles d'évacuation dans un bâtiment en cas
d'incendie
Reference number
ISO 20414:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20414:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20414:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Technical documentation ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3 User's manual ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Verification ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Basic components ..............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Behavioural components ............................................................................................................................................................24

5.4 Fire-people interaction components ................................................................................................................................29

5.5 Building-specific components ................................................................................................................................................31

6 Validation ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................35

6.2 Methods for the analysis of results .....................................................................................................................................36

6.3 Component validation ...................................................................................................................................................................40

6.4 Global validation .................................................................................................................................................................................46

7 Review of the theoretical and experimental basis of probabilistic models .........................................47

8 Quality assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................................48

9 Quantification of uncertainty ...............................................................................................................................................................49

10 Acceptance criteria .........................................................................................................................................................................................51

Annex A (informative) Reporting Template ...............................................................................................................................................52

Annex B (informative) Examples of application ....................................................................................................................................55

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................64

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 04, Fire

safety engineering.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 20414:2020(E)
Introduction

The objective of fire safety engineering is to assist in the achievement of an acceptable predicted level

of fire safety. Part of this work involves the use of calculation methods and models to predict human

behaviour in case of a fire. Evacuation analyses are performed to mitigate the adverse effects of a fire on

people. The main principles that are necessary for establishing credibility of these evacuation models

are verification and validation. This document addresses the procedures for verification and validation

of evacuation models. The context of applications addressed in this document is building fires.

Evacuation models are applied to establish the time for an evacuating population to reach a place of

safety. Evacuation models are also used to examine evacuation dynamics of different scenarios and to

evaluate the effectiveness of procedural solutions.

Evacuation models present different levels of sophistication, ranging from simplified methods (such

as capacity analysis or flow calculations) to complex computational agent-based models. Microscopic

models represent evacuees in computer models as agents. Each evacuee is represented by an

autonomous agent with certain properties, e.g. pre-evacuation time and walking speed. A crowd

is built up of a group of agents acting together in a multi-agent-based evacuation model. Agents act

according to behavioural rules defined in the model. These rules can represent agent-to-agent or agent-

to-environment interactions. The macroscopic approach instead represents a crowd at an aggregate

level, generally adopting analogies with other physical systems (e.g. hydraulic flows). In addition,

in relation to their modelling assumptions in terms of space representation (coarse or fine network

approach, continuous approach or hybrid), evacuation models are capable of representing geometries

with a different level of accuracy.

Evacuation models operate at three main levels when they produce results, namely 1) Individual

Level, 2) Aggregate Level and 3) Scenario level. The individual level deals with the simulation of the

actions performed by each agent. The aggregate level concerns the interactions between agents or

the interaction between agents and simulated objects which can influence the local conditions. The

scenario level relates to the results that summarize the conditions at the end of the simulation, i.e. the

final outcome of the model and the layout in which the evacuation takes place.

Potential users of evacuation models and those who are asked to accept the results need to be assured

that these models provide sufficiently accurate predictions of human behaviour in fire. To provide

this assurance, evacuation models being considered need to be verified for accuracy and validated

for capability to reproduce the phenomena. A rigorous verification and validation process are a key

element of quality assurance.

There is no fixed requirement of accuracy that is applicable to all possible applications of evacuation

models. The accuracy level depends on the purposes for which an evacuation model is to be used. It is not

necessary that all evacuation models demonstrate high accuracy in all their components as long as the

error, uncertainty and limits of applicability of the models are known. The accuracy of the evacuation

model predictions is also highly dependent on the competency of the user, e.g. model configuration,

data input selection, results interpretation.

This document focuses on the predictive accuracy of evacuation models. However, other factors such as

ease of use, relevance, completeness and status of development play an important role in the assessment

of the use of the most appropriate model for a particular application. The assessment and suitability of

evacuation models for the simulation of human behaviour in fire in several contexts of applications is

supported by the use of a quality-assurance methodology to ensure that the requirements are being

fulfilled. Tests and methods for measuring attributes of the relevant model characteristics are outlined

in this document.

This document is complementary to ISO 16730-1, in which the procedures and requirements for

verification and validation of calculation methods in fire safety engineering are addressed at a general

level. This document should also be used in parallel with the relevant ISO documents in which design

scenarios are discussed (ISO 16733-1 and ISO/TS 29761).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
This document is intended to have the following users:

a) Conceptual model developers (individuals or organizations that perform development activities,

including requirements analysis, design and testing of components): These users can use

this document to document the usefulness of a particular fire evacuation model for building

applications. Part of the model development process includes the identification of precision and

limitations of applicability, and independent testing.

NOTE Model developers generally have access to more model components than a user, given their work

in the model development phase.

b) Software model developers (individuals or organizations that maintain computer models, supply

computer models, and those who evaluate computer model quality as part of quality assurance

and quality control): These users can use this document to document the software features and

capabilities and to assure users that an appropriate testing protocol is followed to ensure quality of

the application tools by documenting the verification and validation of the model pursuant to this

document,

c) Model users (individuals or organizations that use evacuation models to perform a fire safety

analysis): These users can use models verified and validated pursuant to this document to assure

themselves that they are using an appropriate model for a particular application and that it provides

adequate accuracy.

d) Developers of performance codes and standards: These users can use this document to specify the

verification and validation procedure for evacuation models used in fire safety designs for a given

set of applications.

e) Approving bodies/officials (individuals or organizations that review or approve the use of

evacuation models): Theses users can use this document as a basis to ensure that the results

submitted show clearly that the evacuation model is used within its applicability limits and has an

acceptable level of accuracy.

f) Educators: These users can use this document to demonstrate the application and acceptability of

evacuation models being taught.

General principles are described in ISO 23932-1, which provides a performance-based methodology for

engineers to assess the level of fire safety for new or existing built environments. Fire safety is evaluated

through an engineered approach based on the quantification of the behaviour of fire and knowledge of

the consequences of such behaviour on life safety, property and the environment. ISO 23932-1 provides

the process (necessary steps) and essential elements to design a robust performance-based fire safety

programme.

ISO 23932-1 is supported by a set of fire safety engineering International Standards on the methods and

data required to undertake the steps in a fire safety engineering design as summarized in ISO 23932-1

and shown in Figure 1 (taken from ISO 23932-1). This set of International Standards is referred to as

the Global fire safety engineering analysis and information system. This global approach and system of

standards provides an awareness of the interrelationships between fire evaluations when using the set

of fire safety engineering International Standards.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
Key
See also ISO/TR 16576 (Examples).
See also ISO 16732-1, ISO 16733-1, ISO/TS 29761.
See also ISO 16732-1, ISO 16733-1, ISO/TS 29761.

See also ISO/TS 13447, ISO 16730-1, ISO/TR 16730-2 to 5 (Examples), ISO 16734, ISO 16735, ISO 16736,

ISO 16737, ISO/TR 16738, ISO 24678-6.
See also ISO/TR 16738, ISO 16733-1.
Figure 1 — Flow chart of the fire safety engineering process
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20414:2020(E)
Fire safety engineering — Verification and validation
protocol for building fire evacuation models
1 Scope

This document describes a protocol for the verification and validation of building fire evacuation

models. This document mostly addresses evacuation model components as they are in microscopic

(agent-based) models. Nevertheless, it can be adopted (entirely or partially) for macroscopic models if

the model is able to represent the components under consideration.

The area of application of the evacuation models discussed in this document includes performance-

based design of buildings and the review of the effectiveness of evacuation planning and procedures.

The evacuation process is represented with evacuation models in which people's movement and

their interaction with the environment make use of human behaviour in fire theories and empirical

[5]

observations . The simulation of evacuation is represented using mathematical models and/or

agent-to-agent and agent-to-environment rules.

The area of application of this document relates to buildings. This document is not intended to cover

aspects of transportation systems in motion (e.g. trains, ships) since specific ad-hoc additional tests

may be required for addressing the simulation of human behaviour during evacuation in these types of

[6]
systems .

This document includes a list of components for verification and validation testing as well as a

methodology for the analysis and assessment of accuracy associated with evacuation models. The

procedure for the analysis of acceptance criteria is also included.

A comprehensive list of components for testing is presented in this document, since the scope of the

testing has not been artificially restricted to a set of straightforward applications. Nevertheless, the

application of evacuation models as a design tool can be affected by the numbers of variables affecting

human behaviour under consideration. A high number of influences can hamper the acceptance of the

results obtained given the level of complexity associated with the results. Simpler calculation methods,

such as macroscopic models, capacity analyses or flow calculations, are affected to a lower extent by

the need to aim at high fidelity modelling. In contrast, more sophisticated calculation methods (i.e.

agent-based models) rely more on the ability to demonstrate that the simulation is able to represent

different emergent behaviours. For this reason, the components for testing are divided into different

categories, enabling the evacuation model tester to test an evacuation model both in relation to the

degree of sophistication embedded in the model as well as the specific scope of the model application.

In Annex A, a reporting template is provided to provide guidance to users regarding a format for

presenting test results and exemplary application of verification and validation tests are presented in

Annex B.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary

ISO 16730-1, Fire safety engineering — Procedures and requirements for verification and validation of

calculation methods — Part 1: General

ISO/IEC 25000, Systems and software engineering — Systems and software Quality Requirements and

Evaluation (SQuaRE) — Guide to SQuaRE
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 20414:2020(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943 and ISO 16730-1 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
acceptance criteria

criteria that form the basis for assessing the acceptability of the safety of a design of a building (3.8)

Note 1 to entry: The criteria can be qualitative, quantitative or a combination of both.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.3 — modified]
3.2
accuracy
degree of exactness actually possessed by an approximation, measurement, etc.
Note 1 to entry: Accuracy includes error (3.19) and uncertainty.
3.3
agent
simulated occupants in an agent-based model (3.4)
3.4
agent-based model

computational model for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (3.3) using a set

of rules
3.5
arrival time

time interval between the time of a warning of fire being transmitted to each occupant and the time at

which each individual occupant of a specified part of a building (3.8) or all of the building is able to enter

a place of safety
3.6
assessment

process of determining the degree to which an evacuation model (3.20) is an accurate representation

of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model and the degree to which the

model implementation accurately represents the developer's conceptual description of the model and

the solution to the modelling approach

Note 1 to entry: Key processes in the assessment of suitability of a calculation method are verification (3.37) and

validation (3.36).
3.7
behavioural uncertainty

uncertainty in evacuation scenarios associated with the impact of human behaviour in fire (3.24) during

evacuation
3.8
building
structure or edifice intended for different uses

Note 1 to entry: Examples of uses include residential, offices, hotels, shopping malls, industrial premises,

hospitals, arenas, theatres, exhibition halls, train stations, etc.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
3.9
calibration

process of adjusting modelling parameters in a computational model for the purpose of improving

agreement with experimental data
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.42 — modified]
3.10
component testing
process of checking that the components of a model work as intended
3.11
computer model
operational computer programme that implements a conceptual model
3.12
crowd

occupants or agents (3.3) whose behaviour, in conjunction with the environment (3.18), influences those

around them
3.13
default value

standard setting or state to be taken by the programme if no alternate setting or state is initiated by

the system or the user
3.14
default setting

an initial condition or algorithm provided by a developer as part of the model software

3.15
density

the number of occupants divided by the available area pertinent to the space where the occupants

are located
3.16
deterministic model

model that uses science-based mathematical expressions or rules to produce the same result each time

the method is used with the same set of input data values
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.80 — modified]
3.17
emergent behaviour

behaviour which occurs due to the interactions among smaller or simpler entities which do not exhibit

such properties themselves, e.g. agents (3.3)
3.18
environment

conditions and surroundings that can influence the behaviour of an item or persons when exposed to fire

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.95 — modified]
3.19
error

recognizable deficiency in any phase or activity of calculation that is not due to lack of knowledge

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.98 — modified]
3.20
evacuation model
computer model (3.11) for the representation of evacuation behaviour (3.21)
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
3.21
evacuation behaviour

behaviour of the occupants (in the real world) or agents (3.3) (in a model) meant to directly or indirectly

influence them to reach a place of safety
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.100 — modified]
3.22
evacuation time

time interval between the time of a warning of fire being transmitted to the occupants and the time

at which the occupant population of a specified part of a building (3.8) or all of the building are able to

enter a place of safety
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.101 — modified]
3.23
fire safety engineering

application of engineering methods based on scientific principles to the development or assessment (3.6)

of designs in buildings (3.8) through the analysis of specific fire scenarios or through the quantification

of risk for a group of fire scenarios
3.24
human behaviour in fire

actions performed in the event of a fire as a result of a behavioural or decision-making process

(i.e. recognition of fire, way-finding, pre-evacuation, etc.)
3.25
macroscopic model

computer model (3.11) in which occupant movement is represented only at an aggregate level, based on

computer-assisted algorithms
3.26
microscopic model

computer model (3.11) in which agents (3.3) perform autonomous movement based on individual

parameters, capabilities and behavioural attitudes based on computer-assisted algorithms

3.27
model component
part which constitutes a model (i.e. a sub-model, algorithm or behavioural rule)
3.28
modelling

process of construction or modification of a model movement behaviour which enables occupants of a

building (3.8) to reach a place of safety or safe refuge once they have begun to evacuate

3.29
occupant

person whose main physical characteristics are walking speeds (3.38) and body size

Note 1 to entry: Evacuation models (3.20) generally account for gender implicitly, i.e. as a consequence of the

assumed body size and walking speeds. For this reason, gender is not explicitly mentioned in this document

when referring to occupants.
3.30
performance-based design

design that is engineered to achieve specified objectives and acceptance criteria (3.1)

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.295 — modified]
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 20414:2020(E)
3.31
pre-evacuation time

time period after an alarm or fire cue is transmitted and before occupants first move (or travel)

towards an exit
3.32
probabilistic model

model that treats phenomena as a series of sequential events or states, with mathematical equations or

rules to govern the transition from one event to another

Note 1 to entry: For example, from ignition to established burning, and probabilities assigned to each transfer point.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.314 — modified]
3.33
route availability
escape routes available to the occupants
3.34
simulation

exercise or use of a calculation method to represent components of a system, their interaction and their

progression over time
3.35
simulation model

computer model (3.11) that treats the dynamic relationships that are assumed to exist in the real

situation as a series of elementary operations on the appropriate variables
3.36
validation

process of determining the degree to which a calculation method is an accurate representation of the

real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the calculation method
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.416 — modified]
3.37
verification

process of determining that a calculation method implementation accurately represents the developer's

conceptual description of the calculation method and the solution to the calculation method

Note 1 to entry: The fundamental strategy of verification of computational models is the identification and

quantification of error (3.19) in the modelling approach and its implementation.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.419 — modified]
3.38
walking speed

maximum uncongested speed at which individual evacuees move towards a place of safety

4 Documentation
4.1 General

The technical documentation relating to testing should be sufficiently detailed so that all calculation

results can be reproduced within the stated accuracy by an appropriately qualified independent

individual or group. Sufficient documentation of calculation methods, including computer software, is

essential for assessing the adequacy of the scientific and technical basis of the calculation methods, and

the accuracy of computational procedures. Also, adequate documentation can assist in preventing the

unintentional misuse of calculation methods. Reports on any verification and validation of a specific

calculation method should become part of the documentation. The
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 20414
Première édition
2020-11
Ingénierie de la sécurité incendie —
Protocole de vérification et de
validation de modèles d'évacuation
dans un bâtiment en cas d'incendie
Fire safety engineering — Verification and validation protocol for
building fire evacuation models
Numéro de référence
ISO 20414:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20414:2020(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2020

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Genève
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E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20414:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d'application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Documentation technique ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.3 Manuel de l'utilisateur ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Vérification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Composants de base ........................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3 Composants comportementaux ............................................................................................................................................25

5.4 Composants d'interaction entre le feu et les personnes ..................................................................................31

5.5 Composants spécifiques au bâtiment ...............................................................................................................................33

6 Validation ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

6.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................37

6.2 Méthodes d'analyse des résultats ........................................................................................................................................39

6.3 Validation des composants ........................................................................................................................................................43

6.4 Validation globale ..............................................................................................................................................................................49

7 Examen de la base théorique et expérimentale des modèles probabilistes .......................................50

8 Assurance qualité .............................................................................................................................................................................................51

9 Quantification de l'incertitude ...........................................................................................................................................................52

10 Critères d'acceptation ..................................................................................................................................................................................54

Annexe A (informative) Modèle de rapport ................................................................................................................................................56

Annexe B (informative) Exemples d'application ...................................................................................................................................59

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................68

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 20414:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l'intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 92, Sécurité au feu, sous-comité SC 4,

Ingénierie de la sécurité incendie.

Il convient que l'utilisateur adresse tout retour d'information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l'organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l'adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20414:2020(F)
Introduction

L'objectif de l'ingénierie de la sécurité incendie est d'aider à atteindre un niveau prédit acceptable de

la sécurité incendie. Une partie de ce travail implique l'utilisation de méthodes de calcul et de modèles

pour prédire le comportement humain en cas d'incendie. Des analyses d'évacuation sont réalisées afin

d'atténuer les effets préjudiciables d'un incendie pour les personnes. Les principes clés nécessaires

à l'établissement de la crédibilité de ces modèles d'évacuation sont la vérification et la validation. Le

présent document traite des procédures de vérification et de validation des modèles d'évacuation. Le

contexte des applications traitées dans le présent document est celui d'un incendie dans un bâtiment.

Des modèles d'évacuation sont appliqués pour établir le temps nécessaire pour qu'une population

évacuée atteigne une zone de sécurité. Des modèles d'évacuation sont également utilisés afin d'examiner

la dynamique d'évacuation de différents scénarios et d'évaluer l'efficacité des solutions procédurales.

Les modèles d'évacuation présentent différents niveaux de sophistication, qui vont des méthodes

simplifiées (telles que l'analyse de capacité ou les calculs de flux) à des modèles informatiques

complexes basés sur des agents. Les modèles microscopiques représentent les évacués dans des modèles

informatiques en tant qu'agents. Chaque évacué est représenté par un agent autonome avec certaines

propriétés, par exemple le délai de pré-évacuation et la vitesse de marche. Une foule est constituée d'un

groupe d'agents agissant ensemble dans un modèle d'évacuation multi-agents. Les agents agissent selon

les règles de comportement définies dans le modèle. Ces règles peuvent représenter des interactions

entre agents ou entre un agent et l'environnement. L'approche macroscopique représente quant à elle

une foule à un niveau agrégé, adoptant généralement des analogies avec d'autres systèmes physiques

(par exemple, les flux hydrauliques). De plus, selon leurs hypothèses de modélisation en termes de

représentation spatiale (approche en réseaux bruts ou fins, approche continue ou hybride), les modèles

d'évacuation sont capables de représenter des géométries avec un niveau d'exactitude différent.

Les modèles d'évacuation fonctionnent à trois niveaux principaux lorsqu'ils produisent des résultats, à

savoir 1) le niveau individuel, 2) le niveau agrégé et 3) le niveau scénario. Le niveau individuel traite de

la simulation des actions réalisées par chaque agent. Le niveau agrégé concerne les interactions entre

les agents ou l'interaction entre les agents et les objets simulés qui peuvent influencer les conditions

locales. Le niveau scénario désigne les résultats qui résument les conditions à la fin de la simulation,

c'est-à-dire le résultat final du modèle et la disposition dans laquelle l'évacuation a lieu.

Les utilisateurs potentiels des modèles d'évacuation et les personnes devant approuver les résultats

doivent être sûrs que les méthodes de calcul permettent de prédire avec suffisamment de précision du

comportement humain en cas d'incendie. Pour obtenir cette assurance, il est nécessaire que l'exactitude

des modèles d'évacuation pris en considération soit vérifiée et que leur capacité à reproduire le

phénomène soit validée. Un processus rigoureux de vérification et de validation est un élément clé de

l'assurance qualité.

Il n'existe pas d'exigence établie sur l'exactitude applicable à toutes les applications possibles des modèles

d'évacuation. Le niveau d'exactitude dépend des objectifs d'utilisation d'un modèle d'évacuation. Il n'est

pas nécessaire que tous les composants des modèles d'évacuation fassent preuve d'une exactitude

élevée dans la mesure où l'erreur, l'incertitude et les limites d'applicabilité des méthodes de calcul

sont connues. L'exactitude des prévisions du modèle d'évacuation dépend également fortement de la

compétence de l'utilisateur, par exemple la configuration du modèle, la sélection des données d'entrée,

l'interprétation des résultats.

Le présent document concerne l'exactitude prédictive des modèles d'évacuation. Toutefois, d'autres

facteurs tels que la facilité d'utilisation, la pertinence, l'exhaustivité et le stade de développement jouent

un rôle important dans l'évaluation du modèle le plus appropriée à utiliser pour une application donnée.

L'évaluation et l'adéquation des modèles d'évacuation pour la simulation du comportement humain en

cas d'incendie dans plusieurs contextes d'application sont étayées par l'utilisation d'une méthodologie

d'assurance qualité afin de garantir le respect des exigences. Les tests et les méthodes de mesure des

attributs des caractéristiques pertinentes du modèle sont décrits dans le présent document.

Le présent document est complémentaire à l'ISO 16730-1, dans laquelle les procédures et les exigences

de vérification et de validation des méthodes de calcul en ingénierie de la sécurité incendie sont

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 20414:2020(F)

traitées à un niveau général. Il convient également d'analyser le présent document parallèlement aux

documents ISO pertinents dans lesquels les scénarios de conception sont abordés (ISO 16733-1 et

ISO/TS 29761).
Le présent document vise les utilisateurs suivants:

a) Développeurs du modèle conceptuels (particuliers ou organismes qui exercent des activités de

développement, notamment l'analyse des exigences, la conception et le test de composants): ces

utilisateurs peuvent utiliser le présent document pour documenter l'utilité d'un modèle particulier

d'évacuation en cas d'incendie, pour des applications relatives au bâtiment. Une partie du processus

de développement du modèle comporte l'identification de la précision et des limites d'applicabilité,

et des tests indépendants.

NOTE Les développeurs du modèle ont généralement accès à davantage de composants de modèle qu'un

utilisateur, étant donné leur travail durant la phase de développement du modèle.

b) Développeurs du modèle logiciel (particuliers ou organismes qui gèrent et fournissent des

modèles informatiques, et ceux qui évaluent la qualité d'un modèle informatique dans le cadre de

l'assurance qualité et du contrôle qualité): ces utilisateurs peuvent utiliser le présent document

pour documenter les caractéristiques et les capacités du logiciel et garantir aux utilisateurs

qu'un protocole de test approprié est suivi afin d'assurer la qualité des outils d'application en

documentant la vérification et la validation du modèle en vertu du présent document.

c) Utilisateurs du modèle (particuliers ou organismes utilisant des modèles d'évacuation pour réaliser

une analyse de sécurité incendie): ces utilisateurs peuvent utiliser les modèles vérifiés et validés

conformément au présent document pour s'assurer qu'ils utilisent un modèle approprié pour une

application particulière et que celui-ci offre une exactitude adéquate.

d) Concepteurs de codes et de normes de performance: ces utilisateurs peuvent utiliser le présent

document pour spécifier la procédure de vérification et de validation des modèles d'évacuation

utilisés dans les conceptions de sécurité incendie pour un ensemble d'applications donné.

e) Organismes/responsables de l'approbation (particuliers ou organismes qui examinent ou

approuvent l'utilisation des modèles d'évacuation): ces utilisateurs peuvent utiliser le présent

document comme base pour s'assurer que les résultats présentés montrent clairement que

le modèle d'évacuation est utilisé dans les limites de son applicabilité et possède un niveau

d'exactitude acceptable.

f) Éducateurs: ces utilisateurs peuvent utiliser le présent document pour démontrer l'application et

l'acceptabilité des modèles d'évacuation enseignés.

Les principes généraux décrits dans l'ISO 23932-1 fournissent une méthodologie « performantielle » utile

aux ingénieurs pour évaluer le niveau de sécurité incendie des ouvrages, neufs ou existants. La sécurité

incendie est évaluée par une méthode d'ingénierie basée sur la quantification du comportement du feu

et la connaissance des conséquences d'un tel comportement sur la protection des vies humaines, des

biens et de l'environnement. L'ISO 23932-1 décrit le processus (les étapes nécessaires) et les éléments

essentiels afin de concevoir un programme de sécurité incendie-« performantiel » robuste.

L'ISO 23932-1 s'appuie sur un ensemble de normes ISO d'ingénierie de la sécurité incendie relatives

aux méthodes et aux données requises pour entreprendre les étapes de conception d'un processus

d'ingénierie de la sécurité incendie, résumées dans l'ISO 23932-1 et reproduites dans la Figure 1

ci-dessous (extraite de l'ISO 23932-1). Cet ensemble de Normes internationales est désigné sous

l'appellation générale de Système global d'information et d'analyse de l'ingénierie de la sécurité

incendie. Cette approche globale et le système de normes qui s'y rapporte mettent en relief les relations

qui existent entre les évaluations des incendies lors de l'utilisation des Normes internationales relatives

à l'ingénierie de la sécurité incendie.
vi © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20414:2020(F)
Légende
Voir également l'ISO/TR 16576 (exemples).
Voir également l'ISO 16732-1, l'ISO 16733-1, l'ISO/TS 29761.
Voir également l'ISO 16732-1, l'ISO 16733-1, l'ISO/TS 29761.

Voir également l'ISO/TS 13447, l'ISO 16730-1, l'ISO/TR 16730-2 à 5 (exemples), l'ISO 16734, l'ISO 16735,

l'ISO 16736, l'ISO 16737, l'ISO/TR 16738, l'ISO 24678-6.
Voir également l'ISO/TR 16738, l'ISO 16733-1.
Figure 1 — Organigramme du processus d'ingénierie de la sécurité incendie
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés vii
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 20414:2020(F)
Ingénierie de la sécurité incendie — Protocole de
vérification et de validation de modèles d'évacuation dans
un bâtiment en cas d'incendie
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document décrit un protocole pour la vérification et la validation des modèles d'évacuation

incendie des bâtiments. Le présent document aborde principalement les composants des modèles

d'évacuation tels qu'ils sont utilisés dans les modèles microscopiques (basés sur des agents). Il peut

néanmoins être adopté (en tout ou en partie) pour des modèles macroscopiques si le modèle est en

mesure de représenter les composants pris en considération.

Le domaine d'application des modèles d'évacuation dont il est question dans le présent document

comprend la conception des bâtiments basée sur les performances et l'examen de l'efficacité de la

planification et des procédures d'évacuation. Le processus d'évacuation est représenté par des modèles

d'évacuation dans lesquels le mouvement des personnes et leur interaction avec l'environnement

font appel au comportement humain dans les théories portant sur les incendies et les observations

[5]

empiriques . La simulation de l'évacuation est représentée à l'aide de modèles mathématiques et/ou

de règles agent à agent et agent à environnement.

Le domaine d'application du présent document concerne les bâtiments. L'objectif du présent document

n'est pas de couvrir les aspects des systèmes de transport en mouvement (par exemple, trains, navires),

dans la mesure où des tests supplémentaires ad hoc spécifiques peuvent être requis pour simuler le

[6]
comportement humain pendant l'évacuation de ces types de systèmes .

Le présent document comprend une liste de composants pour les tests de vérification et de validation

ainsi qu'une méthodologie pour l'analyse et l'évaluation de l'exactitude associée aux modèles

d'évacuation. La procédure d'analyse des critères d'acceptation est également incluse.

Une liste complète des composants à tester est présentée dans le présent document, dans la mesure

où le domaine d'application des tests n'a pas été artificiellement restreint à un ensemble d'applications

simples. Toutefois, l'application des modèles d'évacuation comme outil de conception peut être affectée

par le nombre de variables influant sur les comportements humains étudiés. Un grand nombre

d'influences peut entraver l'acceptation des résultats obtenus étant donné le niveau de complexité

associé aux résultats. Les méthodes de calculs plus simples telles que les modèles macroscopiques, les

analyses de capacité ou les calculs de flux sont affectées dans une moindre mesure par la nécessité de

viser une modélisation à haute fidélité. En revanche, les méthodes de calcul plus sophistiquées (c'est-à-

dire les modèles basés sur des agents) reposent davantage sur la capacité à démontrer que la simulation

est capable de représenter différents comportements émergents. Pour cette raison, les composants à

tester sont divisés en différentes catégories, de sorte que le modèle d'évacuation puisse être testé à la

fois en fonction du degré de sophistication intégré au modèle et du domaine d'application spécifique de

l'application du modèle.

L'Annexe A présente un modèle de rapport destiné à fournir des recommandations aux utilisateurs

en ce qui concerne le format de présentation des résultats de test. L'Annexe B présente un exemple

d'application des tests de vérification et de validation.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu'ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l'édition citée s'applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 20414:2020(F)
ISO 13943, Sécurité au feu — Vocabulaire

ISO 16730-1, Ingénierie de la sécurité incendie — Procédures et exigences pour la vérification et la

validation des méthodes de calcul — Partie 1: Généralités

ISO/IEC 25000, Ingénierie des systèmes et du logiciel — Exigences de qualité des systèmes et du logiciel et

évaluation (SQuaRE) — Guide de SQuaRE
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l'ISO 13943 et l'ISO 16730-1

ainsi que les suivants s'appliquent.

L'ISO et l'IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l'adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp.

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l'adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
critères d'acceptation

critères qui forment la base d'évaluation de l'acceptabilité de la sécurité de la conception d'un

bâtiment (3.8)

Note 1 à l'article: Les critères peuvent être qualitatifs, quantitatifs ou une combinaison des deux.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.3 — modifiée]
3.2
exactitude
degré de justesse réellement obtenu par une approximation, une mesure, etc.
Note 1 à l'article: L'exactitude comprend l'erreur (3.19) et l'incertitude.
3.3
agent
occupants simulés dans un modèle basé sur des agents (3.4)
3.4
modèle basé sur des agents

modèle informatique utilisé pour simuler les actions et les interactions d'agents (3.3) autonomes à l'aide

d'un ensemble de règles
3.5
temps d'arrivée

intervalle de temps qui s'écoule entre le déclenchement de l'alarme incendie émise vers chaque occupant

et l'instant où chaque individu d'une partie spécifique d'un bâtiment (3.8) ou de tout le bâtiment est

capable de pénétrer dans une zone de sécurité
3.6
évaluation

processus qui permet de déterminer dans quelle mesure un modèle d'évacuation (3.20) est une

représentation exacte du monde réel du point de vue des utilisations prévues du modèle et dans quelle

mesure l'implémentation du modèle représente exactement la description conceptuelle faite par le

développeur du modèle et de la solution de l'approche de modélisation

Note 1 à l'article: Les processus clés de l'évaluation de l'adéquation d'une méthode de calcul sont la vérification

(3.37) et la validation (3.36).
2 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20414:2020(F)
3.7
incertitude comportementale

incertitude des scénarios d'évacuation associée à l'impact du comportement humain en cas d'incendie

(3.24) pendant l'évacuation
3.8
bâtiment
structure ou édifice prévu pour différents usages

Note 1 à l'article: par exemple résidentiel, bureaux, hôtels, centres commerciaux, locaux industriels, hôpitaux,

enceintes sportives, théâtres, halls d'exposition, gares, etc.
3.9
étalonnage

processus d'ajustement de paramètres de modélisation dans un modèle informatique aux fins

d'améliorer la concordance avec les données expérimentales
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.42 — modifiée]
3.10
tests sur les composants
processus consistant à vérifier le bon fonctionnement des composants d'un modèle
3.11
modèle informatique
programme informatique opérationnel qui implémente un modèle conceptuel
3.12
foule

occupants ou agents (3.3) dont le comportement, en conjonction avec l'environnement (3.18), influence

ceux qui les entourent
3.13
valeur par défaut

état ou paramètre normalisé à prendre par le programme si aucun autre paramètre ou état n'est

initialisé par le système ou par l'utilisateur
3.14
réglage par défaut

condition initiale ou algorithme fourni par un développeur en tant que partie intégrante du logiciel de

modélisation
3.15
densité

le nombre d'occupants divisé par la superficie disponible pertinente dans l'espace où les occupants

sont situés
3.16
modèle déterministe

modèle qui utilise des expressions ou des règles mathématiques scientifiques pour produire le même

résultat chaque fois que la méthode est utilisée avec le même jeu de valeurs des données d'entrée

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.80 — modifiée]
3.17
comportement émergent

comportement qui se produit en raison des interactions entre des entités plus petites ou plus simples

qui ne présentent pas elles-mêmes de telles propriétés, par exemple, les agents (3.3)

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 20414:2020(F)
3.18
environnement

conditions et éléments environnants qui peuvent influer sur le comportement d'un objet ou d'une

personne exposé(e) à l'incendie
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.95 — modifiée]
3.19
erreur

déviation reconnaissable dans toute phase ou activité de calcul, qui n'est pas due au manque de

connaissance
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.98 — modifiée]
3.20
modèle d'évacuation

modèle informatique (3.11) utilisé pour représenter le comportement en cours d'évacuation (3.21)

3.21
comportement en cours d'évacuation

comportement des occupants (dans le monde réel) ou des agents (3.3) (dans un modèle) censé les

influencer directement ou indirectement pour atteindre une zone de sécurité
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.100 — modifiée]
3.22
temps d'évacuation

intervalle de temps qui s'écoule entre le déclenchement de l'alarme incendie émise vers les occupants

et l'instant où la population des occupants d'une partie spécifique d'un bâtiment (3.8) ou de tout le

bâtiment est capable de pénétrer dans une zone de sécurité
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.101 — modifiée]
3.23
ingénierie de la sécurité incendie

application des méthodes d'ingénierie fondées sur des principes scientifiques au développement ou

à l'évaluation (3.6) de conceptions de bâtiments (3.8) au moyen de l'analyse de scénarios d'incendie

spécifiques ou bien par la quantification du risque pour un groupe de scénarios d'incendie

3.24
comportement humain en cas d'incendie

actions réalisées en cas d'incendie, à la suite d'un processus comportemental ou d'un processus

décisionnel (par exemple, reconnaissance d'un incendie, orientation, pré-évacuation, etc.)

3.25
modèle macroscopique

modèle informatique (3.11) dans lequel le mouvement des occupants n'est représenté qu'à un niveau

agrégé, sur la base d'algorithmes assistés par ordinateur
3.26
modèle microscopique

modèle informatique (3.11) dans lequel les agents (3.3) effectuent des mouvements autonomes basés

sur des paramètres, des capacités et des attitudes comportementales individuels, fondés sur des

algorithmes assistés par ordinateur
3.27
composant de modèle

partie constituante d'un modèle (c'est-à-dire un sous-modèle, un algorithme ou une règle

comportementale)
4 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits ré
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20414
First edition
Fire safety engineering — Verification
and validation protocol for building
fire evacuation models
Ingénierie de la sécurité incendie — Protocole de vérification et
de validation de modèles d'évacuation dans un bâtiment en cas
d'incendie
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 20414:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Technical documentation ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3 User's manual ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Verification ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Basic components ..............................................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Behavioural components ............................................................................................................................................................24

5.4 Fire-people interaction components ................................................................................................................................29

5.5 Building-specific components ................................................................................................................................................31

6 Validation ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................35

6.2 Methods for the analysis of results .....................................................................................................................................36

6.3 Component validation ...................................................................................................................................................................40

6.4 Global validation .................................................................................................................................................................................45

7 Review of the theoretical and experimental basis of probabilistic models .........................................46

8 Quality assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................................47

9 Quantification of uncertainty ...............................................................................................................................................................48

10 Acceptance criteria .........................................................................................................................................................................................50

Annex A (informative) Reporting Template ...............................................................................................................................................51

Annex B (informative) Examples of application ....................................................................................................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................63

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ISO 20414:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 04, Fire

safety engineering.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
Introduction

The objective of fire safety engineering is to assist in the achievement of an acceptable predicted level

of fire safety. Part of this work involves the use of calculation methods and models to predict human

behaviour in case of a fire. Evacuation analyses are performed to mitigate the adverse effects of a fire on

people. The main principles that are necessary for establishing credibility of these evacuation models

are verification and validation. This document addresses the procedures for verification and validation

of evacuation models. The context of applications addressed in this document is building fires.

Evacuation models are applied to establish the time for an evacuating population to reach a place of

safety. Evacuation models are also used to examine evacuation dynamics of different scenarios and to

evaluate the effectiveness of procedural solutions.

Evacuation models present different levels of sophistication, ranging from simplified methods (such

as capacity analysis or flow calculations) to complex computational agent-based models. Microscopic

models represent evacuees in computer models as agents. Each evacuee is represented by an

autonomous agent with certain properties, e.g. pre-evacuation time and walking speed. A crowd

is built up of a group of agents acting together in a multi-agent-based evacuation model. Agents act

according to behavioural rules defined in the model. These rules can represent agent-to-agent or agent-

to-environment interactions. The macroscopic approach instead represents a crowd at an aggregate

level, generally adopting analogies with other physical systems (e.g. hydraulic flows). In addition,

in relation to their modelling assumptions in terms of space representation (coarse or fine network

approach, continuous approach or hybrid), evacuation models are capable of representing geometries

with a different level of accuracy.

Evacuation models operate at three main levels when they produce results, namely 1) Individual

Level, 2) Aggregate Level and 3) Scenario level. The individual level deals with the simulation of the

actions performed by each agent. The aggregate level concerns the interactions between agents or

the interaction between agents and simulated objects which can influence the local conditions. The

scenario level relates to the results that summarize the conditions at the end of the simulation, i.e. the

final outcome of the model and the layout in which the evacuation takes place.

Potential users of evacuation models and those who are asked to accept the results need to be assured

that these models provide sufficiently accurate predictions of human behaviour in fire. To provide

this assurance, evacuation models being considered need to be verified for accuracy and validated

for capability to reproduce the phenomena. A rigorous verification and validation process are a key

element of quality assurance.

There is no fixed requirement of accuracy that is applicable to all possible applications of evacuation

models. The accuracy level depends on the purposes for which an evacuation model is to be used. It is not

necessary that all evacuation models demonstrate high accuracy in all their components as long as the

error, uncertainty and limits of applicability of the models are known. The accuracy of the evacuation

model predictions is also highly dependent on the competency of the user, e.g. model configuration,

data input selection, results interpretation.

This document focuses on the predictive accuracy of evacuation models. However, other factors such as

ease of use, relevance, completeness and status of development play an important role in the assessment

of the use of the most appropriate model for a particular application. The assessment and suitability of

evacuation models for the simulation of human behaviour in fire in several contexts of applications is

supported by the use of a quality-assurance methodology to ensure that the requirements are being

fulfilled. Tests and methods for measuring attributes of the relevant model characteristics are outlined

in this document.

This document is complementary to ISO 16730-1, in which the procedures and requirements for

verification and validation of calculation methods in fire safety engineering are addressed at a general

level. This document should also be used in parallel with the relevant ISO documents in which design

scenarios are discussed (ISO 16733-1 and ISO/TS 29761).
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
This document is intended to have the following users:

a) Conceptual model developers (individuals or organizations that perform development activities,

including requirements analysis, design and testing of components): These users can use

this document to document the usefulness of a particular fire evacuation model for building

applications. Part of the model development process includes the identification of precision and

limitations of applicability, and independent testing.

NOTE Model developers generally have access to more model components than a user, given their work

in the model development phase.

b) Software model developers (individuals or organizations that maintain computer models, supply

computer models, and those who evaluate computer model quality as part of quality assurance

and quality control): These users can use this document to document the software features and

capabilities and to assure users that an appropriate testing protocol is followed to ensure quality of

the application tools by documenting the verification and validation of the model pursuant to this

document,

c) Model users (individuals or organizations that use evacuation models to perform a fire safety

analysis): These users can use models verified and validated pursuant to this document to assure

themselves that they are using an appropriate model for a particular application and that it provides

adequate accuracy.

d) Developers of performance codes and standards: These users can use this document to specify the

verification and validation procedure for evacuation models used in fire safety designs for a given

set of applications.

e) Approving bodies/officials (individuals or organizations that review or approve the use of

evacuation models): Theses users can use this document as a basis to ensure that the results

submitted show clearly that the evacuation model is used within its applicability limits and has an

acceptable level of accuracy.

f) Educators: These users can use this document to demonstrate the application and acceptability of

evacuation models being taught.

General principles are described in ISO 23932-1, which provides a performance-based methodology for

engineers to assess the level of fire safety for new or existing built environments. Fire safety is evaluated

through an engineered approach based on the quantification of the behaviour of fire and knowledge of

the consequences of such behaviour on life safety, property and the environment. ISO 23932-1 provides

the process (necessary steps) and essential elements to design a robust performance-based fire safety

programme.

ISO 23932-1 is supported by a set of fire safety engineering International Standards on the methods and

data required to undertake the steps in a fire safety engineering design as summarized in ISO 23932-1

and shown in Figure 1 (taken from ISO 23932-1). This set of International Standards is referred to as

the Global fire safety engineering analysis and information system. This global approach and system of

standards provides an awareness of the interrelationships between fire evaluations when using the set

of fire safety engineering International Standards.
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
Key
See also ISO/TR 16576 (Examples).
See also ISO 16732-1, ISO 16733-1, ISO/TS 29761.
See also ISO 16732-1, ISO 16733-1, ISO/TS 29761.

See also ISO/TS 13447, ISO 16730-1, ISO/TR 16730-2 to 5 (Examples), ISO 16734, ISO 16735, ISO 16736,

ISO 16737, ISO/TR 16738, ISO 24678-6.
See also ISO/TR 16738, ISO 16733-1.
Figure 1 — Flow chart of the fire safety engineering process
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20414:2020(E)
Fire safety engineering — Verification and validation
protocol for building fire evacuation models
1 Scope

This document describes a protocol for the verification and validation of building fire evacuation

models. This document mostly addresses evacuation model components as they are in microscopic

(agent-based) models. Nevertheless, it can be adopted (entirely or partially) for macroscopic models if

the model is able to represent the components under consideration.

The area of application of the evacuation models discussed in this document includes performance-

based design of buildings and the review of the effectiveness of evacuation planning and procedures.

The evacuation process is represented with evacuation models in which people's movement and

their interaction with the environment make use of human behaviour in fire theories and empirical

[5]

observations . The simulation of evacuation is represented using mathematical models and/or

agent-to-agent and agent-to-environment rules.

The area of application of this document relates to buildings. This document is not intended to cover

aspects of transportation systems in motion (e.g. trains, ships) since specific ad-hoc additional tests

may be required for addressing the simulation of human behaviour during evacuation in these types of

[6]
systems .

This document includes a list of components for verification and validation testing as well as a

methodology for the analysis and assessment of accuracy associated with evacuation models. The

procedure for the analysis of acceptance criteria is also included.

A comprehensive list of components for testing is presented in this document, since the scope of the

testing has not been artificially restricted to a set of straightforward applications. Nevertheless, the

application of evacuation models as a design tool can be affected by the numbers of variables affecting

human behaviour under consideration. A high number of influences can hamper the acceptance of the

results obtained given the level of complexity associated with the results. Simpler calculation methods,

such as macroscopic models, capacity analyses or flow calculations, are affected to a lower extent by

the need to aim at high fidelity modelling. In contrast, more sophisticated calculation methods (i.e.

agent-based models) rely more on the ability to demonstrate that the simulation is able to represent

different emergent behaviours. For this reason, the components for testing are divided into different

categories, enabling the evacuation model tester to test an evacuation model both in relation to the

degree of sophistication embedded in the model as well as the specific scope of the model application.

In Annex A, a reporting template is provided to provide guidance to users regarding a format for

presenting test results and exemplary application of verification and validation tests are presented in

Annex B.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 16730-1, Fire safety engineering — Procedures and requirements for verification and validation of

calculation methods — Part 1: General
ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary

ISO/IEC 25000, Systems and software engineering — Systems and software Quality Requirements and

Evaluation (SQuaRE) — Guide to SQuaRE
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943 and ISO 16730-1 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
acceptance criteria

criteria that form the basis for assessing the acceptability of the safety of a design of a building (3.8)

Note 1 to entry: The criteria can be qualitative, quantitative or a combination of both.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.3 — modified]
3.2
accuracy
degree of exactness actually possessed by an approximation, measurement, etc.
Note 1 to entry: Accuracy includes error (3.19) and uncertainty.
3.3
agent
simulated occupants in an agent-based model (3.4)
3.4
agent-based model

computational model for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (3.3) using a set

of rules
3.5
arrival time

time interval between the time of a warning of fire being transmitted to each occupant and the time at

which each individual occupant of a specified part of a building (3.8) or all of the building is able to enter

a place of safety
3.6
assessment

process of determining the degree to which an evacuation model (3.20) is an accurate representation

of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model and the degree to which the

model implementation accurately represents the developer's conceptual description of the model and

the solution to the modelling approach

Note 1 to entry: Key processes in the assessment of suitability of a calculation method are verification (3.37) and

validation (3.36).
3.7
behavioural uncertainty

uncertainty in evacuation scenarios associated with the impact of human behaviour in fire (3.24) during

evacuation
3.8
building
structure or edifice intended for different uses

Note 1 to entry: Examples of uses include residential, offices, hotels, shopping malls, industrial premises,

hospitals, arenas, theatres, exhibition halls, train stations, etc.
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
3.9
calibration

process of adjusting modelling parameters in a computational model for the purpose of improving

agreement with experimental data
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.42 — modified]
3.10
component testing
process of checking that the components of a model work as intended
3.11
computer model
operational computer programme that implements a conceptual model
3.12
crowd

occupants or agents (3.3) whose behaviour, in conjunction with the environment (3.18), influences those

around them
3.13
default value

standard setting or state to be taken by the programme if no alternate setting or state is initiated by

the system or the user
3.14
default setting

an initial condition or algorithm provided by a developer as part of the model software

3.15
density

the number of occupants divided by the available area pertinent to the space where the occupants

are located
3.16
deterministic model

model that uses science-based mathematical expressions or rules to produce the same result each time

the method is used with the same set of input data values
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.80 — modified]
3.17
emergent behaviour

behaviour which occurs due to the interactions among smaller or simpler entities which do not exhibit

such properties themselves [e.g. agents (3.3)]
3.18
environment

conditions and surroundings that can influence the behaviour of an item or persons when exposed to fire

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.95 — modified]
3.19
error

recognizable deficiency in any phase or activity of calculation that is not due to lack of knowledge

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.98 — modified]
3.20
evacuation model
computer model (3.11) for the representation of evacuation behaviour (3.21)
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
3.21
evacuation behaviour

behaviour of the occupants (in the real world) or agents (3.3) (in a model) meant to directly or indirectly

influence them to reach a place of safety
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.100 — modified]
3.22
evacuation time

time interval between the time of a warning of fire being transmitted to the occupants and the time

at which the occupant population of a specified part of a building (3.8) or all of the building are able to

enter a place of safety
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.101 — modified]
3.23
fire safety engineering

application of engineering methods based on scientific principles to the development or assessment (3.6)

of designs in buildings (3.8) through the analysis of specific fire scenarios or through the quantification

of risk for a group of fire scenarios
3.24
human behaviour in fire

actions performed in the event of a fire as a result of a behavioural or decision-making process

(i.e. recognition of fire, way-finding, pre-evacuation, etc.)
3.25
macroscopic model

computer model (3.11) in which occupant movement is represented only at an aggregate level, based on

computer-assisted algorithms
3.26
microscopic model

computer model (3.11) in which agents (3.3) perform autonomous movement based on individual

parameters, capabilities and behavioural attitudes based on computer-assisted algorithms

3.27
model component
part which constitutes a model (i.e. a sub-model, algorithm or behavioural rule)
3.28
modelling

process of construction or modification of a model movement behaviour which enables occupants of a

building (3.8) to reach a place of safety or safe refuge once they have begun to evacuate

3.29
occupant

person whose main physical characteristics are walking speeds (3.38) and body size

Note 1 to entry: Evacuation models (3.20) generally account for gender implicitly, i.e. as a consequence of the

assumed body size and walking speeds. For this reason, gender is not explicitly mentioned in this document

when referring to occupants.
3.30
performance-based design

design that is engineered to achieve specified objectives and acceptance criteria (3.1)

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.295 — modified]
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ISO 20414:2020(E)
3.31
pre-evacuation time

time period after an alarm or fire cue is transmitted and before occupants first move (or travel)

towards an exit
3.32
probabilistic model

model that treats phenomena as a series of sequential events or states, with mathematical equations or

rules to govern the transition from one event to another

Note 1 to entry: For example, from ignition to established burning, and probabilities assigned to each transfer point.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.314 — modified]
3.33
route availability
escape routes available to the occupants
3.34
simulation

exercise or use of a calculation method to represent components of a system, their interaction and their

progression over time
3.35
simulation model

computer model (3.11) that treats the dynamic relationships that are assumed to exist in the real

situation as a series of elementary operations on the appropriate variables
3.36
validation

process of determining the degree to which a calculation method is an accurate representation of the

real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the calculation method
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.416 — modified]
3.37
verification

process of determining that a calculation method implementation accurately represents the developer's

conceptual description of the calculation method and the solution to the calculation method

Note 1 to entry: The fundamental strategy of verification of computational models is the identification and

quantification of error (3.19) in the modelling approach and its implementation.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.419 — modified]
3.38
walking speed

maximum uncongested speed at which individual evacuees move towards a place of safety

4 Documentation
4.1 General

The technical documentation relating to testing should be sufficiently detailed so that all calculation

results can be reproduced within the stated accuracy by an appropriately qualified independent

individual or group. Sufficient documentation of calculation methods, including computer software, is

essential for assessing the adequacy of the scientific and technical basis of the calculation methods, and

the accuracy of computational procedures. Also, adequate documentation can assist in preventing the

unintentional misuse of calcul
...

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