This document provides guidance for the specification of design fires for use in fire safety engineering analysis of building and structures in the built environment. The design fire is intended to be used in an engineering analysis to determine consequences in fire safety engineering (FSE) analyses.

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This document describes a protocol for the verification and validation of building fire evacuation models. This document mostly addresses evacuation model components as they are in microscopic (agent-based) models. Nevertheless, it can be adopted (entirely or partially) for macroscopic models if the model is able to represent the components under consideration. The area of application of the evacuation models discussed in this document includes performance-based design of buildings and the review of the effectiveness of evacuation planning and procedures. The evacuation process is represented with evacuation models in which people's movement and their interaction with the environment make use of human behaviour in fire theories and empirical observations[5]. The simulation of evacuation is represented using mathematical models and/or agent‑to‑agent and agent-to-environment rules. The area of application of this document relates to buildings. This document is not intended to cover aspects of transportation systems in motion (e.g. trains, ships) since specific ad-hoc additional tests may be required for addressing the simulation of human behaviour during evacuation in these types of systems[6]. This document includes a list of components for verification and validation testing as well as a methodology for the analysis and assessment of accuracy associated with evacuation models. The procedure for the analysis of acceptance criteria is also included. A comprehensive list of components for testing is presented in this document, since the scope of the testing has not been artificially restricted to a set of straightforward applications. Nevertheless, the application of evacuation models as a design tool can be affected by the numbers of variables affecting human behaviour under consideration. A high number of influences can hamper the acceptance of the results obtained given the level of complexity associated with the results. Simpler calculation methods, such as macroscopic models, capacity analyses or flow calculations, are affected to a lower extent by the need to aim at high fidelity modelling. In contrast, more sophisticated calculation methods (i.e. agent-based models) rely more on the ability to demonstrate that the simulation is able to represent different emergent behaviours. For this reason, the components for testing are divided into different categories, enabling the evacuation model tester to test an evacuation model both in relation to the degree of sophistication embedded in the model as well as the specific scope of the model application. In Annex A, a reporting template is provided to provide guidance to users regarding a format for presenting test results and exemplary application of verification and validation tests are presented in Annex B.

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This document provides a complete example to illustrate ISO 23932-1. The example is a dry-cleaning store, for which the fire safety objective is life safety, for both people located inside or outside the shop, in the event of a fire within the shop. NOTE Generally, an FSE study is not needed for such a small shop. However, this example was chosen to demonstrate the application of ISO 23932-1 in detail while keeping the documentation provided sufficiently brief.

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The requirements in this document govern the application of a set of explicit algebraic formulae for the calculation of specific characteristics of radiation heat flux from an open pool fire. This document is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO 16730‑1 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving a set of explicit algebraic formulae. This document is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to the algebraic formulae is provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: a) description of physical phenomena addressed by the calculation method; b) documentation of the calculation procedure and its scientific basis; c) limitations of the calculation method; d) input parameters for the calculation method; and e) domain of applicability of the calculation method. Examples of sets of algebraic formulae meeting the requirements of this document are provided in Annexes A and B. Annex A contains a set of algebraic formulae for radiation heat fluxes from a circular or near-circular open pool fire. Annex B contains formulae for configuration factors of a flame to a target.

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This document provides requirements to govern the application of explicit algebraic formulae sets to the calculation of fire phenomena. This document is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO 16730‑1 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving sets of explicit algebraic formulae. This document is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to algebraic formulae are provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: a) Requirements governing description of physical phenomena; b) Requirements governing calculation process; c) Requirements governing limitations; d) Requirements governing input parameters; e) Requirements governing domain of applicability.

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This document provides a methodology for assessing the performance of structures in the built environment when exposed to a real fire. This document, which follows the principles outlined in ISO 23932-1, provides a performance-based methodology for engineers to assess the level of fire safety of new or existing structures. NOTE The fire safety of structures is evaluated through an engineering approach based on the quantification of the behaviour of a structure for the purpose of meeting fire safety objectives and can cover the entire time history of a real fire (including the cooling phase), and its consequences related to fire safety objectives such as life safety, property protection and/or environmental protection.

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This document provides general principles and requirements for FSE, and is intended to be used by professionals involved in 1) performance-based fire safety design (of both new and existing built environments), 2) implementation for fire safety design plans, and 3) fire safety management. This document is not intended as a detailed technical design guide, but does provide the key elements necessary for addressing the different steps and their linkages in the fire safety design process. This document also provides key elements linked to the implementation of fire safety design plans and fire safety management. This document is intended not only to be used on its own, but also in conjunction with a consistent set of FSE documents covering methods in performance-based fire safety design, implementation and management. FSOs covered by this document include: — safety of life; — property protection; — continuity of operations; — protection of the environment; — preservation of heritage. The general principles and requirements of FSE can be applied to all configurations of the built environment, i.e. buildings or other structures (e.g. off-shore platforms; civil engineering works, such as tunnels, bridges and mines; and means of transportation, such as motor vehicles and marine vessels), but may not be applicable for construction sites. Because prescriptive regulations covering fire safety design commonly co-exist with performance-based design, this document acknowledges that fire safety designs conforming to prescriptive regulations can become the basis for comparison of engineered designs of built environments.

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ISO/TR 24679-6:2017 provides an example of fire safety engineering design in the application of ISO 24679‑1 to an office building. In ISO/TR 24679-6:2017, an overall structural analysis of a building is undertaken. It consists in a numerical assessment of the structural performance of an eight-storey concrete building when subjected to a fire. This analysis is performed in order to demonstrate that the fire safety objectives, for the relevant design fire scenarios, due to structural behaviour of building in the event of fire, are met with the trial plan for the safety of structure. With regards to this, a fully developed fire was studied. The purpose of this document is to assess the performance of an office building which is fully accessible to public in case of fire, using ISO 24679‑1. In this respect, a critical design fire was identified and analysed using detailed fire modelling. A more detailed analysis was then performed for critical design fire using the finite element model. The advanced model provided all the comprehensive information necessary for analysing the given built environment with respect to fire safety. It is to be noted that this document only addresses the fire safety objectives related to the structural performance during fire. The analysis within this document is therefore only part of the overall building fire safety strategy.

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ISO/TR 24679-4:2017 provides a fire engineering application relative to the fire resistance assessment of a fifteen-storey steel framed building following the methodology given in ISO 24679-1. This document describes the adopted process which follows the same step by step procedure as that provided in ISO 24679-1. The annexes of this document present the detailed assessment results obtained for the most severe fire scenarios on the basis of the outcome of this specific fire safety engineering procedure for the building. The fire safety engineering applied in this example to the office building with respect to its fire resistance considers specific design fire scenarios as well as the corresponding fire development. It takes into account fully-developed compartment fires. In realistic situations, activation of fire suppression systems and/or intervention of fire brigade are expected, but their beneficial effects are not taken into account. It should be noted that these severe fire scenarios have been selected for fire resistance purposes. Global structural behaviour is not explicitly considered, but implicitly included in the calculation formulae. Since the building of the example is located in a seismic region, principal structural elements are rigidly connected to each other. Load redistribution from heated elements to cold surrounding elements exists, but it's not taken into account in the design calculations. By this approach, design is conservative, while the process of safety checking is greatly simplified and clear. As a result, all the calculations were carried out by explicit algebraic formulae.

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ISO/TR 24672-2:2017 provides a fire engineering application relative to fire resistance assessment of an airport terminal structure according to the methodology given in ISO 24679‑1. It follows step by step the procedure given by ISO 24679‑1. Some requirements relative to Chinese building regulation are taken into account concerning the fire scenarios. The fire safety engineering applied to an airport terminal takes into account the real fire data based in fire tests. It is important to note that the intervention of fire service brigade dedicated to this airport, located approximately 1 km away, has been taken into account in definition of fire scenarios. For the fire modelling, both fire extinguishing system and the smoke extraction are not considered but the fire fighter intervention has been taken into account 10 min after the starting of fire.

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ISO/TR 16576:2017 compiles examples of fire safety design objectives, functional requirements and safety criteria from Japan, France and New Zealand.

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ISO 24678-6:2016 provides requirements to govern the application of explicit algebraic formula sets to the calculation of flashover-related phenomena. It is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO 16730‑1 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving sets of explicit algebraic formulae. ISO 24678-6:2016 is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to algebraic flashover formulae are provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: a) description of physical phenomena addressed by the calculation method; b) documentation of the calculation procedure and its scientific basis; c) limitations of the calculation method; d) input parameters for the calculation method; e) domain of applicability of the calculation method.

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ISO/TS 29761:2015 describes a methodology for the selection of design occupant behavioural scenarios that are severe but credible for use in deterministic fire safety engineering analyses of any built environment including buildings, structures, or transportation vehicles. Occupant behavioural scenarios are linked to design fire scenarios. Guidance on the selection of design fire scenarios and design fires is covered in ISO 16733‑1. The steps in ISO 16733‑1 are followed in this Technical Specification with life safety of the occupants as the single fire safety objective under consideration. ISO/TR 16738 provides information on methods for the quantification of the different aspects of human evacuation behaviour in a design context. One part of that process involves the selection of occupant behavioural scenarios. This Technical Specification provides guidance for that aspect of the evaluation of an egress design. ISO/TS 29761:2015 addresses behaviours that occur after fire ignition and does not deal with behaviours that influence fire ignition.

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ISO 16733-1:2015 describes a methodology for the selection of design fire scenarios that are credible but conservative for use in fire safety engineering analyses of any built environment, including buildings, structures or transportation systems. Following the procedures given in this part of ISO 16733-1:2015, a manageable number of design fire scenarios is selected using a qualitative or semi-quantitative approach. For a full quantitative approach using risk assessment, the reader is directed to ISO 16732‑1.

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ISO/TR 24679-4:2015 provides a fire safety engineering application relative to fire resistance assessment of an open car park according to the methodology given in ISO/TS 24679. It describes the adopted process which followed the same step by step procedure as that given within ISO/TS 24679. The annexes of ISO/TR 24679-4:2015 presents the detailed numerical analysis results obtained for most severe fire scenarios on the basis of this specific fire safety engineering procedure for open car parks.

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ISO 16730-1:2015 establishes a framework for the verification and validation of all types of calculation methods used as tools for fire safety engineering by specifying specific procedures and requirements for the purpose. It does not address specific fire models, but it is applicable to analytical models, algebraic correlations and complex numerical models, which are addressed as calculation methods in the context of this International Standard. This International Standard includes - a process to determine that the relevant equations and calculation methods are implemented correctly (verification) and that the calculation method being considered is an accurate representation of the real world (validation), - requirements for documentation to demonstrate the adequacy of the scientific and technical basis of a calculation method, - requirements for data against which a calculation method's predicted results are checked, and - guidance on use of this International Standard by developers and/or users of calculation methods, and by those assessing the results obtained by using calculation methods.

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ISO 16730‑1 describes what the contents of a technical documentation and of a user's manual should be for an assessment, if the application of a calculation method as engineering tool to predict real-world scenarios leads to validated results. The purpose of ISO/TR 16730-3:2013 is to show how ISO 16730‑1 is applied to a calculation method, for a specific example. It demonstrates how technical and users' aspects of the method are properly described in order to enable the assessment of the method in view of verification and validation. The example in ISO/TR 16730-3:2013 describes the application of procedures given in ISO 16730‑1 for a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model (ISIS). The main objective of the specific model treated in ISO/TR 16730-3:2013 is the simulation of a fire in an open environment or confined compartments with natural or forced ventilation system.

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ISO 16730‑1 describes what the contents of a technical documentation and of a user's manual should be for an assessment, if the application of a calculation method as engineering tool to predict real-world scenarios leads to validate results. The purpose of ISO 16730-5:2013 is to show how ISO 16730‑1 is applied to a calculation method, for a specific example. It demonstrates how technical and users' aspects of the method are properly described in order to enable the assessment of the method in view of verification and validation. The example in ISO 16730-5:2013 describes the application of procedures given in ISO 16730‑1 for an evacuation model (EXIT89). The main objective of the specific model treated in ISO 16730-5:2013 is the simulation of the evacuation of a high-rise building with a large occupant population.

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ISO 16730-4:2013 shows how ISO 16730‑1 is applied to a calculation method for a specific example. It demonstrates how technical and users' aspects of the method are properly described in order to enable the assessment of the method in view of verification and validation. The example it gives describes the application of procedures given in ISO 16730‑1 for a structural fire resistance model. The main objective of the specific model treated here is the simulation of the heat transfer and structural responses of wall assemblies.

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ISO/TR 16730-2:2013 shows how ISO 16730‑1 is applied to a calculation method for a specific example. It demonstrates how technical and users' aspects of the method are properly described in order to enable the assessment of the method in view of verification and validation. ISO/TR 16730-2:2013 describes the application of procedures given in ISO 16730‑1 for a fire zone model (CFAST). The main objective of the specific model treated here is the simulation of a fire in an open environment or in confined compartments with a natural or forced ventilation system.

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ISO/TS 13477:2013 provides guidance for assessing the use of fire zone models for calculating gas temperature and concentrations and smoke layer position due to fire within an enclosure. It contains general guidance to be read in conjunction with specific model documentation provided by the model developers. It is not a basis for justifying the use of any particular model. It is important that users of fire zone models understand the theoretical basis of a model and are capable of assessing the accuracy and validity of the results. Zone models can also include additional sub-models for predicting related phenomena such as sprinkler, thermal or smoke detector activation, mechanical ventilation, glass fracture or flame spread. ISO/TS 13477:2013 is not intended as a basis for regulation.

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ISO/TR 16732-3:2013 deals with a fictitious propane storage facility dedicated to the reception of propane transported by tank wagons, the storage of propane in a pressurized vessel and the bulk shipment of propane by tank trucks. The fire risk assessment developed in ISO/TR 16732-3:2013 is not intended to be exhaustive, but is given as an example to illustrate the application of ISO 16732-1 to an industrial facility. ISO/TR 16732-3:2013 is further limited to design-phase strategies, including changes to the layout of the facility and selection of relevant fire safety strategies (implementation of risk reduction measures). Not included are strategies that operate during the operation phase, including process modifications. It illustrates the value of fire risk assessment because multiple scenarios are analysed, and several design options are available, which may perform well or not depending on the considered scenario. Risk estimation is needed to determine the result of these different combinations, and overall measures of performance that can be compared between design options. If there were only one scenario of interest, or if the options all tended to perform the same way on all the scenarios, then a simpler type of engineering analysis would suffice.

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ISO/TR 16732-2:2012 is an example of the application of ISO 16732-1, prepared in the format of ISO 16732-1. It is intended to illustrate the implementation of the steps of fire risk assessment, as defined in ISO 16732-1.

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ISO 16732-1:2012 provides the conceptual basis for fire risk assessment by stating the principles underlying the quantification and interpretation of fire-related risk. These fire risk principles apply to all fire-related phenomena and all end-use configurations, which means these principles can be applied to all types of fire scenarios. The principles and concepts in ISO 16732-1:2012 can be applied to any fire safety objectives, including the five typical objectives listed as examples in Clause 1 of ISO 23932:2009: safety of life conservation of property continuity of business and safety operations protection of the environment preservation of heritage

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ISO/TR 16738:2009 is intended to provide information to designers, regulators and fire safety professionals on the engineering methods available for evacuation strategies in relation to the evaluation of life safety aspects of a fire safety engineering design. Information is presented on the evaluation, quantification and management of occupant behaviour, particularly escape behaviour, during a fire emergency. ISO/TR 16738:2009 addresses the parameters that underlie the basic principles of designing for life safety and provides information on the processes, assessments and calculations necessary to determine the location and condition of the occupants of the building, with respect to time. ISO/TR 16738:2009 provides information on methods for the quantification of the different aspects of human evacuation behaviour in a design context. It is intended for use together with the parts of ISO/TR 13387 and associated guidance documents and standards. These provide some of the information useful in performing a life safety evaluation and a means for incorporating the results of the life safety evaluation into the wider aspects of a fire safety engineering design. The use of lifts (elevators) in emergency evacuations is not dealt with in ISO/TR 16738:2009.

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The requirements given in ISO 16735:2006 govern the application of algebraic equation sets to the calculation of specific characteristics of smoke layers generated by fires. ISO 16735:2006 is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO/TR 13387-3 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving sets of algebraic equations. ISO 16735:2006 is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to algebraic smoke layer equations is provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: description of physical phenomena addressed by the calculation method; documentation of the calculation procedure and its scientific basis; limitations of the calculation method; input parameters for the calculation method; domain of applicability of the calculation method. Examples of sets of algebraic equations meeting all the requirements of ISO 16735:2006 are provided in separate annexes for each different type of smoke layer scenario. Annex A contains general information and conservation requirements for smoke layers and Annex B contains specific algebraic equations for calculation of smoke layer characteristics.

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The requirements of ISO 16736:2006 govern the application of explicit algebraic equation sets to the calculation of specific characteristics of ceiling jet flows. ISO 16736:2006 is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO/TR 13387-3 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving sets of explicit algebraic equations. ISO 16736:2006 is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to algebraic ceiling-jet-flow equations is provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: description of physical phenomena addressed by the calculation method; documentation of the calculation procedure and its scientific basis; limitations of the calculation method; input parameters for the calculation method; domain of applicability of the calculation method. Examples of sets of algebraic equations meeting all the requirements of ISO 16736:2006 are provided for each different type of ceiling jet flow, including those for quasi-steady state axisymmetric ceiling jet flows.

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ISO 16734:2006 govern the application of explicit algebraic equation sets to the calculation of specific characteristics of fire plumes. ISO 16734:2006 is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO/TR 13387-3 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving sets of explicit algebraic equations. ISO 16734:2006 is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to algebraic fire plume equations is provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: description of physical phenomena addressed by the calculation method; documentation of the calculation procedure and its scientific basis; limitations of the calculation method; input parameters for the calculation method; domain of applicability of the calculation method. Examples of sets of algebraic equations meeting all the requirements of ISO 16734:2006 are be provided for each different type of fire plume, including those for quasi-steady state, axisymmetric fire plumes.

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ISO/TS 24679:2010 provides a methodology for assessing the performance of structures in the built environment when exposed to a real fire. ISO/TS 24679:2010, which follows the principles outlined in ISO 23932, provides a performance-based methodology for engineers to assess the level of fire safety of new or existing structures.

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ISO 23932:2009 provides general principles for a performance-based methodology for engineers to assess the level of fire safety for new or existing built environments. Fire safety is evaluated through an engineered approach based on the quantification of the behaviour of fire and people and based on knowledge of the consequences of such behaviour on life safety, property and the environment. ISO 23932:2009 is not intended as a detailed technical design guide, but does contain the key elements needed by practicing fire safety engineers and peer reviewers (those entities who can be required to review the work of fire-safety engineers) for addressing the different steps and their linkages in a design process. The information contained in ISO 23932:2009 is intended not only to be useful to engineers directly but also to serve as a template to guide the development of a consistent set of fire-safety engineering documents covering the role of engineering methods and test methods in performance-based design and assessment. The basic principles of fire-safety design and related fire-safety objectives in ISO 23932:2009 can be applied in any other document addressing phenomena associated with fire (e.g. fire growth, hot gases and effluents movement, structural and compartmentalization behaviour). Related fire-safety objectives include, for example, safety of life; conservation of property; continuity of operations; protection of the environment; preservation of heritage. Furthermore, these basic principles can be applied to all configurations of the built environment (e.g. buildings, transportation systems and industrial installations). Because prescriptive regulations covering fire-safety design will co-exist for some time with performance-based design, ISO 23932:2009 takes into account that fire-safety designs conforming to prescriptive regulations can become the basis for comparison of engineered designs of new built environments.

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ISO 16730:2008 provides a framework for assessment, verification and validation of all types of calculation methods used as tools for fire safety engineering. It does not address specific fire models, but is intended to be applicable to both analytical models and complex numerical models that are addressed as calculation methods in the context of this International Standard. It is not a step-by-step procedure, but does describe techniques for detecting errors and finding limitations in a calculation method. ISO 16730:2008 includes the following: a process to ensure that the equations and calculation methods are implemented correctly (verification) and that the calculation method being considered is solving the appropriate problem (validation); requirements for documentation to demonstrate the adequacy of the scientific and technical basis of a calculation method; requirements for data against which a calculation method's predicted results shall be checked; guidance on use of this ISO 16730:2008 by developers and/or users of calculation methods, and by those assessing the results obtained by using calculation methods.

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ISO/TS 16733:2006 describes a methodology for the selection of design fire scenarios and design fires that are credible but conservative for use in deterministic fire safety engineering analyses of any built environment including buildings, structures or transportation vehicles. The selection of design fire scenarios is tailored to the fire-safety design objectives, and accounts for the likelihood and consequences of potential scenarios. The selection of design fires is also tailored to the fire-safety objectives and to ensuring credible but severe fire exposure conditions. While ISO/TS 16733:2006 provides more operational information on the selection of design fire scenarios and design fires than ISO/TR 13387-2, it is not intended to replace ISO/TR 13387-2 within the self-consistent set of parts making up ISO/TR 13387.

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ISO 16737:2006 governs the application of algebraic equation sets to the calculation of specific characteristics of vent flows. ISO 16737:2006 is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO/TR 13387-3 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving sets of algebraic equations. ISO 16737:2006 is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to algebraic vent-flow equations is provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: description of physical phenomena addressed by the calculation method; documentation of the calculation procedure and its scientific basis; limitations of the calculation method; input parameters for the calculation method; domain of applicability of the calculation method. Examples of sets of algebraic equations meeting all the requirements of ISO 16737:2006 are provided for each different type of vent flow scenario. One informative annex contains general information and conservation relationships for vent flows and a second informative annex contains specific algebraic equations for calculation of vent flow characteristics.

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ISO/TS 16732:2005 provides the conceptual basis for fire risk assessment by stating the principles underlying the quantification and interpretation of fire-related risk. These fire risk principles apply to all fire-related phenomena and all end-use configurations, which means these principles can be applied to all types of fire scenarios. ISO/TS 16732:2005 is designed as a guide for future documents that provide formal procedures for the implementation of the risk assessment principles for specific applications, e.g., situations in which only certain types of fire scenarios are possible. Those future documents will complete the process of full standardization begun by ISO/TS 16732:2005, which not only specifies the steps to be followed in fire risk assessment but also provides guidance for use in determining whether the specific approach used for quantification falls within an acceptable range. Principles underlying the quantification of risk are presented in ISO/TS 16732:2005 in terms of the steps to be taken in conducting a fire risk assessment. These quantification steps are initially placed in the context of the overall management of fire risk and then explained within the context of fire safety engineering, as discussed in ISO/TR 13387. The use of scenarios and the characterization of probability and consequence are then described as steps in fire risk estimation, leading to the quantification of combined fire risk. Guidance is also provided on the use of the information generated, i.e., on the interpretation of fire risk. Finally, there is an examination of uncertainty in the quantification and interpretation of the fire risk estimates obtained following the procedures in this document.

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Describes the basic characteristics of the process of fire development, and gives information based on differentiated temperature-time-curves and on an empirical time of fire duration.

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