Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits — Ultrasonic transit-time meters for liquid

ISO 12242:2012 specifies requirements and recommendations for ultrasonic liquid flowmeters, which utilize the transit time of ultrasonic signals to measure the flow of single-phase homogenous liquids in closed conduits. There are no limits on the minimum or maximum sizes of the meter. ISO 12242:2012 specifies performance, calibration and output characteristics of ultrasonic meters (USMs) for liquid flow measurement and deals with installation conditions. It covers installation with and without a dedicated proving (calibration) system. It covers both in-line and clamp-on transducers (used in configurations in which the beam is non-refracted and in those in which it is refracted). Included are both meters incorporating meter bodies and meters with field-mounted transducers.

Mesurage de débit des fluides dans les conduites fermées — Compteurs ultrasoniques pour liquides

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Jul-2012
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
14-Jul-2020
Completion Date
14-Jul-2020
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�������� 12242
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2012�0��01
Measurement of fluid flow in closed
conduits — Ultrasonic transit-time
meters for liquid
Mesurage de débit des fluides dans les conduites fermées —
Compteurs ultrasoniques pour liquides
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---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12242:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
� ��� 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
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ISO 12242:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Quantities .............................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Meter design ......................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Thermodynamic conditions .............................................................................................................................. 3

3.4 Statistics ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

3.5 Calibration ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

3.6 Symbols and subscripts .................................................................................................................................... 5

3.7 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Principles of measurement ............................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Description ............................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.2 Volume flow ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Generic description ..........................................................................................................................................10

4.4 Time delay considerations .............................................................................................................................. 11

4.5 Refraction considerations ...............................................................................................................................14

4.6 Reynolds number ..............................................................................................................................................15

4.7 Temperature and pressure correction .........................................................................................................15

5 Performance requirements .............................................................................................................................15

6 Uncertainty in measurement ..........................................................................................................................16

6.1 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................16

6.2 Evaluation of the uncertainty components ................................................................................................16

7 Installation ...........................................................................................................................................................18

7.1 General .................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Use of a prover ...................................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Calibration in a laboratory or use of a theoretical prediction procedure ...........................................19

7.4 Additional installation effects ........................................................................................................................21

8 Test and calibration ..........................................................................................................................................22

8.1 General .................................................................................................................................................................22

8.2 Individual testing — Use of a theoretical prediction procedure ...........................................................22

8.3 Individual testing — Flow calibration under flowing conditions ..........................................................23

9 Performance testing .........................................................................................................................................24

9.1 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................24

9.2 Repeatability and reproducibility ..................................................................................................................25

9.3 Additional test for meters with externally mounted transducers .........................................................25

9.4 Assessing the uncertainty of a meter whose performance is predicted using a theoretical

prediction procedure ........................................................................................................................................26

9.5 Fluid-mechanical installation conditions ....................................................................................................26

9.6 Path failure simulation and exchange of components ...........................................................................27

10 Meter characteristics ........................................................................................................................................27

10.1 Meter body, materials, and construction ....................................................................................................27

10.2 Transducers ........................................................................................................................................................29

10.3 Electronics ..........................................................................................................................................................29

10.4 Software ...............................................................................................................................................................30

10.5 Exchange of components ...............................................................................................................................31

10.6 Determination of density and temperature .................................................................................................31

11 Operational practice .........................................................................................................................................32

11.1 General .................................................................................................................................................................32

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ISO 12242:2012(E)

11.2 Audit process .....................................................................................................................................................32

11.3 Operational diagnostics ..................................................................................................................................34

11.4 Audit trail during operation; inter-comparison and inspection ............................................................36

11.5 Recalibration .......................................................................................................................................................37

Annex A (normative) Temperature and pressure correction ................................................................................42

Annex B (informative) Effect of a change of roughness ........................................................................................48

Annex C (informative) Example of uncertainty calculations .................................................................................52

Annex D (informative) Documents ...............................................................................................................................65

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................67

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ISO 12242:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12242 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 30, Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits,

Subcommittee SC 5, Velocity and mass methods�
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ISO 12242:2012(E)
Introduction

Ultrasonic meters (USMs) have become one of the accepted flow measurement technologies for a wide range

of liquid applications, including custody-transfer and allocation measurement. Ultrasonic technology has

inherent features such as no pressure loss and wide rangeability.

USMs can deliver diagnostic information through which it may be possible to demonstrate that an ultrasonic

liquid flowmeter is performing in accordance with specification. Owing to the extended diagnostic capabilities,

this International Standard advocates the addition and use of automated diagnostics instead of labour-intensive

quality checks. The use of automated diagnostics makes possible a condition-based maintenance system.

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12242:2012(E)
Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits — Ultrasonic
transit-time meters for liquid
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies requirements and recommendations for ultrasonic liquid flowmeters,

which utilize the transit time of ultrasonic signals to measure the flow of single-phase homogenous liquids in

������ ���������
There are no limits on the minimum or maximum sizes of the meter.

This International Standard specifies performance, calibration and output characteristics of ultrasonic meters

(USMs) for liquid flow measurement and deals with installation conditions. It covers installation with and without

a dedicated proving (calibration) system. It covers both in-line and clamp-on transducers (used in configurations

in which the beam is non-refracted and in those in which it is refracted). Included are both meters incorporating

meter bodies and meters with field-mounted transducers.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.
ISO 4006, Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits — Vocabulary and symbols
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 4006 and the following apply.

3.1 Quantities
3.1.1
volume flowrate
q =
�����
V �� �������
t �� ����
[42]
NOTE Adapted from ISO 80000-4:2006, 4-30.
3.1.2
metering pressure

absolute fluid pressure in a meter under flowing conditions to which the indicated volume of liquid is related

3.1.3
mean velocity in the meter body
fluid flowrate divided by the cross-sectional area of the meter body
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ISO 12242:2012(E)
3.1.4
mean pipe velocity
fluid flowrate divided by the cross-sectional area of the upstream pipe

NOTE Where a meter has a reduced bore, the mean velocities in the upstream pipe and within the meter body itself differ.

3.1.5
path velocity
average fluid velocity on an ultrasonic path
3.1.6
Reynolds number

dimensionless parameter expressing the ratio between the inertia and viscous forces

3.1.7
pipe Reynolds number

dimensionless parameter expressing the ratio between the inertia and viscous forces in the pipe

ρvD vD
Re ==
�����
ρ is mass density;
v is the mean pipe velocity;
D is the pipe internal diameter;
m is the dynamic viscosity;
ν is the kinematic viscosity

NOTE Where a meter has a reduced bore, it is possible also to define the throat Reynolds number, in whose definition

the mean velocity in the meter body, the meter internal diameter and the kinematic viscosity are used.

3.2 Meter design
3.2.1
meter body
pressure-containing structure of the meter
3.2.2
ultrasonic path
path travelled by an ultrasonic signal between a pair of ultrasonic transducers
3.2.3
axial path

path travelled by an ultrasonic signal either on or parallel to the axis of the pipe

3.2.4
diametrical path

ultrasonic path whereby the ultrasonic signal travels through the centre-line or long axis of the pipe

3.2.5
chordal path

ultrasonic path whereby the ultrasonic signal travels parallel to the diametrical path

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ISO 12242:2012(E)
3.2.6
field mounted
external to the pipe, attached on site, not prior to a laboratory calibration
3.3 Thermodynamic conditions
3.3.1
metering conditions

conditions, at the point of measurement, of the fluid of which the volume is to be measured

NOTE Also known as operating conditions or actual conditions.
3.3.2
standard conditions

defined temperature and pressure conditions used in the measurement of fluid quantity so that the standard

volume is the volume that would be occupied by a quantity of fluid if it were at standard temperature and pressure

NOTE 1 Standard conditions may be defined by regulation or contract.

NOTE 2 Not preferred alternatives: reference conditions, base conditions, normal conditions, etc.

NOTE 3 Metering and standard conditions relate only to the volume of the liquid to be measured or indicated, and

[44]

should not be confused with rated operating conditions or reference conditions (see ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 4.9 and

[44]
4.11), which refer to influence quantities (see ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.52).
3.3.3
specified conditions

conditions of the fluid at which performance specifications of the meter are given

3.4 Statistics
3.4.1
error
measured quantity value minus a reference quantity value
[44]
[ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, 2.16]
3.4.2
repeatability (of results of measurements)

closeness of the agreement between the results of successive measurements of the same measurand carried

out under the same conditions of measurement
NOTE 1 These conditions are called repeatability conditions.
NOTE 2 Repeatability conditions include:
— the same measurement procedure;
— the same observer;
— the same measuring instrument, used under the same conditions;
— the same location;
— repetition over a short period of time.

NOTE 3 Repeatability may be expressed quantitatively in terms of the dispersion characteristics of the results.

[43]
[ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, B.2.15]
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ISO 12242:2012(E)
3.4.3
reproducibility (of results of measurements)

closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under

changed conditions of measurement

NOTE 1 A valid statement of reproducibility requires specification of the conditions changed.

NOTE 2 The changed conditions may include:
— principle of measurement;
— method of measurement;
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— measuring instrument;
— reference standard;
— location;
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NOTE 3 Reproducibility may be expressed quantitatively in terms of the dispersion characteristics of the results.

NOTE 4 Results are here usually understood to be corrected results.
[43]
[ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, B.2.16]
3.4.4
resolution

smallest difference between indications of a meter that can be meaningfully distinguished

3.4.5
zero flow reading

flowmeter reading when the liquid is at rest, i.e. both axial and non-axial velocity components are essentially zero

3.4.6
linearization

way of reducing the non-linearity of an ultrasonic meter, by applying correction factors

NOTE The linearization can be applied in the electronics of the meter or in a flow computer connected to the USM.

The correction can be, for example, piece-wise linearization or polynomial linearization.

3.4.7
uncertainty (of measurement)

parameter, associated with the result of a measurement, that characterizes the dispersion of the values that

could reasonably be attributed to the measurand

NOTE 1 The parameter may be, for example, a standard deviation (or a given multiple of it), or the half-width of an

interval having a stated level of confidence.

NOTE 2 Uncertainty of measurement comprises, in general, many components. Some of these components may be

evaluated from the statistical distribution of the results of series of measurements and can be characterized by experimental

standard deviations. The other components, which can also be characterized by standard deviations, are evaluated from

assumed probability distributions based on experience or other information.

NOTE 3 It is understood that the result of the measurement is the best estimate of the value of the measurand, and

that all components of uncertainty, including those arising from systematic effects, such as components associated with

corrections and reference standards, contribute to the dispersion.
[43]
[ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, B.2.18]
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ISO 12242:2012(E)
3.4.8
standard uncertainty
uncertainty of the result of a measurement expressed as a standard deviation
[43]
[ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, 2.3.1]
3.4.9
expanded uncertainty

quantity defining an interval about the result of a measurement that may be expected to encompass a large

fraction of the distribution of values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand

[43]
[ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, 2.3.5]

NOTE 1 The large fraction is normally 95 % and is generally associated with a coverage factor k = 2�

NOTE 2 The expanded uncertainty is often referred to as the uncertainty.
3.4.10
coverage factor

numerical factor used as a multiplier of the standard uncertainty in order to obtain an expanded uncertainty

[43]
NOTE Adapted from ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, 2.3.6.
3.5 Calibration
3.5.1
flow calibration
calibration in which fluid flows through the meter
3.5.2
theoretical prediction procedure

procedure by which the performance of a meter is theoretically predicted, without liquid flowing through the meter

3.5.3
performance testing

testing of a representative sample of meters to determine, for example, reproducibility and installation

requirements for meters geometrically similar to themselves
3.6 Symbols and subscripts

The symbols and subscripts used in this International Standard are given in Tables 1 and 2.

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ISO 12242:2012(E)
Table 1 — Symbols
Quantity Symbol Dimensions SI unit
2 2
Cross-sectional area of meter body A � �
Speed of sound in fluid c �� m/s
Internal diameter of the meter body d � �
Internal pipe diameter D � �
−1 −2
Young’s modulus E ML � Pa
Function of path velocities f � 1
Integers (1,2,3, …) i,j,n � 1
Calibration factor K � 1
Body end correction factor K � 1
� −1 � � �
Path-geometry factor K � �� �� � or m/s
Velocity profile correction factor K � 1
Body style correction factor K � 1
Minimum distance to a specified upstream flow disturbance l � �
���
Path length l � �
−1 −2
�������� �������� p ML � Pa
3 −1 3
Volume flowrate q � � � /s
Internal pipe radius r � �
External pipe radius R � �
Throat Reynolds number Re � 1
Pipe Reynolds number Re � 1
Percentage maximum deviation in measured flowrate due to upstream
� 1
fittings
Absolute temperature of the liquid T Θ �
Transit time t � �
Time delay t � �
Mean axial fluid velocity in the meter body v �� m/s
Mean axial fluid velocity on ultrasonic path, i v �� m/s
Mean axial fluid velocity in the upstream pipe v �� m/s
Transducer axial separation X � �
−1 −1
Thermal expansion coefficient α Θ �
Pipe wall thickness δ � �
−1 −1
Dynamic viscosity ML � Pa s
2 −1 2
Kinematic viscosity ν � � � /s
−3 3
Density of the liquid ML kg/m
Poisson’s ratio s � 1
Angle between ultrasonic path and pipe axis φ � rad
M ≡ mass; L ≡ ������≡ � ��� �� � ≡ Θtemperature.
Non-refracting configuration.
Refracting configuration.
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ISO 12242:2012(E)
Table 2 — Subscripts
Subscript Meaning
cal under calibration conditions
meas measured (uncorrected)
�� under operational conditions
���� actual (corrected)
3.7 Abbreviated terms
AGC automatic gain control
��� factory acceptance test
MSOS measured speed of sound
��� signal to noise ratio
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USM ultrasonic meter

USMP USM package, including meter tubes, flow conditioner, flow computer and thermowell

4 Principles of measurement
4.1 Description

The ultrasonic transit-time flowmeter is a sampling device that measures discrete path velocities using one

or more pairs of transducers. Each pair of transducers is located a known distance, l , apart such that one is

upstream of the other (see Figure 1). The upstream and downstream transducers send and receive pulses of

ultrasound alternately, referred to as contra-propagating transmission, and the times of arrival are used in the

calculation of average axial velocity, v. At any given instant, the difference between the apparent speed of sound

in a moving liquid and the speed of sound in that same liquid at rest is directly proportional to the instantaneous

velocity of the liquid. As a consequence, a measure of the average axial velocity of the liquid along a path can

be obtained by transmitting an ultrasonic signal along the path in both directions and subsequently measuring

the transit time difference.

The volume flowrate of a liquid flowing in a completely filled closed conduit is defined as the average velocity

of the liquid over a cross-section multiplied by the area of the cross-section. Thus, by measuring the average

velocity of a liquid along one or more ultrasonic paths (i.e. lines, not the area) and combining the measurements

with knowledge of the cross-sectional area and the velocity profile over the cross-section, it is possible to

obtain an estimate of the volume flowrate of the liquid in the conduit.
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ISO 12242:2012(E)
Figure 1 — Measurement principle

Several techniques can be used to obtain a measure of the average effective speed of propagation of an

ultrasonic signal in a moving liquid in order to determine the average axial flow velocity along an ultrasonic path

line. However, the normal technique applied in modern USMs is the direct time differential technique.

The basis of this technique is the measurement of the transit time of ultrasonic signals as they propagate

between a transmitter and a receiver. The velocity of propagation of the ultrasonic signal is the sum of the

speed of sound, c, and the flow velocity in the direction of propagation. Therefore the transit time upstream and

downstream can be expressed as:
t ≈ .dl �1�
fl_up/dn
c+•vn
l=0
�����
c is the speed of sound in the fluid;
n is the unit normal vector to the wave front;
v is the flow velocity vector at location, l, on the path l .
l �
NOTE This is correct whether the transmitter is upstream or downstream.

With the assumptions that the flow velocity is in the axial direction only and that v << c, where v is the mean

i i

axial flow velocity on ultrasonic path line i, then the upstream and downstream transit times can be written as

t = �2�
fl_up
cv− cosφ
t = (3)
fl_dn
cv+ cosφ
Rearranging terms and solving for v �����
tt−
2v cosφ
11 fl_up fl_dn
−= = �4�
tt tt l
fl_dn fl_up fl_up fl_dn p
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ISO 12242:2012(E)
v = (5)
2cosφ tt
fl_up fl_dn
�����
l is the distance between the transducers;
Δt is the difference in transit times;

φ is the angle of inclination of the ultrasonic signal with respect to the axial direction of the flow.

The speed of sound can be calculated as follows:
tt+
11 2c
fl_up fl_dn
+= = (6)
tt tt l
fl_dn fl_up fl_up fl_dn p
tt+
fl_up fl_dn
c = ���
2 tt
fl_up fl_dn
4.2 Volume flow

The individual path velocity measurements are combined by a mathematical function to yield an estimate of the

mean velocity in the meter body:
v � f�v , ..., v ) (8)
1 n
�����n i s the total number of paths.

Owing to variations in path configuration and different proprietary approaches of solving Formula (8), even for

a given number of paths, the exact form of f�v , ..., v ) can vary.
1 n

The relationship between the mean pipe velocity and the measured path velocities depends on the flow profile.

In fully developed flow, the flow profile depends only on the Reynolds number and the pipe roughness.

One possible solution is to calculate the mean velocity as a weighted sum of the path velocities and to apply a

velocity profile factor, K , to compensate for profile changes. The value of K is calculated by an algorithm that

� �

takes into account flow regime (laminar, transitional, and turbulent), as well as other process variables, as required.

vK= wv �9�
p∑ ii
i=1
The volume flowrate, q , is given by:
q � Av �10�
�����
v is the estimate of the mean pipe velocity;
A is the cross-sectional area of the measurement section.

Note that increasing n may reduce the uncertainty associated with flow profile variations.

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ISO 12242:2012(E)
4.3 Generic description
4.3.1 General

This sub-clause is a generic description of USMs for liquids. It recognizes the scope for variation within

commercial designs and the potential for new developments. For the purpose of description, USMs are

considered to consist of several components, namely:
a) transducers;
b) meter body with ultrasonic path configuration;
c) electronic data processing and presentation unit.

NOTE In a meter with externally mounted transducers, the meter body is the pipe to which the transducers are fixed.

4.3.2 Transducers
Transducers are the transmitters and receivers of th
...

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