Cranes -- Safe use of high-performance fibre ropes in crane applications

This document gives guidance for the safe use of high-performance fibre ropes (HPFR) in crane applications. This document also covers winch applications. The mention of crane applications implicitly includes winch applications. This document covers performance criteria and the necessary evaluation to enable selection of HPFR as well as best practice guidelines on procedures, testing and maintenance to safely operate HPFR in crane applications including provisions for assembly/disassembly. The performance criteria are related to tasks performed when using cranes as intended, including assembly/disassembly, operation and required checks and maintenance. This document does not deal with so-called hybrid ropes which are a combination of steel wire and high-performance fibres, where the load bearing capability is shared between steel wires and the high-performance fibre. This document does not deal with HPFR used for high risk applications (e.g. transport of hot molten metal).

Appareils de levage a charge suspendue -- Utilisation en sécurité des câbles synthétiques haute performance pour les applications sur les appareils de levage à charge suspendue

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Status
Published
Publication Date
23-May-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
09-Apr-2021
Completion Date
09-Apr-2021
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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 23624
First edition
2021-05
Cranes — Safe use of high-
performance fibre ropes in crane
applications
Appareils de levage a charge suspendue — Utilisation en sécurité des
câbles synthétiques haute performance pour les applications sur les
appareils de levage à charge suspendue
Reference number
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 HPFR performance considerations ................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Responsibilities ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Risk assessment ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Rope .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3.1 Types of ropes .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.2 Selection of ropes ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.4 Proof of competence........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Safety factor at discard for HPFR ............................................................................................................................................ 7

5 Crane design considerations .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 Termination on the drum ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Termination at load side ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3 Drum ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.3.1 Lowering limiter .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.2 Forces on flange and tube (Multilayer drum) ......................................................................................... 9

5.3.3 Shape of grooves on drums ..................................................................................................................................10

5.3.4 Clearance between rope and diameter of drum flange ...............................................................10

5.3.5 Temperature limits .....................................................................................................................................................10

5.4 Sheaves .......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.1 Shape of grooves ...........................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.2 Material of sheave ........................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.3 Minimum D/d ratio ....................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 Crane .............................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.1 Contact surfaces ............................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.2 Fleet angles ........................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.3 Substitution on existing design and optimization on new designs ...................................11

5.5.4 Substitution on used cranes ................................................................................................................................11

6 Qualification testing of HPFR ...............................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Basic data of HPFR ............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2.2 Minimum breaking strength, MBS .................................................................................................................12

6.2.3 Residual breaking strength, RBS .....................................................................................................................12

6.2.4 Residual lifetime ...................................................................... ......................................................................................12

6.3 Qualification testing ........................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.2 Bending fatigue performance ............................................................................................................................13

6.3.3 Multilayer spooling performance ...................................................................................................................13

6.3.4 Tension fatigue performance (rope and termination) .................................................................13

6.3.5 Termination performance (Static) .................................................................................................................14

6.4 Interpolation of test results ......................................................................................................................................................14

7 Information to be provided regarding care, maintenance and inspection ...........................................14

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Installation of HPFR .........................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2.1 Stationary ropes ............................................................................................................................................................14

7.2.2 Running ropes .................................................................................................................................................................14

7.3 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3.1 Maintenance of the rope .........................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)

7.3.2 Maintenance of rope-related parts of the crane ................................................................................15

7.4 Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.5 Discard criteria ....................................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (normative) Selection of ropes ........................................................................................................................................................18

Annex B (informative) Qualification testing ..............................................................................................................................................22

Annex C (informative) HPFR test report – Spreadsheet .................................................................................................................28

Annex D (informative) Example of discard .................................................................................................................................................38

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................42

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 96, Cranes, Subcommittee SC 3, Selection

of ropes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
Introduction

Recent developments of high-performance fibre ropes (HPFR) made from synthetic fibre have led to

comparable strength with regard to steel wire ropes. The main advantages of using HPFR on cranes

are:
a) light weight (significant weight reduction);
b) no environment pollution by grease (no re-lubrication);
c) easy handling (faster and easier assembly/disassembly);
d) robust spooling (increased tolerance for spooling failures).

The use of HPFR on cranes has already started, however, there is limited experience with HPFR in

comparison to the long-term application of steel wire ropes.

For steel wire ropes, substantial experience over many decades covering both rope selection and discard

criteria exists, which can be found in International Standards (e.g. ISO 16625 and ISO 4309). Currently,

there is no standard available that deals with design and discard criteria for the use of HPFR on cranes.

Therefore, this document has been developed based on the content of the FEM 5.024 guideline.

The FEM 5.024 guideline was developed by the Fédération Européenne de la Manutention (FEM) as

a joint project with various stakeholders in the industry. It is based on first experiences with mobile

cranes and the requirements/limits in some cases can be specific to mobile cranes only.

This document includes additional input from tower crane and electric overhead traveling crane

manufacturers. Adaptation to other crane types or applications can be necessary.
This document reflects the current knowledge about the use of HPFR on cranes.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
Cranes — Safe use of high-performance fibre ropes in
crane applications
1 Scope

This document gives guidance for the safe use of high-performance fibre ropes (HPFR) in crane

applications.

This document also covers winch applications. The mention of crane applications implicitly includes

winch applications.

This document covers performance criteria and the necessary evaluation to enable selection of HPFR

as well as best practice guidelines on procedures, testing and maintenance to safely operate HPFR in

crane applications including provisions for assembly/disassembly.

The performance criteria are related to tasks performed when using cranes as intended, including

assembly/disassembly, operation and required checks and maintenance.

This document does not deal with so-called hybrid ropes which are a combination of steel wire and

high-performance fibres, where the load bearing capability is shared between steel wires and the

high-performance fibre. This document does not deal with HPFR used for high risk applications (e.g.

transport of hot molten metal).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2307:2019, Fibre ropes — Determination of certain physical and mechanical properties

ISO 4309:2017, Cranes — Wire ropes — Care and maintenance, inspection and discard

ISO 9554:2019, Fibre ropes — General specifications
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
assembly/disassembly

operations needed to set up/down a crane in a specific configuration or change the configuration

3.2
competent person

designated person, suitably qualified by knowledge and experience, and with the necessary instruction

to ensure that the required operations are carried out correctly
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
3.3
cyclic bending over sheave
CBOS

condition where a section of rope experiences a repeated straight-bent-straight change of curvature

onto and off a sheave or roller

Note 1 to entry: In a CBOS test, the fibre rope runs around at least one test sheave. A rope pulling force is applied

via an appropriate system. During the test, the rope is running in a constant manner on and off the sheave,

taking the condition straight–bent–straight. A movement straight–bent–straight over a test sheave counts as one

bending cycle for the rope.
3.4
efficiency factor

loss of rope force of a high-performance fibre rope (3.5) when bent over sheaves, resulting in rope pull

differences
3.5
high-performance fibre rope
HPFR

rope based on high-performance fibres, with a high tensile strength, high modulus and low elongation

at break

Note 1 to entry: These fibre ropes have mechanical characteristics in the range of steel wire with regard

to strength per area, axial stiffness and elongation at break [e.g. aromatic polyamide (aramid), high modulus

polyethylene (HMPE), liquid crystal polymer (LCP), see 4.3.1].
3.6
maximum rope pull
MRP

maximum force applied to the rope during design [of the rope drive (3.13)], taking into account dynamic

effects, efficiency of the rope drive, reeving, spread, etc., during operation
3.7
minimum breaking strength
MBS

minimum force achieved by a new rope when tested in accordance with a recognized procedure/test

method
3.8
point of discard

point where the tested failure or wear criterion is achieved considering the residual lifetime (3.10)

3.9
residual breaking strength
RBS

force a used fibre rope achieves at a point in time when tested according to a recognized procedure/test

method
3.10
residual lifetime

remaining lifetime at a point in time, where the attested failure criterion is not yet fully achieved

3.11
actual rope diameter
act

diameter of the circle circumscribed about the cross-section of the rope, usually measured under a

given tension and method
[SOURCE: ISO 1968:2004, 5.1.10]
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
3.12
nominal rope diameter
reference value for the diameter of a given high-performance fibre rope (3.5)
[SOURCE: ISO 1968:2004, 5.1.11]
3.13
rope drive

reeving system according to ISO 4306-1, including the drum (actuator) or other actuators, e.g. cylinders

or traction systems
3.14
rope safety factor
ratio between breaking strength of the rope and the maximum rope pull (3.6)
3.15
termination

means of connecting the high-performance fibre rope (3.5) to load bearing parts (e.g. crane, winch, hook)

3.16
torsional stiffness

ability of the high-performance fibre rope (3.5) to resist externally induced twist

4 HPFR performance considerations
4.1 Responsibilities

Where a HPFR is installed in a new crane, the crane manufacturer is responsible for the rope drive

design, selection of the rope and instructions for use and maintenance.

The rope manufacturer is responsible for providing correct and complete information regarding the

rope characteristics and providing information regarding maintenance and inspection of the rope in

use.

When a steel wire rope originally installed in a crane is intended to be replaced by a HPFR, an evaluation

of the crane design in general and the rope drive components shall be performed by the crane user,

with the support and approval of the crane manufacturer, to ensure that all the provisions given by the

HPFR manufacturer and this document are fulfilled. The same principle applies when an existing HPFR

is replaced by another type of HPFR. The crane user is responsible for ensuring that the crane is used

and maintained as instructed.
4.2 Risk assessment

Prior to approval for use of HPFR on a crane application, a risk assessment considering the intended use

and any reasonably foreseeable misuse shall be carried out by the manufacturer of the crane application,

identifying potential risks that can impact the safety of the rope in operation (see ISO 12100:2010).

The risk assessment should cover the entire life cycle of the rope including installation, maintenance,

storage and disposal, rope drive, potential environmental conditions and specifics of the application,

including all reasonably expected risks of contact with objects external to the crane. This document

shall be reviewed jointly by both the rope manufacturer and the crane application manufacturer (or

other applicants), in order to identify potential operational and system risks that can affect the safety of

operation. Critical interactions during operation between the rope drive system and HPFR identified in

this analysis shall be documented in the technical files to ensure they are in line with the requirements

of this document and provide suitable safety as determined for mitigation in the risk assessment

process.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)

Qualification testing of the HPFR shall cover identified critical wear modes to validate that discard

criteria provide the required safety factor. The safety factor shall take into account residual breaking

strength (RBS) in relation to maximum rope pull (MRP) and residual lifetime required at discard

condition of the HPFR.

Where either the HPFR or the rope drive system is intended to change, the risk assessment shall be

reviewed to ensure that critical safety considerations are not changed.

The limits of the machinery and the remaining residual risks, which can result from the risk assessment

analysis, shall be added in the crane’s manual.
4.3 Rope
4.3.1 Types of ropes

The base element of a HPFR is the load bearing fibre. There is a variety of high-performance fibres

available to rope manufacturers, each with different attributes that affect characteristics of the final

rope. Typical materials utilized in HPFR design include amongst others:
a) aromatic polyamide (aramid);
b) high modulus polyethylene (HMPE);
c) polyarylate (liquid crystal polymer, LCP);
d) polybenzoxazole (PBO).

The high-performance fibre is selected by the rope manufacturer based on specific characteristics

inherent to the material including:
a) tensile strength;
b) modulus (axial stiffness);
c) elongation at break;
d) creep characteristics (if applicable);
e) fatigue resistance (bending and tension);
f) coefficient of friction;
g) linear density;
h) environmental resistances [for details see 4.3.2.2 j)].
For further information, see ISO 9554:2019, Table A.1.

The high-performance fibres are combined into larger structures through a process such as twisting,

braiding, winding or a combination of these or other methods. The design of HPFR construction has a

significant impact on the performance of the rope.

Traditional fibres such as polyester, polyamide or polypropylene may be utilized in non-load bearing

structures [e.g. protective covers (jackets), stabilizing cores].

Coatings and other non-fibrous materials may be incorporated into the construction of a HPFR in order

to achieve various performance characteristics.

Various rope constructions can be utilized in the design of a rope. Several common examples are shown

in Figure 1:
— laid in Figure 1 a);
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
— braided in Figure 1 b);
— cover (jacket over braided rope) in Figure 1 c);
— cover (jacket over parallel fibre) in Figure 1 d).
a) Laid
b) Braided
c) Cover (jacket over braided rope)
d) Cover (jacket over parallel fibre)
Figure 1 — Common rope construction examples
4.3.2 Selection of ropes
4.3.2.1 General

Hoist ropes shall be selected individually for each particular application and shall be made of suitable

materials so that they withstand the intended use. They shall be designed for a period of use, which

shall be at least twice the inspection interval, as specified by the crane manufacturer.

The fibre, rope construction and coatings utilized in the design of a HPFR, as well as the design of the

rope drive, impact the performance of the HPFR in a given application. Selection of a suitable HPFR

shall be the responsibility of the crane manufacturer supported by the rope manufacturer, taking into

consideration the potential operational and system risks of the particular crane application including

the items listed in 4.3.2.2 and 4.3.2.3.

The HPFR discard criteria as per examples shown in Annex D shall be provided by the rope manufacturer

and shall be provided in the manual of the crane.

Where HPFR is used in static (e.g. pendants) or semi-static applications, the rope manufacturer and

crane manufacturer shall agree on designed lifetime and discard criteria, specifically in consideration

of creep elongation, creep rupture, tension-fatigue and dampening.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)

The list of items given in 4.3.2.2 and 4.3.2.3 is not exhaustive. Additional items given in Annex A shall

be fulfilled.

NOTE Many of the properties listed do not have standard test methods available. The rope manufacturer

needs to show how these properties were determined.
4.3.2.2 Rope characteristics

The rope characteristics shall be provided by the rope manufacturer. The rope characteristics shall

include the standard or test method used to determine each characteristic.
a) Rope basic characteristics:
— nominal rope diameter

— actual rope diameter (initial and in service including tolerances and measurement method);

— length (initial and in service including tolerances);
— rope weight (per metre);
b) efficiency factor;
c) abrasion resistance;
d) resistance to particle ingress;
e) cut resistance;
f) coefficient of friction;
g) fatigue characteristics:
— bending fatigue;
— tension-tension fatigue;
h) load elongation characteristics:
— elongation;
— stiffness (axial, transverse);
— creep;
i) terminations (see 5.1 and 5.2):
— installation methods;
— fatigue characteristics;
j) environmental resistance:
— temperature;
— chemical;
— ultraviolet radiation (UV);
— weathering;
k) discard criteria;
l) rope minimum breaking strength (MBS);
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
m) twist performance:
— tension-torsion coupling;
— torsional stiffness.
4.3.2.3 Rope drive characteristics

The rope drive characteristics are the responsibility of the crane application manufacturer.

a) Maximum rope pull (MRP);
b) fleet angles;
c) in-service, out of service and storage temperatures;
d) service intervals;
e) efficiency of the rope drive system;
f) sheave, block and drum design:
— roughness;
— corrosion resistance,
— diameter ratio;
— groove profile and system;
— spooling performance (including pre-tensioning, rope pull etc.);
— material;
g) class
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 23624
First edition
Cranes — Safe use of high-
performance fibre ropes in crane
applications
Appareils de levage a charge suspendue — Utilisation en sécurité des
câbles synthétiques haute performance pour les applications sur les
appareils de levage à charge suspendue
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 HPFR performance considerations ................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Responsibilities ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Risk assessment ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Rope .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3.1 Types of ropes .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.2 Selection of ropes ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.4 Proof of competence........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Safety factor at discard for HPFR ............................................................................................................................................ 7

5 Crane design considerations .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 Termination on the drum ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Termination at load side ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3 Drum ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.3.1 Lowering limiter .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.2 Forces on flange and tube (Multilayer drum) ......................................................................................... 9

5.3.3 Shape of grooves on drums ..................................................................................................................................10

5.3.4 Clearance between rope and diameter of drum flange ...............................................................10

5.3.5 Temperature limits .....................................................................................................................................................10

5.4 Sheaves .......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.1 Shape of grooves ...........................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.2 Material of sheave ........................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.3 Minimum D/d ratio ....................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 Crane .............................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.1 Contact surfaces ............................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.2 Fleet angles ........................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.3 Substitution on existing design and optimization on new designs ...................................11

5.5.4 Substitution on used cranes ................................................................................................................................11

6 Qualification testing of HPFR ...............................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Basic data of HPFR ............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2.2 Minimum breaking strength, MBS .................................................................................................................12

6.2.3 Residual breaking strength, RBS .....................................................................................................................12

6.2.4 Residual lifetime ...................................................................... ......................................................................................12

6.3 Qualification testing ........................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.2 Bending fatigue performance ............................................................................................................................13

6.3.3 Multilayer spooling performance ...................................................................................................................13

6.3.4 Tension fatigue performance (rope and termination) .................................................................13

6.3.5 Termination performance (Static) .................................................................................................................14

6.4 Interpolation of test results ......................................................................................................................................................14

7 Information to be provided regarding care, maintenance and inspection ...........................................14

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Installation of HPFR .........................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2.1 Stationary ropes ............................................................................................................................................................14

7.2.2 Running ropes .................................................................................................................................................................14

7.3 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3.1 Maintenance of the rope .........................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)

7.3.2 Maintenance of rope-related parts of the crane ................................................................................15

7.4 Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.5 Discard criteria ....................................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (normative) Selection of ropes ........................................................................................................................................................18

Annex B (informative) Qualification testing ..............................................................................................................................................22

Annex C (informative) HPFR test report – Spreadsheet .................................................................................................................28

Annex D (informative) Example of discard .................................................................................................................................................38

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................42

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 96,Cranes, SC 3 Selection of ropes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
Introduction

Recent developments of high-performance fibre ropes (HPFR) made from synthetic fibre have led to

comparable strength with regard to steel wire ropes. The main advantages of using HPFR on cranes are:

a) light weight (significant weight reduction);
b) no environment pollution by grease (no re-lubrication);
c) easy handling (faster and easier assembly/disassembly);
d) robust spooling (increased tolerance for spooling failures).

The use of HPFR on cranes has already started, however, there is limited experience with HPFR in

comparison to the long-term application of steel wire ropes.

For steel wire ropes, substantial experience over many decades covering both rope selection and discard

criteria exists, which can be found in International Standards (e.g. ISO 16625 and ISO 4309). Currently,

there is no standard available that deals with design and discard criteria for the use of HPFR on cranes.

Therefore, this document has been developed based on the content of the FEM 5.024 guideline.

The FEM 5.024 guideline was developed by the Fédération Européenne de la Manutention (FEM) as

a joint project with various stakeholders in the industry. It is based on first experiences with mobile

cranes and the requirements/limits in some cases can be specific to mobile cranes only.

This document includes additional input from tower crane and electric overhead traveling crane

manufacturers. Adaptation to other crane types or applications can be necessary.
This document reflects the current knowledge about the use of HPFR on cranes.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
Cranes — Safe use of high-performance fibre ropes in
crane applications
1 Scope

This document gives guidance for the safe use of high-performance fibre ropes (HPFR) in crane

applications.

This document also covers winch applications. The mention of crane applications implicitly includes

winch applications.

This document covers performance criteria and the necessary evaluation to enable selection of HPFR

as well as best practice guidelines on procedures, testing and maintenance to safely operate HPFR in

crane applications including provisions for assembly/disassembly.

The performance criteria are related to tasks performed when using cranes as intended, including

assembly/disassembly, operation and required checks and maintenance.

This document does not deal with so-called hybrid ropes which are a combination of steel wire and

high-performance fibres, where the load bearing capability is shared between steel wires and the

high-performance fibre. This document does not deal with HPFR used for high risk applications (e.g.

transport of hot molten metal).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2307:2019, Fibre ropes — Determination of certain physical and mechanical properties

ISO 4309:2017, Cranes — Wire ropes — Care and maintenance, inspection and discard

ISO 9554:2019, Fibre ropes — General specifications
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
assembly/disassembly

all operations needed to set up/down a crane in a specific configuration or change the configuration

3.2
competent person

designated person, suitably qualified by knowledge and experience, and with the necessary instruction

to ensure that the required operations are carried out correctly
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
3.3
cyclic bending over sheave
CBOS

condition where a section of rope experiences a repeated straight-bent-straight change of curvature

onto and off a sheave or roller

Note 1 to entry: In a CBOS test, the fibre rope runs around at least one test sheave. A rope pulling force is applied

via an appropriate system. During the test, the rope is running in a constant manner on and off the sheave,

taking the condition straight–bent–straight. A movement straight–bent–straight over a test sheave counts as one

bending cycle for the rope.
3.4
efficiency factor

loss of rope force of a high-performance fibre rope (3.5) when bent over sheaves, resulting in rope pull

differences
3.5
high-performance fibre rope
HPFR

rope based on high-performance fibres, with a high tensile strength, high modulus and low elongation

at break

Note 1 to entry: These fibre ropes have mechanical characteristics in the range of steel wire with regard to

strength per area, axial stiffness and elongation at break [e.g. aromatic polyamid (aramid), high modulus

polyethylene (HMPE), liquid crystal polymer (LCP), see 4.3.1].
3.6
maximum rope pull
MRP

maximum force applied to the rope during design [of the rope drive (3.13)], taking into account dynamic

effects, efficiency of the rope drive, reeving, spread, etc., during operation
3.7
minimum breaking strength
MBS

minimum force achieved by a new rope when tested in accordance with a recognized procedure/

test method
3.8
point of discard

point where the tested failure or wear criterion is achieved considering the residual lifetime (3.10)

3.9
residual breaking strength
RBS

force a used fibre rope achieves at a point in time when tested according to a recognized procedure/

test method
3.10
residual lifetime

remaining lifetime at a point in time, where the attested failure criterion is not yet fully achieved

3.11
actual rope diameter
act

diameter of the circle circumscribed about the cross-section of the rope, usually measured under a

given tension and method
[SOURCE: ISO 1968:2004, 5.1.10]
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)
3.12
nominal rope diameter
reference value for the diameter of a given high-performance fibre rope (3.5)
[SOURCE: ISO 1968:2004, 5.1.11]
3.13
rope drive

reeving system according to ISO 4306-1, including the drum (actuator) or other actuators, e.g. cylinders

or traction systems
3.14
rope safety factor
ratio between breaking strength of the rope and the maximum rope pull (3.6)
3.15
termination

means of connecting the high-performance fibre rope (3.5) to load bearing parts (e.g. crane, winch, hook)

3.16
torsional stiffness

ability of the high-performance fibre rope (3.5) to resist externally induced twist

4 HPFR performance considerations
4.1 Responsibilities

Where a HPFR is installed in a new crane, the crane manufacturer is responsible for the rope drive

design, selection of the rope and instructions for use and maintenance.

The rope manufacturer is responsible for providing correct and complete information regarding the

rope characteristics and providing information regarding maintenance and inspection of the rope in use.

When a steel wire rope originally installed in a crane is intended to be replaced by a HPFR, an evaluation

of the crane design in general and the rope drive components shall be performed by the crane user,

with the support and approval of the crane manufacturer, to ensure that all the provisions given by the

HPFR manufacturer and this document are fulfilled. The same principle applies when an existing HPFR

is replaced by another type of HPFR. The crane user is responsible for ensuring that the crane is used

and maintained as instructed.
4.2 Risk assessment

Prior to approval for use of HPFR on a crane application, a risk assessment considering the intended use

and any reasonably foreseeable misuse shall be carried out by the manufacturer of the crane application,

identifying potential risks that can impact the safety of the rope in operation (see ISO 12100:2010).

The risk assessment should cover the entire life cycle of the rope including installation, maintenance,

storage and disposal, rope drive, potential environmental conditions and specifics of the application,

including all reasonably expected risks of contact with objects external to the crane. This document

shall be reviewed jointly by both the rope manufacturer and the crane application manufacturer (or

other applicants), in order to identify potential operational and system risks that can affect the safety of

operation. Critical interactions during operation between the rope drive system and HPFR identified in

this analysis shall be documented in the technical files to ensure they are in line with the requirements

of this document and provide suitable safety as determined for mitigation in the risk assessment

process.
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)

Qualification testing of the HPFR shall cover identified critical wear modes to validate that discard

criteria provide the required safety factor. The safety factor shall take into account residual breaking

strength (RBS) in relation to maximum rope pull (MRP) and residual lifetime required at discard

condition of the HPFR.

Where either the HPFR or the rope drive system is intended to change, the risk assessment shall be

reviewed to ensure that critical safety considerations are not changed.

The limits of the machinery and the remaining residual risks, which can result from the risk assessment

analysis, shall be added in the crane’s manual.
4.3 Rope
4.3.1 Types of ropes

The base element of a HPFR is the load bearing fibre. There is a variety of high-performance fibres

available to rope manufacturers, each with different attributes that affect characteristics of the final

rope. Typical materials utilized in HPFR design include amongst others:
a) aromatic polyamide (para aramid);
b) high modulus polyethylene (HMPE);
c) polyarylate (liquid crystal polymer, LCP);
d) polybenzoxazole (PBO).

The high-performance fibre is selected by the rope manufacturer based on specific characteristics

inherent to the material including:
a) tensile strength;
b) modulus (axial stiffness);
c) elongation at break;
d) creep characteristics (if applicable);
e) fatigue resistance (bending and tension);
f) coefficient of friction;
g) linear density;
h) environmental resistances [for details see 4.3.2.2 j)].
For further information, see ISO 9554:2019, Table A.1.

The high-performance fibres are combined into larger structures through a process such as twisting,

braiding, winding or a combination of these or other methods. The design of HPFR construction has a

significant impact on the performance of the rope.

Traditional fibres such as polyester, polyamide or polypropylene may be utilized in non-load bearing

structures [e.g. protective covers (jackets), stabilizing cores].

Coatings and other non-fibrous materials may be incorporated into the construction of a HPFR in order

to achieve various performance characteristics.

Various rope constructions can be utilized in the design of a rope. Several common examples are shown

in Figure 1:
— laid in Figure 1 a);
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— braided in Figure 1 b);
— cover (jacket over braided rope) in Figure 1 c);
— cover (jacket over parallel fibre) in Figure 1 d).
a) Laid
b) Braided
c) Cover (jacket over braided rope)
d) Cover (jacket over parallel fibre)
Figure 1 — Common rope construction examples
4.3.2 Selection of ropes
4.3.2.1 General

Hoist ropes shall be selected individually for each particular application and shall be made of suitable

materials so that they withstand the intended use. They shall be designed for a period of use, which

shall be at least twice the inspection interval, as specified by the crane manufacturer.

The fibre, rope construction and coatings utilized in the design of a HPFR, as well as the design of the

rope drive, impact the performance of the HPFR in a given application. Selection of a suitable HPFR

shall be the responsibility of the crane manufacturer supported by the rope manufacturer, taking into

consideration the potential operational and system risks of the particular crane application including

the items listed in 4.3.2.2 and 4.3.2.3.

The HPFR discard criteria as per examples shown in Annex D shall be provided by the rope manufacturer

and shall be provided in the manual of the crane.

Where HPFR is used in static (e.g. pendants) or semi-static applications, the rope manufacturer and

crane manufacturer shall agree on designed lifetime and discard criteria, specifically in consideration

of creep elongation, creep rupture, tension-fatigue and dampening.
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ISO/TS 23624:2021(E)

The list of items given in 4.3.2.2 and 4.3.2.3 is not exhaustive. Additional items given in Annex A shall

be fulfilled.

NOTE Many of the properties listed do not have standard test methods available. The rope manufacturer

needs to show how these properties were determined.
4.3.2.2 Rope characteristics

The rope characteristics shall be provided by the rope manufacturer. The rope characteristics shall

include the standard or test method used to determine each characteristic.
a) Rope basic characteristics:
— nominal rope diameter

— actual rope diameter (initial and in service including tolerances and measurement method);

— length (initial and in service including tolerances);
— rope weight (per metre);
b) efficiency factor;
c) abrasion resistance;
d) resistance to particle ingress;
e) cut resistance;
f) coefficient of friction;
g) fatigue characteristics:
— bending fatigue;
— tension-tension fatigue;
h) load elongation characteristics:
— elongation;
— stiffness (axial, transverse);
— creep;
i) terminations (see 5.1 and 5.2):
— installation methods;
— fatigue characteristics;
j) environmental resistance:
— temperature;
— chemical;
— ultraviolet radiation (UV);
— weathering;
k) discard criteria;
l) rope minimum breaking strength (MBS);
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m) twist performance:
— tension-torsion coupling;
— torsional stiffness.
4.3.2.3 Rope drive characteristics

The rope drive characteristics are the responsibility of the crane application manufacturer.

a) Maximum rope pull (MRP);
b) fleet angles;
c) in-service, out of service and storage temperatures;
d) service intervals;
e) efficiency of the rope drive system;
f) sheave, block and drum design:
— roughness;
— corrosion resista
...

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