Road vehicles -- Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services

This document defines the different concepts, entities and roles involved in implementing and delivering ExVe web services. In addition, it also gives an overview of the necessary activities that should be executed by the different roles involved and a logical order for those activities. This document defines the concept of identifiers (direct and correlated), different Resource categories (e.g. personal, vehicle related, pseudonymized and anonymized Resources) and different approaches on how to bundle sharable Resources (e.g. Resource Group or Container).

Véhicule routiers -- Web services du véhicule étendu (ExVe)

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Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Feb-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
14-Dec-2018
Completion Date
25-Feb-2019
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ISO 20078-1:2019 - Road vehicles -- Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20078-1
First edition
2019-02
Road vehicles — Extended vehicle
(ExVe) web services —
Part 1:
Content
Véhicule routiers — Web services du véhicule étendu (ExVe) —
Partie 1: Contenu
Reference number
ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Roles and entities .................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Technical concepts and terms .................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Identifiers .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.4 Credentials .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Convention .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Relationship of defined Entities ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 Overview of Entities ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Roles and Relationships of Entities ....................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Identifiers .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Direct Identifiers ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Correlation Identifiers ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Resource Categories .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Anonymous Resources ..................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3 Pseudonymized Resources ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.4 Technical (Vehicle) Resources ................................................................................................................................................10

8.5 Personal Resources ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

9 Resources ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.1 Superset of Resources ....................................................................................................................................................................11

9.2 Resource Groups .................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.3 Resource ....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.4 Containers ................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.4.1 Container .............................................................................................................................................................................12

9.4.2 Management of Containers ..................................................................................................................................13

10 Representation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.2 JavaScript Object Notation .........................................................................................................................................................15

10.3 Key Value List ........................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.4 Extensible Mark-up Language ................................................................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 31,

Data communication.
A list of all parts in the ISO 20078 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
Introduction
General

This document was developed to address the needs of different parties to access data, aggregated

information and functionality (Resources) from Connected Vehicles in a standardized, safe and secure

way. A framework is defined for interoperable web services used by several parties via the internet by

adapting current and widely used IT approaches based on OAuth 2.0 (see ISO 20078-3).

As personal data protection rights are becoming stronger in several countries, this document also

defines and recommends by its design, common methods to handle data protection and data privacy

issues when accessing personalized vehicle data, information or functionality via web services.

This solution is supported by the fact that Vehicle Manufacturers (VM) by design and in factory more and

more include telematics support for their vehicles, making vehicle data, information and functionality

available at their VM backend system. Thus, instead of installing additional third party telematics

equipment in the vehicle to achieve intended service goals, the already existing infrastructure can

be (re-)used via interoperable web services. Such web services allow a third party to (re-)use the

infrastructure in same manners as the VM uses it.

NOTE Web service interfaces have been available and have been offered by VMs previously to this document

but lack of standardization over the VMs, especially on authentication and authorization, led to the fact that third

parties accommodate and design for several different VM implementations.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
— Registration and verification of service — Registration of Resource Owner
consumer
— Verification of ownership
— Registration with Offering Party and configuration
— Requesting and validation of Resource
of required resources
Owner's consent
— Obtain authorization and consume resources
— Implementation of authorization concept as
— Offer own services (not only ExVe based) defined by ISO 20078-3

— Requires appropriate authorization concept — Definition and provision of Resources

Figure 1 — Vision of the ISO 20078 series to standardize IT over the telematics backend

The authorization concept described by ISO 20078-3 covers only the authorization domain of the

Offering Party; not the authorization domain of the Accessing Party. If an OAuth-compatible framework

(see ISO 20078-3) is used to provide authorization by the Offering Party, three roles are technically

mandatory:
— An Identity Provider; validates the identity of the Resource Owner;

— An Authorization Provider; manages the consents (grants) of the Resource Owner;

— A Resource Provider; shares Resources, depending on the consent of the Resource Owner.

The Access to Resources (data, aggregated information, and functions) cannot be authorized without

validation of the Resource ownership and validation of the given consent of the Resource Owner. For

registration, identity validation, and management of the Resource Owner an Identity Provider is used.

The Offering Party controls the Access to different Resources (URIs; see ISO 20078-2 Access) dependent

on the availability of the Resource Owner’s consent and owner’s verification status. As such, the role of

the Authorization Provider is required.

The Resource Provider exposes the actual Resources (via URIs; see ISO 20078-2) and enforces the

Authorization Policy defined by the Authorization Provider.
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)

The Accessing Party as a consumer of the Resources obtains Authorization from the Authorization

Provider in order to access URIs (see ISO 20078-2). This requires:

— The registration of an Accessing Party as an ExVe client of the Offering Party;

— Configuration of required Resources (URIs) and may be providing intended purpose of use;

— Requesting Access to pre-configured Resource Groups and/or Containers.

The Accessing Party offers its own independent services based on the shared Resources (data,

aggregated information, and functions). These Accessing Party services may depend on additional

Resources and not only — per se — the Extended Vehicle Resources.

The Authorization domains of Accessing and Offering Parties are different, and the Accessing Party

requires its own appropriate authorization concept (e.g. an additional Accessing Party Authorization

Provider, if the OAuth 2.0 framework is also applied technically at the Accessing Party). Such Accessing

Party authorization concepts are not in scope of ISO 20078-3 and held open.
Overview of the ISO 20078 series

This document states the minimum requirements, recommendations, permissions and external

constrains for ensuring interoperable web services from an Accessing Party’s perspective. The

document:
— states requirements on the structure and format of Resources;

— contains guidelines on how to define the unique Resources of an individual application;

— defines the entities and roles, necessary for granting an Accessing Party Access to Resource Owner’s

Resources;

— states requirements on how an Accessing Party accesses Resources, including requirements on how

to use the defined and referenced technologies, see Table 1.

The above-mentioned requirements and guidelines areas are addressed in the ISO 20078 series.

The ISO 20078 series is applicable for any application or service that intends to use web services.

The ISO 20078 series does not cover requirements for specific applications, resource definitions

or XML/JSON schemas. These need to be described in the specific application or use case; e.g. see

ISO 20080 Remote Diagnostics Support.

To elaborate more, this document defines all entities and roles that are used over in the ISO 20078 series.

It standardizes how an Offering Party defines Resources. Depending on Resource category the Offering

Party uses different kind of identifiers. Such Resources can be exposed directly or through Containers.

It also describes different ways of representing Resources in web services, such as XML and JSON.

ISO 20078-2 defines the usage of a common communication protocol that enables Access to Resources

(URIs), thereby standardizing how an Accessing Party can Access Resources via Web services of an

Offering Party, using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) over Transport Layer Security (TLS); i.e.

HTTP Secure (HTTPS). The Representational State Transfer REST is selected for using a common way

to represent data, aggregated information, and functions (Resources) [ISO 20078-2].

ISO 20078-3 standardizes the security model of the web service, including different roles and entities

involved in an Authorization Policy. Three roles are defined: Identity Provider, Authorization Provider

and Resource Provider at the Offering Party. Additional roles are the Accessing Party and the Resource

Owner. The Resource Owner is in charge of its Resources. The role model is defined as a reference

implementation of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect 1.0 compatible frameworks [ISO 20078-3].

ISO /TR 20078-4 summarizes this document, ISO 20078-2, and ISO 20078-3 by logical processes for

[1]

the displaying the interaction of all defined roles and entities . The processes define the needs for

a registration, authentication, and authorization of an Accessing Party. For granting, denying and

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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)

revoking Access to Resources, processes involving the Resource Owner are defined. The Resource

Owner is generally in charge of those processes, which may depend on certain use case. However, these

processes allow for a full self-determination of the Resource Owner on sharing Resources to Accessing

Parties.

The ISO 20078 series defines in general a framework based on the communication and authorization

protocols listed in from Table 1. Those technologies can be used for implementation of individual web

services to share Resources and, therefore, allow for any service or application implementation on the

Accessing Party domain.

In this document, entities are defined as the fundamental objects that represent, for example — vehicles,

ECUs, drivers and fleets, and servers at an IT backend. Roles are defined as a grouping of entities and

have relationships that allow for an interaction; e.g. The “Offering Party” (IT backend) offers Resources

(ECU data) to an “Accessing Party” (service implementer).
ISO 20078-1 Content TU — vehicle integrated telematics unit
ISO 20078-2 Access LOG — records access, events, failures, and intrusions
ISO 20078-3 Security APP & WEB — application & web services
ISO/TR 20078-4 Control Stakeholders — customer, authorities, VM, 3rd party
Figure 2 — Schematic presentation of the vision of the ISO 20078 series

ExVe web services are comprised of road vehicles combined with the telematics backend system of the

Vehicle Manufacturer (the “Offering Party”), mainly acting as a Resource provider. This enables for

a 3rd party, as well as the Vehicle Manufacturer, mainly acting as a service/application provider (the

“Accessing Party”) to access offered Resources via the internet; see Figure 2.

The concept of Containers is also introduced which allows an Accessing Party to specify what Resources

it wants to access. Containers are a recommended solution where (data) privacy by design applies.

viii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)

Logging (LOG of Figure 2) is an important part of any IT solution. It is, however, not considered within

the scope of the ISO 20078 series due to potentially strong dependencies on certain IT backend

infrastructures.

JSON (in addition to XML and Key-Value listing) is recommended for representation of Resources (URIs).

Table 1 — List of used information technologies
Transport Protocol HTTP 1.1 (or later version) over TLS 1.2 (or later version)
Service Design RESTful
JSON (recommended)
Data format XML
Key-Value
Authorization An OAuth 2.0 (or later version) compatible framework

End User Authentication An OpenID Connect 1.0 (or later version) compatible framework

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved ix
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
Road vehicles — Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services —
Part 1:
Content
1 Scope

This document defines the different concepts, entities and roles involved in implementing and delivering

ExVe web services. In addition, it also gives an overview of the necessary activities that should be

executed by the different roles involved and a logical order for those activities.

This document defines the concept of identifiers (direct and correlated), different Resource categories

(e.g. personal, vehicle related, pseudonymized and anonymized Resources) and different approaches on

how to bundle sharable Resources (e.g. Resource Group or Container).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 20078-2, Road vehicles — Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services — Part 2: Access

ISO 20078-3:— , Road vehicles — Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services — Part 3: Security

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Roles and entities
3.1.1
Vehicle Manufacturer
company manufacturing road vehicles
3.1.2
Connected Vehicle
road vehicle that is enabled for communication over a Wide Area Network (WAN)

Note 1 to entry: A WAN can, for example be defined as a nationwide mobile phone network with a corresponding

backend (server) architecture.
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/FDIS 20078-3:2019.
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
3.1.3
Offering Party
entity who provides web services access to Resources
3.1.4
Resource Owner
responsible party for the Resource(s)

Note 1 to entry: The Resource Owner is responsible for granting, denying, and revoking Access to Resource(s).

Note 2 to entry: The responsible Resource Owner is determined by the concrete Resource.

3.1.5
3rd party
person or body which is not the Vehicle Manufacture or the Resource Owner
Note 1 to entry: Formally defined as the “Service Owner”/the “Service Provider”.
3.1.6
Accessing Party
entity which accesses Resources via web services
Note 1 to entry: Other than the Offering Party or the Resource Owner.

Note 2 to entry: Implements technically and independently an Identity, Authorization, and a Resource Provider/

Service Provider that are not in scope of this document.

Note 3 to entry: The Resource Provider and Service Provider might be split into two separate roles at the AP:

Resource Provider and Service Provider strongly depend on the individually developed service.

3.1.7
Identity Provider

entity responsible for authentication (identification) of users, through the use of credentials

Note 1 to entry: Offering Party confirms the identity of the authenticated Resource Owner.

Note 2 to entry: There is an Identity Provider technically mandatory at the Offering Party, but that Identity

Provider may reference services exposed by an intermediate body when confirming the identity of a Resource

owner in general for some Use Cases.
3.1.8
Resource Provider
entity at the Offering Party that protects and provides Resources.
3.1.9
Authorization Provider

entity at the Offering Party that manages the access rights to Resources and Resource Owner

information

Note 1 to entry: There is an Authorization Provider technically mandatory at the Offering Party, but that

Authorization Provider may reference services exposed by an intermediate body when enforcing the

Authorization Policy in general for some Use Cases.
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
3.2 Technical concepts and terms
3.2.1
Resource
data, aggregated information or functionalities of the Connected Vehicle
Note 1 to entry: Resources can be
— Resources (by a RID),
— Resource Owner information (by a Resource Owner ID),
— Resource and Resource Owner related information,
— anonymous Resources,
— pseudonymized Resources,
— vehicle related Resources, or
— personalized Resources,
at the Offering Party.
3.2.2
Resource Group
logical set of Resources
3.2.3
Superset
set of all unique Resources
3.2.4
Container
logical group of Resources defined for a single Accessing Party purpose
3.2.5
Resource Owner Profile
information regarding the Resource Owner
EXAMPLE Name, address, contact information, and RID.
3.2.6
Access
delegated right to an Accessing Party to access a Resource Owner’s Resources
3.2.7
Authorization Policy
set of rules that define Access control to protected Resources
3.2.8
Token
sequence of characters representing a verified identity and/or Access

Note 1 to entry: The issuer of the token is responsible for the interpretation and the integrity of the token; e. g. the

Authorization Provider of the Offering Party or in a second example an intermediate body for the Authorization

Provider of the Offering Party.

Note 2 to entry: The Token is used for securely transmitting verifiable identity and/or authorization information

between involved parties like Resource Owner, Accessing Party and/or Offering Party.

3.2.9
Fleet
group of Connected Vehicles associated to a specific Resource Owner
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
3.3 Identifiers
3.3.1
Identifier
Number or a string that is unique within a defined context
[2]
Note 1 to entry: A UUID can be used as an ID.
3.3.2
Universally Unique Identifier
UUID

128-bit value generated in accordance with ISO/IEC 9834-8 and providing unique values between

systems and over time
[2]

Note 1 to entry: See Reference . Often represented as a string in hex format, e.g. f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-

00a0c91e6bf6.
3.3.3
ResourceID
RID
ID that identifies a unique Resource at the Offering Party
3.3.4
ContainerID
CID
ID that identifies a unique Container at the Offering Party
3.3.5
AccessingPartylD
APID
ID that identifies a unique Accessing Party at the Offering Party
3.3.6
AccessID
AID
ID that represents a unique Access of the Accessing Party at the Offering Party
3.3.7
CorrelationID
CoID

ID agreed between the Offering Party and the Accessing Party to support pseudonymization of the RIDs

or the Resource Owner IDs
Note 1 to entry: The definition includes two pseudonymization examples.
3.4 Credentials
3.4.1
ResourceOwnerCredentials
ROC
credentials shared from a party to the Resource Owner
3.4.2
ResourceOwnerCredentialsOP
ROCOP
credentials shared from the Offering Party to the Resource Owner
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
3.4.3
ResourceOwnerCredentialsAP
ROCAP
credentials shared from the Accessing Party to the Resource Owner
3.4.4
AccessingPartyCredentials
APC
credentials shared from the Offering Party to the Accessing Party
4 Abbreviated terms
AID Access ID
AP Accessing Party
APC Accessing Party Credentials
API Application Programming Interface
APID Accessing Party ID
ROC Resource Owner Credentials
CID Container ID
CoID Correlation ID
ExVe Extended Vehicle
GSM Global System for Mobile Communication
HATEOAS Hypermedia As The Engine Of Application State
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTPS Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure
ID Identifier
JSON JavaScript Object Notation
JWS Web Signature; signed JWT
JWT JSON Web Token
OAuth Open standard for authorization
OBD On-Board Diagnostics
OIDC OpenID Connect
OP Offering Party
OSI Open System Interconnection
REST Representational State Transfer
RID Resource ID
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ISO 20078-1:2019(E)
ROC Credentials of a Resource Owner
ROCAP ROC of the Accessing Party
ROCOP ROC of the Offering Party
TLS Transport Layer Security
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform
...

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