Decorative metallic coatings for radio wave transmissive application products — Designation and characterization method

This document specifies the designation and the characterization methods of the decorative metallic coatings of the products for radio wave transmissive application. The designation consists of the transmission loss of the radio wave, the frequency band of the radio wave under consideration, the lightness and hue of the parts, as well as the main material and manufacturing process of metallic coatings. The characterization methods consist of the determination of the transmission loss of radio wave with specific frequency band and the evaluation of lightness and hue which represent the colour and appearance.

Revêtements métalliques décoratifs pour les produits d'application transmettant les ondes radio — Désignation et méthode de caractérisation

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Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Jul-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
15-Jul-2023
Completion Date
18-Jul-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5154
First edition
2022-07
Decorative metallic coatings for
radio wave transmissive application
products — Designation and
characterization method
Revêtements métalliques décoratifs pour les produits d'application
transmettant les ondes radio — Désignation et méthode de
caractérisation
Reference number
ISO 5154:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 5154:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 5154:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Designation ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Elementary symbol............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3 Transmission loss of radio wave ............................................................................................................................................. 2

4.3.1 Frequency classification .............................................................................................................................................. 3

4.3.2 Transmission loss of radio wave .......................................................................................................................... 3

4.4 Lightness and hue ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.4.1 Lightness ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4.2 Hue .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.5 Main component element of coating.................................................................................................................................... 4

4.6 Manufacturing method ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.7 Example of designation ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Characterization .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1 Transmission loss of radio wave ............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Lightness and hue ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (informative) Transmission loss measurement .............................................................................................................. 6

Annex B (informative) Colour measurement ...........................................................................................................................................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

iii
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ISO 5154:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www.iso.org/

iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 107, Metallic and inorganic coatings,

Subcommittee SC 9, Physical vapour deposition coatings.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
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ISO 5154:2022(E)
Introduction

This document was developed to provide the designation of the characteristics of the decorative

metallic coatings for radio wave transmissive application products, in response to worldwide demand

for the standardization of such products. This document was also developed to specify the standard

method to quantitatively characterize the decorative parts with the metallic coatings that both have

the low transmission loss of radio wave and the metallic appearance.

One of the typical applications of the radio wave transmissive application products is the metallized

plastic emblem and other decorative exterior parts for automobiles. These parts are placed in front of

the millimetre wave radar transmitter-receivers of the collision prevention system. A typical example

of these parts has the low transmission loss of the specific radio wave lower than 2,5 dB and the bright

metallic appearance with lightness of 70 or higher. Low transmission loss is consistent with metallic

appearance by forming a discontinuous structure of metallic coatings. An example of the discontinuous

coating is the sputter-deposited film of low melting point metals such as indium having island structure.

This document specifies the designation and the characterization methods of the decorative metallic

coatings of the products for radio wave transmissive application. The designation consists of the

transmission loss of the radio wave, the frequency band of the radio wave under consideration, the

lightness and hue of the parts, as well as the main material and manufacturing process of metallic

coatings. The characterization methods consist of the determination of the transmission loss of radio

wave with specific frequency band and the evaluation of lightness and hue which represent the colour

and appearance.

Examples of measurement results of the radio wave transmission loss and the colour characteristics

are described in Annex A and Annex B, respectively. The information in annexes is for the convenience

of users and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5154:2022(E)
Decorative metallic coatings for radio wave transmissive
application products — Designation and characterization
method
1 Scope

This document specifies the designation and the characterization methods of the decorative metallic

coatings of the products for radio wave transmissive application. The designation consists of the

transmission loss of the radio wave, the frequency band of the radio wave under consideration, the

lightness and hue of the parts, as well as the main material and manufacturing process of metallic

coatings. The characterization methods consist of the determination of the transmission loss of radio

wave with specific frequency band and the evaluation of lightness and hue which represent the colour

and appearance.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2080, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Surface treatment, metallic and other inorganic coatings

— Vocabulary

ISO 4519, Electrodeposited metallic coatings and related finishes — Sampling procedures for inspection by

attributes
ISO/CIE 11664-4, Colorimetry — Part 4: CIE 1976 L*a*b* colour space

ISO 16348, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Definitions and conventions concerning appearance

IEC 60050, The international electrotechnical vocabulary

IEC 62431, Measurement Methods for Reflectivity of Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers in Millimetre Wave

Frequency
CIE S 017, International Lighting Vocabulary
JIS Z 8721, Specification of colours according to their three attributes
ASTM-D 1535, Standard Practice for Specifying Color by the Munsell System
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 2080, ISO 16348, IEC 60050

and CIE S 017 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
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ISO 5154:2022(E)
3.1
VNA
vector network analyser

instrument to measure the transfer and/or impedance characteristics, that is, both magnitude and

phase changes, of a linear network, device, or material through stimulus response testing over a given

frequency range
3.2
TRL calibration method
thru-reflect-line calibration method

one of the calibration methods to fix the systematic errors with the network analyser measurements

using a zero-length "thru", a longer "thru" (called “line”), and high-reflect standards

3.3
skin depth

depth at which the current density in a conducting material is reduced to 1/e times the surface current

density, at a given frequency
3.4
SCI
specular component include
type of colour measurements including both specular and diffused reflected light
3.5
SCE
specular component exclude
type of colour measurements excluding any specular reflected light
4 Designation
4.1 General
A designation consists of the following:

a) the letters, "StM", as the elementary symbol indicating that the decorative metallic coating has

ability for radio wave transmittance and metallic appearance;
b) a letter indicating the frequency band classification;

c) the letter "T" and a number giving the transmission loss followed by a solidus (/);

d) the letter "L" and a number indicating the lightness;
e) letters indicating the hue followed by a solidus (/);

f) an elemental symbol of the main component element of coatings followed by a solidus (/);

g) letters indicting the manufacturing method of coatings.
4.2 Elementary symbol

The elementary symbol, StM, shall indicate that the decorative metallic coating has ability for radio

wave transmittance and metallic appearance.
4.3 Transmission loss of radio wave

The following letters and numbers designate the frequency band of the radio wave under consideration

and the transmission loss due to reflection and absorption.
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ISO 5154:2022(E)
4.3.1 Frequency classification

The letters shown in Table 1 designate the frequency bands of the radio wave under consideration.

Table 1 — Designation of frequency bands of radio wave
Frequency band of the radio wave under consideration
Designation Band name
9 9
A 18 × 10 to 26,5 × 10 K
9 9
B 26,5 × 10 to 40 × 10 Ka
9 9
C 50 × 10 to75 × 10 V
9 9
D 75 × 10 to 110 × 10 W
9 9
E 110 × 10 to170 × 10 D
9 9
F 170 × 10 to 260 × 10 H
9 9
G 300 × 10 to 500 × 10 -
Lower limit exclusive, upper limit inclusive.
The band names of specific frequencies are given in Reference [1].
4.3.2 Transmission loss of radio wave

The letter "T" and a number designate the transmission loss of the radio wave due to reflection and

absorption as shown in Table 2.
Table 2 — Designation of transmission loss
Transmission loss
Designation
T0,1 0,1 or below
Tx (x = 0,2 to 2,4) x
T2,5 2,5 or above
Transmission loss shall be rounded off to one decimal place.
4.4 Lightness and hue

The following letters and numbers designate the lightness and hue angle that specify the colour and

appearance.
4.4.1 Lightness
The letter "L" and a number designate the lightness as shown in Table 3.
Table 3 — Designation of lightness
Designation Lightness
L100 100 or above
Ln (n = 99 to 41) n
L40 40 or below
Lightness shall be rounded off to integer.
4.4.2 Hue
The letter(s) shown in Table 4 designate the hue.
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ISO 5154:2022(E)
Table 4 — Designation of frequency bands of radio wave
Hue angle
Designation Description of colour name
deg
Chroma of between 3,0 and 5,0
R 3 - 36 Red
YR 36 - 75 Yellow red
Y 75 - 103 Yellow
GY 103 - 148 Green yellow
G 148 - 186 Green
BG 186 - 225 Blue green
B 225 - 266 Blue
PB 266 - 302 Purple blue
P 302 - 332 Purple
RP 332 - 0 Red purple
RP 0 - 3 Red purple
Chroma of between 0,8 and 3,0
R 0 - 55 Red
Y 55 to 120 Yellow
G 120 to 205 Green
B 205 to 285 Blue
P 285 to 350 Purple
R 350 to 360 Red
Chroma of 0,8 or below
N Achromatic colour
Lower limit exclusive, upper limit inclusive.
4.5 Main component element of coating

An elemental symbol designates the main component element of the decorative metallic coating.

4.6 Manufacturing method

The symbols shown in Table 5 designate the manufacturing methods of the decorative metallic coating.

Table 5 — Designation of shielding effectiveness
Designation Manufacturing method
Ve Vacuum evaporation
Sp Sputtering
Ep Electroplating or Electroless plating
OP Other process
Electroless plating includes autocatalytic plating and
immersion coating (see ISO 2080).
4.7 Example of designation

Decorative metallic coatings for radio wave transmissive application products for W band radio wave

(75 GHz to 110 GHz) with transmission loss of T0,4 level, having the appearance with the lightness of 90

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ISO 5154:2022(E)

and the hue of BG (blue green), with the main material of chromium coated by sputtering process would

have the following designation:
EXAMPLE StM D T0,4 / L90 BG/ Cr/ Sp+
5 Characterization
5.1 Transmission loss of radio wave

The transmission loss of the specific radio wave frequency band due to the reflection and adsorption

shall be determined in accordance with IEC 62431.
5.2 Lightness and hue

The definition of the parametres in CIELAB 1976 colour space, that is, lightness, L*, chroma, C*, and

chromaticities, a*, and b*, are given in ISO/CIE 11664-4. These parameters shall be determined in

accordance with ISO/CIE 11664-4. Hue angles shall be calculated from L*, a*, and b* values determined

in accordance with ISO/CIE 11664-4.

Colour names shall be determined from hue angles in accordance with Munsell colour system (10

hue) shown in JIS Z 8721 and ASTM D 1535 for the products with C* above 0,8. The colour name of the

products with C* of 0,8 or below shall be defined as achromatic colour.
5.3 Sampling

The sampling shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 4519. The samples of which sizes are fit to the

characterization devices may be used. The samples for characterization shall have the same materials

and the same coating configurations as the products.
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ISO
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