Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems

Véhicules routiers à propulsion électrique -- Spécifications d'essai pour des installations de batterie de traction aux ions lithium

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Publication Date
28-Jun-2012
Withdrawal Date
28-Jun-2012
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
19-Jun-2012
Completion Date
29-Jun-2012
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ISO 12405-2:2012 - Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12405-2
First edition
2012-07-01
Electrically propelled road vehicles —
Test specification for lithium-ion traction
battery packs and systems —
Part 2:
High-energy applications
Véhicules routiers à propulsion électrique — Spécifications d’essai pour
des installations de batterie de traction aux ions lithium —
Partie 2: Applications à haute énergie
Reference number
ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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E-mail copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..................................................................................................................... 4

5 General requirements ......................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General conditions .............................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Test sequence plan ............................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Tests ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.4 Battery pack - typical configuration ............................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Battery system - typical configuration .......................................................................................................... 8

5.6 Preparation of battery pack and system for bench testing ................................................................... 11

6 General tests ....................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.1 Pre-conditioning cycles ................................................................................................................................... 11

6.2 Standard cycle (SC) ..........................................................................................................................................12

7 Performance tests .............................................................................................................................................12

7.1 Energy and capacity at RT ..............................................................................................................................12

7.2 Energy and capacity at different temperatures and discharge rates ..................................................14

7.3 Power and internal resistance .......................................................................................................................17

7.4 Energy efficiency at fast charging ................................................................................................................24

7.5 No load SOC loss ..............................................................................................................................................26

7.6 SOC loss at storage ..........................................................................................................................................28

7.7 Cycle life ..............................................................................................................................................................29

8 Reliability tests ...................................................................................................................................................40

8.1 Dewing (temperature change) ........................................................................................................................40

8.2 Thermal shock cycling .....................................................................................................................................43

8.3 Vibration ...............................................................................................................................................................43

8.4 Mechanical shock ..............................................................................................................................................49

9 Abuse tests .........................................................................................................................................................50

9.1 Information ..........................................................................................................................................................50

9.2 Short circuit protection ....................................................................................................................................50

9.3 Overcharge protection .....................................................................................................................................51

9.4 Over-discharge protection ..............................................................................................................................51

Annex A (informative) Battery pack and system and overview on tests ...........................................................53

Annex B (informative) Examples of data sheets for battery pack and system testing ..................................55

Annex C (informative) Example of test conditions ..................................................................................................59

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................60

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12405-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 21,

Electrically propelled road vehicles.

ISO 12405 consists of the following parts, under the general title Electrically propelled road vehicles — Test

specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems:
— Part 1: High-power applications
— Part 2: High-energy applications
The following part is under preparation:
— Part 3: Safety performance requirements
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
Introduction

Lithium-ion based battery systems are an efficient alternative energy storage system for electrically propelled

vehicles. The requirements for lithium-ion based battery systems to be used as a power source for the propulsion

of electric road vehicles are significantly different from those for batteries used for consumer electronics or

stationary usage.

ISO 12405 provides specific test procedures for lithium-ion battery packs and systems specially developed for

propulsion of road vehicles. It specifies such tests and related requirements to ensure that a battery pack or

system is able to meet the specific needs of the automobile industry. It enables vehicle manufacturers to choose

test procedures to evaluate the characteristics of a battery pack or system for their specific requirements.

A coordination of test specifications for battery cells, packs and systems for automotive application is necessary

for practical usage of standards.
Specifications for battery cells are given in IEC 62660-1 and IEC 62660-2.

Some tests as prescribed within this specification are based on existing specifications: USABC, EUCAR,

FreedomCar and other sources.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
Electrically propelled road vehicles — Test specification for
lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems —
Part 2:
High-energy applications
1 Scope

ISO 12405 specifies test procedures for lithium-ion battery packs and systems to be used in electrically

propelled road vehicles.

The specified test procedures enable the user of ISO 12405 to determine the essential characteristics of

performance, reliability and abuse of lithium-ion battery packs and systems. They also assist the user in

comparing the test results achieved for different battery packs or systems.

Therefore the objective of ISO 12405 is to specify standard test procedures for the basic characteristics of

performance, reliability and abuse of lithium-ion battery packs and systems.

ISO 12405 enables the setting up of a dedicated test plan for an individual battery pack or system subject to

an agreement between customer and supplier. If required, the relevant test procedures and/or test conditions

of lithium-ion battery packs and systems can be selected from the standard tests provided in ISO 12405 to

configure a dedicated test plan.

This part of ISO 12405 specifies the tests for high-energy battery packs and systems.

NOTE 1 Typical applications for high-energy battery packs and systems are battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in

hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).
NOTE 2 Testing on cell level is specified in IEC 62660-1 and IEC 62660-2.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6469-1, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Safety specifications — Part 1: On-board rechargeable

energy storage system (RESS)

ISO 6469-3, Electrically propelled road vehicles — Safety specifications — Part 3: Protection of persons

against electric shock

ISO 16750-1, Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment —

Part 1: General

ISO 16750-3, Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment —

Part 3: Mechanical loads

ISO 16750-4, Road vehicles — Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment —

Part 4: Climatic loads

IEC 60068-2-30, Environmental testing — Part 2-30: Tests — Test Db: Damp heat, cyclic (12 h + 12 h cycle)

IEC 60068-2-47, Environmental testing — Part 2-47: Tests — Mounting of specimens for vibration, impact and

similar dynamic tests
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)

IEC 60068-2-64, Environmental testing — Part 2-64: Tests — Test Fh: Vibration, broadband random and guidance

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
battery control unit
BCU

electronic device that controls or manages or detects or calculates electric and thermal functions of the battery

system and that provides communication between the battery system and other vehicle controllers

NOTE See also 5.5.1 for further explanation.
3.2
battery pack

mechanical assembly comprising battery cells and retaining frames or trays, and possibly components for

battery management
NOTE See 5.4 and A.2 for further explanation.
3.3
battery system

energy storage device that includes cells or cell assemblies or battery pack(s) as well as electrical circuits

and electronics

NOTE 1 See 5.5.2, 5.5.3, A.3.1 and A.3.2 for further explanation. Battery system components can also be distributed

in different devices within the vehicle.
NOTE 2 Examples of electronics are the BCU and contactors.
3.4
capacity

total number of ampere hours that can be withdrawn from a battery under specified conditions

3.5
cell electronics

electronic device that collects and possibly monitors thermal and electric data of cells or cell assemblies and

contains electronics for cell balancing, if necessary

NOTE The cell electronics may include a cell controller. The functionality of cell balancing may be controlled by the

cell electronics or it may be controlled by the BCU.
3.6
customer

party that is interested in using the battery pack or system and therefore orders or performs the test

EXAMPLE vehicle manufacturer
3.7
device under test
DUT
battery pack or battery system
3.8
energy density
amount of stored energy related to the battery pack or system volume

NOTE 1 The battery pack or system includes the cooling system, if any, to the point of a reversible attachment of the

coolant lines or air ducts, respectively.
NOTE 2 Energy density is expressed in watt hours per litre (W·h/l).
2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
3.9
energy round trip efficiency

ratio of the net d.c. energy delivered by a DUT during a discharge test to the total d.c. energy required to restore

the initial SOC by a standard charge

NOTE The net d.c. energy is expressed as watt hours (W·h) discharge and the total d.c. energy is expressed as watt

hours (W·h) charge.
3.10
high-energy application

characteristic of device or application, for which the numerical ratio between maximum allowed electric power

output and electric energy output at a 1C discharge rate at RT for a battery pack or system is typically lower than 10

NOTE Typically high-energy battery packs and systems are designed for applications in BEVs.

NOTE 2 The allowed electric power output is expressed as power in watts (W) and the electric energy output is

expressed as energy in watt hours (W·h).
3.11
high-power application

characteristic of device or application, for which the numerical ratio between maximum allowed electric power

output and electric energy output at a 1C discharge rate at RT for a battery pack or system is typically equal

to or higher than 10

NOTE 1 Typically high-power battery packs and systems are designed for applications in HEVs and FCVs.

NOTE 2 The allowed electric power output is expressed as power in watts (W) and the electric energy output is

expressed as energy in watt hours (W·h).
3.12
maximum working voltage

highest value of a.c. voltage (r.m.s) or of d.c. voltage which may occur in an electric system under any normal

operating conditions according to the manufacturer’s specifications, disregarding transients

3.13
rated capacity

supplier’s specification of the total number of ampere hours that can be withdrawn from a fully charged battery pack

or system for a specified set of test conditions such as discharge rate, temperature, and discharge cut-off voltage

3.14
room temperature
temperature of (25 ± 2) °C
3.15
sign of battery current
discharge current is specified as positive and the charge current as negative
3.16
specific energy
amount of stored energy related to the battery pack or system mass

NOTE 1 The battery pack or system shall include the cooling system, if any, to the point of a reversible attachment of

the coolant lines or air ducts, respectively. For liquid cooled systems the coolant mass inside the battery pack or system

shall be included.
NOTE 2 Specific energy is expressed in watt hours per kilogram (W·h/kg).
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
3.17
state of charge
SOC
available capacity in a battery pack or system
NOTE State of charge is expressed as a percentage of rated capacity.
3.18
standard charge (SCH) for top off

additional charge which eliminates possible SOC reduction after SCH at RT followed by thermal equilibration

at a different temperature
3.19
supplier
party that provides battery systems and packs
EXAMPLE battery manufacturer
3.20
voltage class A

classification of an electric component or circuit with a maximum working voltage of 0 < U ≤ 30 V a.c. r.m.s. or

0 < U ≤ 60 V d.c.
NOTE For more details, see ISO 6469-3.
3.21
voltage class B

classification of an electric component or circuit with a maximum working voltage of 30 < U ≤ 1 000 V a.c. r.m.s.

or 60 < U ≤ 1 500 V d.c.
NOTE For more details, see ISO 6469-3.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
a.c. alternating current
BCU battery control unit
BEV battery electric vehicle
BOL beginning of life
C capacity, expressed in ampere hours (A·h)

nC current rate equal to n times the one hour discharge capacity expressed in ampere (e.g. 3C is

equal to three times the 1 h current discharge rate, expressed in ampere)
d.c. direct current
DUT device under test
EODV end of discharge voltage
EUCAR European Council for Automotive Research
EV electric vehicle
FCV fuel cell vehicle
HEV hybrid electric vehicle
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)

I maximum continuous charge current specified by the manufacturer for energy efficiency at fast

c,max
charging testing

I maximum continuous discharge current specified by the manufacturer for energy and capacity

d,max
testing

I maximum discharge pulse current specified by the manufacturer for power, internal resistance

dp,max
and energy efficiency testing
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
ISO International Organization for Standardization
Li lithium
Li-ion lithium-ion
OCV Open Circuit Voltage
PHEV plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
PNGV partnership for a new generation of vehicles
PSD power spectral density
RESS rechargeable energy storage system
r.m.s. root mean square
RT room temperature (25 ± 2) °C
SC standard cycle
SCH standard charge
SDCH standard discharge
SOC state of charge
USABC United States Advanced Battery Consortium
η efficiency
5 General requirements
5.1 General conditions

A battery pack or system to be tested according to this part of ISO 12405 shall fulfil the following requirements:

— The electrical safety design shall be approved according the requirements given in ISO 6469-1 and ISO 6469-3.

— The necessary documentation for operation and needed interface parts for connection to the test equipment

(i.e. connectors, plugs including cooling, communication) shall be delivered together with the DUT.

A battery system shall enable the specified tests, i.e. via specified test modes implemented in the BCU, and

shall be able to communicate with the test bench via common communication buses.

The battery pack subsystem as a DUT shall comprise all parts specified by the customer (e.g. including

mechanical and electrical connecting points for mechanical test).

If not otherwise specified, before each test the DUT shall be equilibrated at the test temperature. The thermal

equilibration is reached if during a period of 1 h without active cooling the deviations between test temperature

and temperature of all cell temperature measuring points are lower than ± 2 K.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)

If not otherwise specified, each charge and each SOC change shall be followed by a rest period of 30 min.

The accuracy of external measurement equipment shall be at least within the following tolerances:

— voltage ± 0,5 %
— current ± 0,5 %
— temperature ± 1 K

The overall accuracy of externally controlled or measured values, relative to the specified or actual values, shall

be at least within the following tolerances:
— voltage ± 1 %
— current ± 1 %
— temperature ± 2 K
— time ± 0,1 %
— mass ± 0,1 %
— dimensions ± 0,1 %

All values (time, temperature, current and voltage) shall be noted at least every 5 % of the estimated discharge

and charge time, except if it is noted otherwise in the individual test procedure.

NOTE If agreed between customer and supplier, for a battery pack or system consisting of more than one subset the

tests may be applied on such subsets.
5.2 Test sequence plan

The test sequence for an individual battery pack or system, or a battery pack subsystem shall be based on

agreement between customer and supplier with consideration of tests in 5.3.

An example for a list of test conditions to be agreed between customer and supplier is provided in Table C.1.

5.3 Tests

An overview about the tests is given in Figure 1, where the references to the specific clauses are also given.

6 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
Figure 1 — Test plan – overview
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
5.4 Battery pack - typical configuration
Key
1 voltage class B electric circuit (contactors, fuses, wiring)
2 voltage class B connections
3 voltage class A connections
4 normal use impact-resistant case
5 cooling device and connections
6 cell assembly
7 service disconnect
8 battery pack
9 cell electronics
In.
Out.
Figure 2 — Typical configuration of battery pack

A battery pack represents an energy storage device that includes cells or cell assemblies, cell electronics,

voltage class B circuit and overcurrent shut-off device including electrical interconnections, interfaces for

cooling, voltage class B, auxiliary voltage class A and communication. The voltage class B circuit of the battery

pack may include contactors. For a battery pack of 60 V d.c. or higher, a manual shut-off function (service

disconnect) may be included. All components are typically placed in a normal use impact-resistant case.

5.5 Battery system - typical configuration
5.5.1 BCU

The BCU calculates state-of-charge and state-of-health and provides battery system operational limits to the

vehicle management unit. The BCU may have direct access to the main contactors of the battery system in order

to interrupt the voltage class B circuit under specified conditions, e.g. overcurrent, over voltage, low voltage,

high temperature. The BCU may vary in design and implementation, it may be a single electronic unit integrated

into the battery system or it may be placed outside the battery pack and connected via a communication bus

or input/output lines to the battery pack. The BCU functionalities may be integrated functions of one or more

vehicle control units.
8 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
5.5.2 Battery system with integrated battery control unit (BCU)
Key
1 voltage class B electric circuit (contactors, fuses, wiring)
2 voltage class B connections
3 voltage class A connections
4 normal use impact-resistant case
5 cooling device and connections
6 cell assembly
7 service disconnect
8 battery pack
9 cell electronics
10 battery control unit
In.
Out.
Figure 3 — Typical configuration of battery system with integrated BCU

A battery system represents an energy storage device that includes cells or cell assemblies, cell electronics,

battery control unit, voltage class B circuit with contactors and overcurrent shut-off device including electrical

interconnections, interfaces for cooling, voltage class B, auxiliary voltage class A and communication. For

a battery system of 60 V d.c. or higher, a manual shut-off function (service disconnect) may be included. All

components are typically placed in a normal use impact-resistant case. In this example, the battery control unit

is integrated inside the normal use impact-resistant case and its control functionalities are connected to the

battery pack.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
5.5.3 Battery system with external battery control unit (BCU)
Key
1 voltage class B electric circuit (contactors, fuses, wiring)
2 voltage class B connections
3 voltage class A connections
4 normal use impact-resistant case
5 cooling device and connections
6 cell assembly
7 service disconnect
8 battery pack
9 cell electronics
10 battery control unit
11 battery system
In.
Out.
Figure 4 — Typical configuration of battery system with external BCU

A battery system represents an energy storage device that includes cells or cell assemblies, cell electronics,

battery control unit, voltage class B circuit with contactors and overcurrent shut-off device including electrical

interconnections, interfaces for cooling, voltage class B, auxiliary voltage class A and communication. For

a battery system of 60 V d.c. or higher, a manual shut-off function (service disconnect) may be included. All

components are typically placed in a normal use impact-resistant case. In this example, the battery control

unit is placed outside the normal use impact-resistant case and its control functionalities are connected to the

battery pack.
10 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12405-2:2012(E)
5.6 Preparation of battery pack and system for bench testing
5.6.1 Preparation of battery pack

If not otherwise specified, the battery pack shall be connected with voltage class B and voltage class A

connections to the test bench equipment. Contactors, available voltage, current and temperature data shall

be controlled according to the suppliers requirements and according to the given test specification by the test

bench equipment. The passive overcurrent protection device shall be operational in the battery pack. Active

overcurrent protection shall be maintained by the test bench equipment, if necessary via disconnection of the

battery pack main contactors. The cooling device may be connected to the test bench equipment and operated

according to the supplier’s requirements.
5.6.1.1.1.1 Preparation of battery system

If not otherwise specified, the battery system shall be connected with voltage class B, voltage class A and

cooling connections to the test bench equipment. The battery system shall be controlled by the BCU, the

test bench equipment shall follow the operational limits provided by the BCU via bus communication. The

test bench equipment shall maintain the on/off requirements for the main contactors and the voltage, current

and temperature profiles according to the requested requirements of the given test procedure. The battery

system cooling device and the corresponding cooling loop at the test bench equipment shall be operational

according to the given test specifications and the controls by the BCU. The BCU shall enable the test bench

equipment to perform the requested test procedure within the battery system operational limits. If necessary,

the BCU program shall be adapted by the supplier for the requested test procedure. The active and passive

overcurrent protection device shall be operational by the battery system. Active overcurrent protection shall be

maintained by the test bench equipment, too, if necessary via request of disconnection of the battery system

main contactors.
6 General tests
6.1 Pre-conditioning cycles
6.1.1 Purpose

The DUT shall be conditioned by performing some electrical cycles, before starting the real testing sequence,

in order to ensure an adequate stabilization of the battery pack or system performance.

This test applies to battery packs and systems.
6.1.2 Test procedure
The procedure shall be the following.
— The test shall be performed at RT.

— The discharges shall be performed at C/3 or at a different current if suggested and/or used by the supplier in

testing before delivery. The charging
...

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