Information technology -- Computer graphics and image processing -- Graphical Kernel System (GKS)

Cancels and replaces the first edition (1985). Specifies a set of functions for computer graphics programming, the graphical kernel system. Provides functions for two dimensional graphical output, the storage and dynamic modification of pictures, and operator input. Applicabe to a wide range of applications that produce two dimensional pictures on vector or raster graphical devices in monochrome or colour.

Technologies de l'information -- Infographie et traitement d'image -- Système graphique GKS

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Oct-1994
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
16-Jun-2021
Ref Project

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO/IEC 7942-1:1994 - Information technology -- Computer graphics and image processing -- Graphical Kernel System (GKS)
English language
164 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL
ISO/IEC
STANDARD
7942-1
Second edition
1994-11-01
Information technology - Computer
graphics and image processing -
Graphical Kerne1 System (GKS) -
Part 1:
Functional description
Technologies de I ’information - Infographie et traitement d ’image -
Systeme graphique GKS -
Partie 1: Descrip tion fonctionnelle
Reference nurnber
lSO/IEC 7942-1 :1994(E)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 7942-1: 1994(E)
Contents
...
Vlll

Foreword ........................................................................................................

Introduction ......................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................

1 Scope

2 Normative references ........................................................................................

3 Definitions .........................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................

4 Conformance

Specification ..........................................................................................

4.1

Registration ...........................................................................................

4.2

........................................................................................................

5 Concepts..

Bietures ................................................................................................

Output primitive classes and attributes ................................................

5.2

Werkstations .......................................................................................

5.3

Coordinate Systems and transformations .............................................

5.4

Logical Input devices ...........................................................................

5.5

Picture part store ..................................................................................

State lists .............................................................................................

5:7

Description tables ................................................................................

5.8

Metafiles and archives .........................................................................

Routing to the backdrop ......................................................................

5.11 Audi% trail ............................................................................................

512 Segments .............................................................................................

..................................................... 15
5,13 Compatibility with ISO 7942: 1985

51 SUl?lIlXil-y .............................................................................................

.........................................................................
The Graphical Kerne1 System

Initialization ........................................................................................

6.1

..................................................................................

6.2 Graphical output
Output primitive classes ..............................................
62.1
Output primitive attributes ...........................................
6.2.2
............................................................
6.3 Normalkation transformations

..................................................................................

6.4 Bicture part store
Bicture gart creation .....................................................
6AJ
Picture part functions ...................................................
Adding picture parts ....................................................
Pic ture part archiving ...................................................
6.4*4

.................................................................................

65 The NDC gicture
Introduction .................................................................
6.5.1
NIX picture operations ...............................................
63.2
NDC metafiles .............................................................
653
................................................................................
6.6 Sektion criterion

....................................................................................

6,7 Graphical input
...........................
6.7s Introduction to logical input devices
.........................................
6.7.2 Logical input device model
................. ..2 4
6.7.3 Operating modes of logical input devices
........................... 25
6.7.4 Input queue and current event report
0 ISO/IEC 1994

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be

reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronie or mechanical, including

photocopying and microfilm, without Permission in writing from the publisher.
ISO/IEC Copyright Office l Case postale 56 l CH- 1211 Geneve 20 l Switzerland
Printed in Switzerland
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 7942=1:1994(E)
OISO/IEC

..................................................................................

68 . Inquiry functions

.....................................................................................

69 Error handling
..2 6
.........
6110 Special interfaces between GKS and the application prograrn

.............................................................................................

6.11 Backdrap
..............................................................................
6.12 Audit and playback
........................................................................
7 Workstation dependent control

.........................................................................................

7.1 Introduction
.................................................................
Workstation characteristics
7.2
........................................................................
7.3 Selecting a workstation

7.4 Selec tion criteria ..................................................................................

Viewing ...............................................................................................

75 .
...............................................................
76 Workstation transformations

.................................................................................

7:7 Output primitives

7.8 Colour .................................................................................................

.........................................................................
79 Setting representations
..........................................................................
7110 Removing a backdrop
................................................................................
7.11 Visual effect state

.................................................................................

7.12 Realized metafile
...........................................................................
7.13 Logical input devices
Introduction .................................................................
7.13.1
.......................... 35
Initialization of logical input devices
7.13.2
..3 5
....
Definition of logical and composite input devices
7.13.3
.....................................................
7.14 Sending messages to a workstation

.............................................................................................

8 Output primitives

Introduc tion .........................................................................................

8.1
.......................................................................
Curve output primitives
82 .
..........................................................
8.2.1 Curve primitives
............................................................
Curve attributes
8.2.2
.....................................................................
Marker output primitives
8.3
.........................................................................
Area output primitives
8.4
............................................................
Area primitives
8.4.1
....................................................
Definition of interior
8.4.2
..............................................................
Area attributes
8.4.3
.................................................................
Character output primitives
8.5
.................................................................
8.5.1 Introduction
......................................................
8.5.2 Glyph specification
....................................................................
8.5.3 Glyph size
...................................................................
8.5.4 Text extent
................................................................
8.5.5 Text skewing
.............................................................
8.5.6 Text alignment
............................................................
8.5.7 Text orientation
..........................................................
8.5.8 Transformed text

8.5.9 Precision ......................................................................

.................................................
8.5.10 Estimate of text extent
.......................................................................
8.6 Image output primitives
......................................................................
8.7 Design output primitives
.................................................................
8.7.1 Introduction

8.7.2 S tencils .........................................................................

..........................................................
8.7.3 S tencil attributes
.....................................................
8.7.4 S tencil composi tion
...................................................................
8.7.5 Tiling store
..........................................
8.7.6 Stencil and tiling functions
. . .
111
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 7942-1: 1994(E) OISO/IEC

8.8 Generalized drawing primitive ............................................................ 59

9 Logical input device classes ............................................................................ 60

9.1 Introduction .... ..................................................................................... 60

Measures of each logical input device class ........................................ 60

9:3 Transformation of LOCATOR and STROKE input . ........................... 61
9.3.1 Transformation of LOCATOR input ........................... 61
.............................. 63
9.3.2 Transformation of STROKE input

9.4 Prompt and echo types .........................................................................

LOCATOR prompt and echo types ............................. 63
9.4.1
9.4.2 STROKE prompt and echo types ................................ 64
9.4.3 VALUATOR prompt and echo types .......................... 64
9.4.4 CHOICE prompt and echo types ................................. 65
9.4.5 PICK prompt and echo types ....................................... 65
9.4.6 STRING prompt and echo types ................................. 66

10 Segments and workstation activation .............................................................. 67

10.1 Introduction .... ..................................................................................... 67

10.2 Selection criteria .................................................................................. 67

Segment state list ................................................................................. 68

10.3

10.4 Workstation activation ......................................................................... 68

10.5 Segment creation ................................................................................. 68

10.6 Segment manipulation ......................................................................... 68

10.7 Segment attributes ...............................................................................

10.8 Segment storage ...................................................................................

10.9 Clear workstation .................................................................................

11 Data types .................. .....................................................................................

11.1 Data type definitions ............................................................................

11.1.1 Notational conventions ................................................

11.1.2 Basic types ...................................................................

11.1.3 Data types for GKS control .........................................
.................................. 73
11.1.4 Data types for output primitives
................................... 75
11.1.5 Data types for output attributes
Data types for transformations .................................... 78
11.1.6
11.1.7 Data types for NDC picture ......................................... 79

11.1.8 Data types for metafiles ............................................... 79

Data types for picture parts and archives .................. ..7 9
11.1.9
Data types for Utility functions .................................... 80
11.1.10
............................................... 80
11.1.11 Data types for Segments
..................................................... 81
11.1.12 Data types for input
.............................. 82
11.1.13 Data types for workstation control
11.1.14 Data types for inquiry functions ..................................
11.1.15 Data types for operating state ......................................
.84
11.1.16 Data types for font and glyph functions .....................

11.1.17 Data types for audit trails .............................................

11.1.18 Data types for selection criteria ...................................
11.1.19 Data types for paths, tilings and stencils .................... .85

11.2 Data type definitions for state lists and description tables.. ................ .87

11.2.1 Introduction ................................................................. 87

11.2.2 Operating state list (OSL) ............................................
11.2.3 GKS description table (GDT) ...................................... 87

11.2.4 GKS state list (GSL) .................................................... 87

11.2.5 Workstation state list (WSL) ....................................... 88
11.2.6 Workstation description table (WDT) ........................ .88
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
OISO/IEC ISOIIEC 7942=1:1994(E)

11.2.7 Error state list (ESL) ............................................................................ 90

11.2.8 Segment state list (SSL) ............................................... 90

11.2.9 Stencil state list (STSL) ............................................... 90

11.3 Initial values of state lists and description tables ................................ 90

11.3.1 Operating state list ....................................................... 90

11.3.2 GKS description table .................................................. 90

11.3.3 GKS state list ............................................................... 90

11.3.4 Workstation state list ................................................... 92

........................ .92
11.3.5 Generic workstation description table

Error state list ............................................................... 92

11.3.6
11.3.7 92
Segment state list .........................................................

11.3.8 Stencil state list ............................................................

12 Workstation independent functions .................................................................

12.1 Conti-01 functions ................................................................................. 93

12.2 Output functions .................................................................................. 94

12.3 Design output functions ....................................................................... 95

12.4 Output attributes .................................................................................. 97

12.5 Normalization transformation functions .............................................. 98

12.6 NDC picture functions ......................................................................... 99

100

12.7 Metafile functions ..............................................................................

100

12.8 Picture part store functions ................................................................

103

12.9 Input functions ...................................................................................

................................................................... 104
12.10 Font and glyph functions
............................................................ 104
12.11 Audit and playback functions

12.12 Inquiry functions ................................................................................ 105

................................................................................. 107

12.13 Utility functions

Utility functions for output primitives ............................................... 107

12.14

................................................................................... 109

13 Workstation functions

............................................................................... 109

13.1 Conti-01 functions

13.2 Inquiry functions ................................................................................ 112

............................................................................. 114

13.3 Retrieval functions

13.4 Viewing utility functions ................................................................... 115

13.5 Colour Utility functions ...................................................................... 115

14 Segment and workstation activation functions .............................................. 116

116

14.1 Segment functions .............................................................................

118

14.2 Workstation activation functions .......................................................

14.3 Utility func tions ................................................................................. 119

Annexes

............................................................................. 120

A Function and data type list

Functions alphabetic .......................................................................... 120

A.1

A.2 Functions Order of appearance ........................................................... 122

......................................................................... 126
A.3 Data types alphabetic

........................................................................................................ 128

B Error list

.............................................................................. 128

B.1 Function error list

Error list ordered by error number ..................................................... 138

B.2

Language binding considerations .................................................................. 140

................................................................................... 146

D Allowable differentes

General ........... ................................................................................... 146

D.1

............................................................................. 146

D.2 Global differentes
................................................... 146
D.3 Workstation dependent differentes

............ ................................................................................... 149

E Colour models

................................................................................................. 150

F Bibliography
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
OISO/IEC
ISO/IEC 7942-1: 1994(E)
....................................... 151
G An approach to compatibility with ISO 7942: 1985
151

G.1 Introduction .......................................................................................

151

G.2 Format ...............................................................................................

151
G.2.1 Compatibility aspects .................................................
151
G.2.2 Language binding ......................................................
....................................... 151
G.2.3 Notation used in this annex

................................................................................... 151

G.3 Data structures
151
Introduction ...............................................................
G.3.1
............................................ 152
G.3.2 Compatibility data types
G.3.3 Compatibility operating state list (COSL) .152
................
list (CGSL) .152
G.3.4 Compatibility GKS state .......................
.152
G.3.5 Compatibility workstation state list (CWSL) ...........
.153
G.3.6 Compatibility Segment state list (CSSL) ..................

............................................................................... 153

G.4 Control functions
OPEN GKS ................................................................ 153
G.4.1
153
G.4.2 OPEN WORKSTATION ..........................................
154
G.4.3 CLOSE WORKSTATION ........................................
ACTIVATE WORKSTATION ................................. 154
G.4.4
DEACTIVATE WORKSTATION ........................... 155
G.4.5
155
G.4.6 CLEAR WORKSTATION ........................................

G.4.7 Deferral states ............................................................ 155

156

G.5 Output and attribute functions ...........................................................

G.6 Transformation functions .................................................................. 156

G.6.1 SET VIEWPORT ...................................................... 156
157
G.6.2 SET WINDOW ..........................................................
G.6.3 SELECT NORMALIZATION
157
TRANSFORMATION ..............................................
............................................... 157
G.7 Workstation transformation functions
157

G.8 Segment functions .............................................................................

............................................................... 157
G.8.1 Introduction
CREATE SEGMENT ................................................ 157
G.8.2
DELETE SEGMENT FROM WORKSTATION......15 7
G.8.3
ASSOCIATE SEGMENT WITH WORKSTATION158
G.8.4
SEGMENT TO WORKSTATION .158
G.8.5 COPY ...............
158
G.8.6 INSERT SEGMENT .................................................
158
G.8.7 Segment attributes .....................................................
158

G.9 Input functions ...................................................................................

158

G.9.1 Introduction ...............................................................

159
G.9.2 Simultaneous events ..................................................
Pick input 160
G.9.3 ...................................................................

............................................................................................... 160

G.10 GKSM
G.lO.1 READ ITEM FROM GKSM ..................................... 160
G.lO.2 GET ITEM FROM GKSM ........................................ 160
INTERPRET ITEM 160
G.lO.3 ...................................................
WRITE ITFM TO GKSM ......................................... 161
G.lO.4

G.11 Inquiry functions ................................................................................ 161

G.ll.1 functions for operating state value .16 1
Inquiry ...............
.161
G.ll.2 Inquiry functions for GKS description table ............
........................... 161
G.ll.3 Inquiry functions for GKS state list
.161
G.ll.4 Inquiry functions for workstation state list ...............
G.ll.5 Inquiry functions for workstation
161
description table .........................................................
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
OISO/IEC ISO/IEC 794201:1994(E)

G.11.6 Inquiry functions for Segment state list ............................................. 162

G.11.7 Pixel inquiries ............................................................ 162

G.11.8 Inquiry functions for GKS error state list ................. .162

G.12 Utility functions ................................................................................. 162

G.13 Error handling ................................................................................... 162

G.13.1 Matthing error numbers ............................................ 162
162
G.13.2 Using the Utility function ...........................................

G.14 Conclusions ....................................................................................... 163

H Compatibility with the Computer Graphits Reference Model
164

ISO/IEC 11072: 1992 (informative) ..............................................................

164

H.l Introduction .......................................................................................

H.2 Environments .................................................................................... 164

H.3 Fan-out and fan-in ............................................................................. 164

H.4 Extemal interfaces ............................................................................. 164

164

HS Processing elements ...........................................................................

164

H.6 Compositions . ...................................................................................

164

H.7 Collec tions ........................................................................................

164

H.8 Clipping .............................................................................................

vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISOAEC 7942-1: 1994(E) OISO/IEC
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commis-

sion) form the specialized System for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of ISO or

IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established by the

respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees

Other international organizations, govemmental and non-
collaborate in fields of mutual interest.
govemmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work.

In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC

JTCl. Draft International Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies

for voting. Publication as International Standard requires approval by at least 75% of the national bodies cast-

ing a vote.

International Standard ISO/IEC 7942-1 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTCl, Informa-

tion technology, Sub-Committee 24, Computer graphics and image processing.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 7942: 1985), which has been technically revised.

ISO/IEC 7942 consists of the following Parts, under the general title Information technology - Computer

graphics and image processing - Graphical Kerne1 System (GKS):
Part 1: Functional description
Part 2: NDC metajle
Part 3: Audit trail
Part 4: Picture part archive

Annexes A and B form an integral part of this part of ISO/lEC 7942. Annexes C, D, E, F, G, and H are for

information only.
. . .
Vlll
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
OISO/IEC ISO/IEC 794201:1994(E)
Introduction

The Graphical Kerne1 System (GKS) provides a set of functions for Computer graphics programming that tan

be used by a range of applications. The main motivations for standardization are to improve portability of pro-

grams and to define a basic methodology. Portability is achieved by providing all the capabilities necessary in

a device independent way. The following principles are used in specifying GKS:

a) Design: the three goals are consistency of approach, compatibility with related Standards and orthogonal

functionality where possible.

b) Functionality: the goals are completeness with the minimal set of functions. Organization of functions

should be such as to achieve compact programs. Richness should be provided by Utilities and toolkits on

top of GKS rather than non-Standard extensions to GKS.

c) Clarity: the underlying concepts should be easily understood, especially by the application programmer.

To achieve this, GKS is defined using a small set of functions with precise specification of the data struc-

tures that define the state of GKS and the effect that functions have on this state.

d) Error handling: all errors caused by inc
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.