Fire safety engineering

Ingénierie de la sécurité contre l'incendie

Požarno inženirstvo - 1. del: Uporaba performančnega načina projektiranja požarne varnosti

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
29-Sep-1999
Withdrawal Date
29-Sep-1999
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
27-Jul-1999
Completion Date
30-Sep-1999

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
01-februar-2001
3RåDUQRLQåHQLUVWYRGHO8SRUDEDSHUIRUPDQþQHJDQDþLQDSURMHNWLUDQMD
SRåDUQHYDUQRVWL

Fire safety engineering -- Part 1: Application of fire performance concepts to design

objectives

Ingénierie de la sécurité contre l'incendie -- Partie 1: Application des concepts de

performance aux objectifs de conception
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TR 13387-1:1999
ICS:
13.220.01 Varstvo pred požarom na Protection against fire in
splošno general
SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 13387-1
First edition
1999-10-15
Fire safety engineering —
Part 1:
Application of fire performance concepts
to design objectives
Ingénierie de la sécurité contre l'incendie —
Partie 1: Application des concepts de performance aux objectifs de
conception
Reference number
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
Contents

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references ..............................................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................................................................2

4 The global approach................................................................................................................................................4

4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................4

4.2 Summary of the fire safety engineering assessment process.........................................................................5

4.3 The subsystems of the design ............................................................................................................................7

4.4 Design parameters................................................................................................................................................8

4.5 The global information, evaluation and process concept ................................................................................9

4.6 Engineering methods .........................................................................................................................................11

5 Fire safety management........................................................................................................................................11

5.1 General.................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Independent audit...............................................................................................................................................11

6 Objectives and criteria ..........................................................................................................................................12

6.1 General.................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Functional objectives .........................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Acceptance criteria.............................................................................................................................................13

7 Deterministic design..............................................................................................................................................14

7.1 Background.........................................................................................................................................................14

8 Probability design..................................................................................................................................................16

8.1 Background.........................................................................................................................................................16

8.2 Basic probabilistic techniques..........................................................................................................................17

8.3 Data required.......................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 1999

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic

or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.

International Organization for Standardization
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Genève 20 • Switzerland
Internet iso@iso.ch
Printed in Switzerland
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)

8.4 Common mode failures...................................................................................................................................... 22

9 Safety factors and uncertainty ............................................................................................................................. 22

10 Summary of the fire safety design process ...................................................................................................... 22

10.1 Overview............................................................................................................................................................ 22

10.2 Define the safety objectives and scope of the study.................................................................................... 23

10.3 Set acceptance criteria..................................................................................................................................... 23

10.4 Characterise the building, occupants and environment .............................................................................. 27

10.5 Undertake the qualitative design review ........................................................................................................ 27

10.6 Conduct quantified analysis............................................................................................................................ 28

11 Reporting and presentation................................................................................................................................ 30

11.1 General .............................................................................................................................................................. 30

11.2 Contents ............................................................................................................................................................ 30

Annex A (informative) The emergence of fire safety engineering........................................................................ 32

Annex B (informative) The qualitative design review ............................................................................................ 36

(informative)

Annex C Fire safety management..................................................................................................... 40

Annex D (normative) Life safety .............................................................................................................................. 43

Annex E (informative) Safety factors....................................................................................................................... 48

Annex F (informative) Firefighting and rescue facilities ....................................................................................... 52

iii
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO

member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The main task of ISO technical committees is to prepare International Standards, but in exceptional circumstances a

technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report of one of the following types:

 type 1, when the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard, despite

repeated efforts;

 type 2, when the subject is still under technical development or where for any other reason there is the future

but not immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard;

 type 3, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published

as an International Standard (“state of the art“, for example).

Technical Reports of types 1 and 2 are subject to review within three years of publication, to decide whether they

can be transformed into International Standards. Technical Reports of type 3 do not necessarily have to be

reviewed until the data they provide are considered to be no longer valid or useful.

ISO/TR 13387-1, which is a Technical Report of type 2, was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire

safety, Subcommittee SC 4, Fire safety engineering.

It is one of eight parts which outlines important aspects which need to be considered in making a fundamental

approach to the provision of fire safety in buildings. The approach ignores any constraints which might apply as a

consequence of regulations or codes; following the approach will not, therefore, necessarily mean compliance with

national regulations.

ISO/TR 13387 consists of the following parts, under the general title Fire safety engineering:

 Part 1: Application of fire performance concepts to design objectives
 Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires
 Part 3: Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models
 Part 4: Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents
 Part 5: Movement of fire effluents
 Part 6: Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of origin
 Part 7: Detection, activation and suppression
 Part 8: Life safety — Occupant behaviour, location and condition

Annex D forms a normative part of this part of ISO/TR 13387. Annexes A to C and annexes E and F are for

information only.
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
Introduction

A fire safety engineering approach may have many benefits over prescriptive approaches (see annex A). It takes

into account the totality of the fire safety package and provides a more fundamental and economic solution than

traditional approaches to fire safety. It may be the only viable means of achieving a satisfactory level of fire safety in

some large and complex buildings. For most buildings prescriptive recommendations may be found to be adequate

but the use of a fire safety engineering approach enables the more precise design necessary for the assessment of

new and complex projects.

This part of ISO/TR 13387 is intended to be applicable to both new and existing buildings and can be used either to

justify minor deviations from traditional/prescriptive codes or to evaluate the building design as a whole.

The interaction of fire, buildings and people gives rise to a large number of possible scenarios. Together with the

wide range of building designs and uses, this makes it impractical to establish a single set of calculations and

procedures that can be applied directly to all buildings. There are still many gaps in the available knowledge and it

is, therefore, not possible to set down simple step-by-step procedures that can be applied to all buildings. This part

of ISO/TR 13387 is, therefore, intended to provide a framework for a flexible but formalised approach to fire safety

design that can be readily assessed by the statutory authorities.

The current knowledge and ability to model fire processes and the response of people requires the use of

engineering judgement to compensate for gaps in, or supplement, knowledge. The approaches and procedures

detailed in this part of ISO/TR 13387 should, therefore, only be used by suitably qualified and experienced fire

safety professionals. It is also important that account should be taken of statutory requirements, and the appropriate

approvals bodies should, where necessary, be consulted before final decisions are made about the fire safety

design.
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
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SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
TECHNICAL REPORT © ISO ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
Fire safety engineering —
Part 1:
Application of fire performance concepts to design objectives
1 Scope

This part of ISO/TR 13387 describes one framework for the provision of an engineered approach to the

achievement of fire safety in buildings, based on the quantification of the behaviour of fire and people. The

Technical Report is not intended as a detailed technical design guide, but could be used as the basis for

development of such a guide. It indicates the interdependence and interactions between various components of the

fire safety system and provides an indication of the totality of fire safety design. It is appropriate for various

alternative single or multiple design objectives.

The basic principles given in this part of ISO/TR 13387, together with the guidance on detailed aspects of fire safety

design given in other parts, may be applied to all types of building and their use. Principally this Part applies to

common types of building such as dwellings, office buildings, department stores, schools, hotels, and public-

assembly and industrial buildings, new and existing.

The principles, the methodology and many of the calculation tools may be applied to the safe design of many other

structures, which may or may not accommodate people, such as tunnels, petrochemical plants, offshore oil/gas

installations and transportation systems (railway carriages, aircraft cabins and passenger ships).

This part of ISO/TR 13387 takes into account many factors including building construction, means of escape,

human factors, smoke management, detection, alarm and fire suppression and their contribution to the attainment

of the fire safety objectives. It provides some alternative approaches to existing codes for fire safety and allows the

effect of departures from more prescriptive codes and regulations to be evaluated.

Although the emphasis in this document is on safety of life, the fire safety engineering approach can also be used to

assess property loss, business interruption, contamination of the environment and destruction of heritage. It is

anticipated that, in the future, this part of ISO/TR 13387 will be broadened to cover, for example, property loss,

business interruption, contamination of the environment and destruction of heritage.

2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this part of ISO/TR 13387. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these

publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO/TR 13387 are encouraged to

investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For

undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC

maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO 31-0:1992, Quantities and units — Part 0: General principles.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
ISO 31-4 1992, Quantities and units — Part 4: Heat.

ISO/TR 13387-2, Fire safety engineering — Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires.

ISO/TR 13387-3, Fire safety engineering — Part 3: Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models.

ISO/TR 13387-4, Fire safety engineering — Part 4: Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents.

ISO/TR 13387-5, Fire safety engineering — Part 5: Movement of fire effluents.

ISO/TR 13387-6, Fire safety engineering — Part 6: Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of

origin.

ISO/TR 13387-7, Fire safety engineering — Part 7: Detection, activation and suppression.

ISO/TR 13387-8, Fire safety engineering — Part 8: Life safety — Occupant behaviour, location and condition.

ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this part of ISO/TR 13387, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943 and the following apply.

3.1
acceptance criteria

qualitative and quantitative criteria which have been agreed with the building approval authority and hence form an

acceptable basis for assessing the safety of a building design
3.2
alarm time
the time between ignition and alarm
3.3
characterisation

the process of determining design data which are in a form suitable for input to a subsystem

3.4
critical fire load

the fire load required in a compartment to produce a fire of sufficient severity to cause failure of fire-resisting barriers

or structural elements
3.5
detection time

the time between ignition of a fire and its detection by an automatic or manual system

3.6
deterministic study

a methodology, based on physical relationships derived from scientific theories and empirical results, that for a

given set of initial conditions will always produce the same outcome
3.7
engineering judgement

the process exercised by a professional who is qualified by way of education, experience and recognised skills to

complement, supplement, accept or reject elements of a quantitative analysis
3.8
escape/evacuation time

the interval between the time of a warning of fire being transmitted to the occupants and the time at which the

occupants of a specified part of a building or all of the building are able to enter a place of safety

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SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
3.9
estimated design parameter
a design parameter which involves a process of estimation (or characterisation)

It may describe the building, contents, occupants and environment. This is usually decided by the fire safety

engineer.
3.10
exit
a doorway or other suitable opening giving direct access to a place of safety

Exits include exterior exit doors, exit passageways, horizontal exits, separated exit stairs and separated exit ramps.

3.11
fire safety engineering

the application of engineering principles, rules and expert judgement based on a scientific appreciation of the fire

phenomena, of the effects of fire, and of the reaction and behaviour of people, in order to:

 save life, protect property and preserve the environment and heritage;
 quantify the hazards and risk of fire and its effects;

 evaluate analytically the optimum protective and preventative measures necessary to limit, within prescribed

levels, the consequences of fire
3.12
fire safety manual

a document detailing the fire safety management procedures that should be implemented on a continuing basis

3.13
hazard
the potential for loss of life (or injury) and/or damage to property by fire
3.14
movement time

the time needed for all of the occupants of a specified part of a building to move to an exit and pass through it and

into a place of safety
3.15
management or manager

the persons or person in overall control of the premises whilst people are present, exercising this responsibility

either in their own right, e.g. as the owner, or by delegation
3.16
means of escape

structural means whereby safe routes are provided for persons to travel from any point in a building to a place of

safety
3.17
phased evacuation

a process by which a limited number of floors (usually the fire floor and the level above and below) are evacuated

initially and the remaining floors are evacuated as and when necessary
3.18
place of safety
a place in which persons are in no immediate danger from the effects of fire
3.19
prescribed design parameter

a design parameter which can be directly measured and requires no estimation or conversion of data

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SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)

It may describe the building, contents, occupants and environment, and is usually decided by the fire safety

engineer.
3.20
pre-movement time

the time interval between the warning of fire being given (by an alarm or by direct sight of smoke or fire) and the first

move being made towards an exit
3.21
risk

the potential for realisation of an unwanted event, which is a function of the hazard, its probability and its

consequences
3.22
system variables

those parameters which are functions of time and which are used in a fire safety engineering evaluation

They are listed under the category Simulation Dynamics in the global information.

3.23
travel distance

the actual distance that needs to be travelled by a person from any point within a building to the nearest exit, having

regard to the layout of walls, partitions and fittings
3.24
trial design parameters

design parameters (prescribed and estimated) chosen for the purpose of making a fire safety engineering analysis

on one (trial) design
3.25
validation (as applied to fire calculation models)

process of determining the correctness of the assumptions and governing equations implemented in a model when

applied to the entire class of problems addressed by the model
3.26
verification (as applied to mathematical fire models)

process of checking a mathematical fire model for correct physical representation and mathematical accuracy for a

specific application or range of applications

The process involves checking the theoretical basis, the appropriateness of the assumptions used in the model, and

that the model contains no unacceptable mathematical errors and has been shown, by comparison with

experimental data, to provide predictions of the course of events in similar fire situations with a known accuracy.

4 The global approach
4.1 General

Traditional approaches to achieving fire safety in buildings have involved the adoption of a number of complex and

often disjointed requirements for different components of the fire safety system. The value of each to the overall

design objective is unknown and the complementary or compensating nature of these provisions cannot be

quantified.

As a result of the large and rapid increase in innovative and diversified building design, traditional regulations based

on "prescription" rather than "performance" have proved to be restrictive and inflexible. Consequently, more

fundamental approaches to the provision of fire safety in buildings have had to be pursued. A more detailed

discussion of the background to the application of fire safety engineering and its benefits is given in annex A.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)

This part of ISO/TR 13387 looks at the provision of fire safety in buildings from a fundamental viewpoint, and it

ignores the constraints that may be applied to building design as a consequence of various national regulations or

codes. The fact that a building has been designed adopting the approach given in this document does not,

therefore, mean that it will satisfy the requirements of national regulations. The document may help to discipline

engineered approaches to fire safety design and to ensure that all the essential requirements and aspects of design

have been properly considered and addressed, and that, having established the objectives of design, these are

demonstrated as being satisfied in an acceptable and quantified manner.

The approach adopted in this part of ISO/TR 13387 is to consider the global objective of fire safety design and to

give guidance on the nature of criteria which may be appropriate to demonstrating compliance with these objectives.

The global design is sub-divided into what are called "subsystems" of the total design, and the document ensures

that the inter-relationship and interdependence of the various subsystems are appreciated, and that the

consequences of all the events in any one subsystem on all other subsystems are identified and addressed.

In addition to life safety, the principles and methodology in this document can also be used to determine property

loss, business interruption, contamination of the environment and destruction of heritage. The Technical Report can

be used, for instance, to predict a contents response-time profile which enables the amount of fire loss (direct,

consequential, etc.) to be determined from a knowledge of the location, value, damageability and salvageability of

the individual items of building contents and spatial distribution of smoke, heat, water and corrosive products.

4.2 Summary of the fire safety engineering assessment process

Fire safety engineering assessment involves the following steps (the basic process is illustrated in Figure 1):

a) Qualitative design review (QDR):

The review is qualitative because not all the values of the design parameters will be known and engineering

judgement will need to be applied to obtain them. It is also qualitative because judgement will need to be used

to decide on a limited number of important fire scenarios for later quantified analysis.

For a large project, it is preferable for the QDR to be undertaken by a team which includes the design team and

the approval authorities.
More information on the QDR is given in annex B.
It is necessary to:

 define fire safety objectives and acceptance criteria — possibly in consultation with the approval

authorities;

 establish the prescribed design parameters by reviewing the architectural design and the proposed fire

safety features;

characterise the building and its occupants, i.e. estimate design parameters not given by the architect;

 identify potential fire hazards and their possible consequences;
 select those fire scenarios which should form part of the quantified analysis;
 establish trial fire safety designs;
 indicate appropriate methods of analysis.
b) Quantitative analysis of design:

 carry out a time-based quantified analysis using the appropriate subsystems — or use another appropriate

method of analysis as indicated in the QDR, making sure that, wherever possible, mathematical models

are verified (see ISO/TR13387-3).
c) Assess the outcome of the analysis against the safety criteria:
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)

 Repeat the analysis if the acceptance criteria not satisfied (e.g. in a life safety assessment) by controlling

the fire process to increase the time available for safe escape (where appropriate) and/or reducing the time

required to escape.
d) Report and present the results.
Figure 1 — Basic fire safety design process
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST ISO/TR 13387-1:2001
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
4.3 The subsystems of the design
4.3.1 General

The evaluation of the fire safety design of a building is broken down, to simplify the process, into five separate

components of the system (subsystems denoted by SS1 to SS5) as follows:
4.3.2 SS1 — Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents

This subsystem provides a framework for critically reviewing the suitability of an engineering method for assessing

the potential for the initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents. The subsystem may also

provide means to assess the effectiveness of fire safety measures meant to reduce the probability of ignition, to

control fire development, and to reduce accumulation of heat, smoke, and toxic products or products causing non-

thermal damage. Methods for calculating the effects of the design fires for use in the design and assessment of fire

safety of a building are also addressed.
4.3.3 SS2 — Movement of fire effluents

This subsystem provides a framework for critically reviewing the suitability of an engineering method for assessing

the potential for movement of fire effluents during the course of a fire. The subsystem may also provide means to

assess the effectiveness of fire safety measures meant to reduce the adverse effects of the movement of fire

effluents. Methods for calculating the effects of the design fires for use in the design and assessment of fire safety

of a building are also addressed.

The subsystem draws on other subsystems for a prescription or characterisation of the fire. The predictions of the

fire development and the production of fire effluents is provided by subsystem 1. The prediction of the spread of

...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 13387-1
First edition
1999-10-15
Fire safety engineering —
Part 1:
Application of fire performance concepts
to design objectives
Ingénierie de la sécurité contre l'incendie —
Partie 1: Application des concepts de performance aux objectifs de
conception
Reference number
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
Contents

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references ..............................................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................................................................2

4 The global approach................................................................................................................................................4

4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................4

4.2 Summary of the fire safety engineering assessment process.........................................................................5

4.3 The subsystems of the design ............................................................................................................................7

4.4 Design parameters................................................................................................................................................8

4.5 The global information, evaluation and process concept ................................................................................9

4.6 Engineering methods .........................................................................................................................................11

5 Fire safety management........................................................................................................................................11

5.1 General.................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Independent audit...............................................................................................................................................11

6 Objectives and criteria ..........................................................................................................................................12

6.1 General.................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Functional objectives .........................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Acceptance criteria.............................................................................................................................................13

7 Deterministic design..............................................................................................................................................14

7.1 Background.........................................................................................................................................................14

8 Probability design..................................................................................................................................................16

8.1 Background.........................................................................................................................................................16

8.2 Basic probabilistic techniques..........................................................................................................................17

8.3 Data required.......................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 1999

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic

or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.

International Organization for Standardization
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Genève 20 • Switzerland
Internet iso@iso.ch
Printed in Switzerland
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)

8.4 Common mode failures...................................................................................................................................... 22

9 Safety factors and uncertainty ............................................................................................................................. 22

10 Summary of the fire safety design process ...................................................................................................... 22

10.1 Overview............................................................................................................................................................ 22

10.2 Define the safety objectives and scope of the study.................................................................................... 23

10.3 Set acceptance criteria..................................................................................................................................... 23

10.4 Characterise the building, occupants and environment .............................................................................. 27

10.5 Undertake the qualitative design review ........................................................................................................ 27

10.6 Conduct quantified analysis............................................................................................................................ 28

11 Reporting and presentation................................................................................................................................ 30

11.1 General .............................................................................................................................................................. 30

11.2 Contents ............................................................................................................................................................ 30

Annex A (informative) The emergence of fire safety engineering........................................................................ 32

Annex B (informative) The qualitative design review ............................................................................................ 36

(informative)

Annex C Fire safety management..................................................................................................... 40

Annex D (normative) Life safety .............................................................................................................................. 43

Annex E (informative) Safety factors....................................................................................................................... 48

Annex F (informative) Firefighting and rescue facilities ....................................................................................... 52

iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO

member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The main task of ISO technical committees is to prepare International Standards, but in exceptional circumstances a

technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report of one of the following types:

 type 1, when the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard, despite

repeated efforts;

 type 2, when the subject is still under technical development or where for any other reason there is the future

but not immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard;

 type 3, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published

as an International Standard (“state of the art“, for example).

Technical Reports of types 1 and 2 are subject to review within three years of publication, to decide whether they

can be transformed into International Standards. Technical Reports of type 3 do not necessarily have to be

reviewed until the data they provide are considered to be no longer valid or useful.

ISO/TR 13387-1, which is a Technical Report of type 2, was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire

safety, Subcommittee SC 4, Fire safety engineering.

It is one of eight parts which outlines important aspects which need to be considered in making a fundamental

approach to the provision of fire safety in buildings. The approach ignores any constraints which might apply as a

consequence of regulations or codes; following the approach will not, therefore, necessarily mean compliance with

national regulations.

ISO/TR 13387 consists of the following parts, under the general title Fire safety engineering:

 Part 1: Application of fire performance concepts to design objectives
 Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires
 Part 3: Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models
 Part 4: Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents
 Part 5: Movement of fire effluents
 Part 6: Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of origin
 Part 7: Detection, activation and suppression
 Part 8: Life safety — Occupant behaviour, location and condition

Annex D forms a normative part of this part of ISO/TR 13387. Annexes A to C and annexes E and F are for

information only.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
© ISO
ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
Introduction

A fire safety engineering approach may have many benefits over prescriptive approaches (see annex A). It takes

into account the totality of the fire safety package and provides a more fundamental and economic solution than

traditional approaches to fire safety. It may be the only viable means of achieving a satisfactory level of fire safety in

some large and complex buildings. For most buildings prescriptive recommendations may be found to be adequate

but the use of a fire safety engineering approach enables the more precise design necessary for the assessment of

new and complex projects.

This part of ISO/TR 13387 is intended to be applicable to both new and existing buildings and can be used either to

justify minor deviations from traditional/prescriptive codes or to evaluate the building design as a whole.

The interaction of fire, buildings and people gives rise to a large number of possible scenarios. Together with the

wide range of building designs and uses, this makes it impractical to establish a single set of calculations and

procedures that can be applied directly to all buildings. There are still many gaps in the available knowledge and it

is, therefore, not possible to set down simple step-by-step procedures that can be applied to all buildings. This part

of ISO/TR 13387 is, therefore, intended to provide a framework for a flexible but formalised approach to fire safety

design that can be readily assessed by the statutory authorities.

The current knowledge and ability to model fire processes and the response of people requires the use of

engineering judgement to compensate for gaps in, or supplement, knowledge. The approaches and procedures

detailed in this part of ISO/TR 13387 should, therefore, only be used by suitably qualified and experienced fire

safety professionals. It is also important that account should be taken of statutory requirements, and the appropriate

approvals bodies should, where necessary, be consulted before final decisions are made about the fire safety

design.
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TECHNICAL REPORT © ISO ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E)
Fire safety engineering —
Part 1:
Application of fire performance concepts to design objectives
1 Scope

This part of ISO/TR 13387 describes one framework for the provision of an engineered approach to the

achievement of fire safety in buildings, based on the quantification of the behaviour of fire and people. The

Technical Report is not intended as a detailed technical design guide, but could be used as the basis for

development of such a guide. It indicates the interdependence and interactions between various components of the

fire safety system and provides an indication of the totality of fire safety design. It is appropriate for various

alternative single or multiple design objectives.

The basic principles given in this part of ISO/TR 13387, together with the guidance on detailed aspects of fire safety

design given in other parts, may be applied to all types of building and their use. Principally this Part applies to

common types of building such as dwellings, office buildings, department stores, schools, hotels, and public-

assembly and industrial buildings, new and existing.

The principles, the methodology and many of the calculation tools may be applied to the safe design of many other

structures, which may or may not accommodate people, such as tunnels, petrochemical plants, offshore oil/gas

installations and transportation systems (railway carriages, aircraft cabins and passenger ships).

This part of ISO/TR 13387 takes into account many factors including building construction, means of escape,

human factors, smoke management, detection, alarm and fire suppression and their contribution to the attainment

of the fire safety objectives. It provides some alternative approaches to existing codes for fire safety and allows the

effect of departures from more prescriptive codes and regulations to be evaluated.

Although the emphasis in this document is on safety of life, the fire safety engineering approach can also be used to

assess property loss, business interruption, contamination of the environment and destruction of heritage. It is

anticipated that, in the future, this part of ISO/TR 13387 will be broadened to cover, for example, property loss,

business interruption, contamination of the environment and destruction of heritage.

2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this part of ISO/TR 13387. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these

publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO/TR 13387 are encouraged to

investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For

undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC

maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO 31-0:1992, Quantities and units — Part 0: General principles.
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ISO 31-4 1992, Quantities and units — Part 4: Heat.

ISO/TR 13387-2, Fire safety engineering — Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires.

ISO/TR 13387-3, Fire safety engineering — Part 3: Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models.

ISO/TR 13387-4, Fire safety engineering — Part 4: Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents.

ISO/TR 13387-5, Fire safety engineering — Part 5: Movement of fire effluents.

ISO/TR 13387-6, Fire safety engineering — Part 6: Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of

origin.

ISO/TR 13387-7, Fire safety engineering — Part 7: Detection, activation and suppression.

ISO/TR 13387-8, Fire safety engineering — Part 8: Life safety — Occupant behaviour, location and condition.

ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this part of ISO/TR 13387, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943 and the following apply.

3.1
acceptance criteria

qualitative and quantitative criteria which have been agreed with the building approval authority and hence form an

acceptable basis for assessing the safety of a building design
3.2
alarm time
the time between ignition and alarm
3.3
characterisation

the process of determining design data which are in a form suitable for input to a subsystem

3.4
critical fire load

the fire load required in a compartment to produce a fire of sufficient severity to cause failure of fire-resisting barriers

or structural elements
3.5
detection time

the time between ignition of a fire and its detection by an automatic or manual system

3.6
deterministic study

a methodology, based on physical relationships derived from scientific theories and empirical results, that for a

given set of initial conditions will always produce the same outcome
3.7
engineering judgement

the process exercised by a professional who is qualified by way of education, experience and recognised skills to

complement, supplement, accept or reject elements of a quantitative analysis
3.8
escape/evacuation time

the interval between the time of a warning of fire being transmitted to the occupants and the time at which the

occupants of a specified part of a building or all of the building are able to enter a place of safety

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3.9
estimated design parameter
a design parameter which involves a process of estimation (or characterisation)

It may describe the building, contents, occupants and environment. This is usually decided by the fire safety

engineer.
3.10
exit
a doorway or other suitable opening giving direct access to a place of safety

Exits include exterior exit doors, exit passageways, horizontal exits, separated exit stairs and separated exit ramps.

3.11
fire safety engineering

the application of engineering principles, rules and expert judgement based on a scientific appreciation of the fire

phenomena, of the effects of fire, and of the reaction and behaviour of people, in order to:

 save life, protect property and preserve the environment and heritage;
 quantify the hazards and risk of fire and its effects;

 evaluate analytically the optimum protective and preventative measures necessary to limit, within prescribed

levels, the consequences of fire
3.12
fire safety manual

a document detailing the fire safety management procedures that should be implemented on a continuing basis

3.13
hazard
the potential for loss of life (or injury) and/or damage to property by fire
3.14
movement time

the time needed for all of the occupants of a specified part of a building to move to an exit and pass through it and

into a place of safety
3.15
management or manager

the persons or person in overall control of the premises whilst people are present, exercising this responsibility

either in their own right, e.g. as the owner, or by delegation
3.16
means of escape

structural means whereby safe routes are provided for persons to travel from any point in a building to a place of

safety
3.17
phased evacuation

a process by which a limited number of floors (usually the fire floor and the level above and below) are evacuated

initially and the remaining floors are evacuated as and when necessary
3.18
place of safety
a place in which persons are in no immediate danger from the effects of fire
3.19
prescribed design parameter

a design parameter which can be directly measured and requires no estimation or conversion of data

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It may describe the building, contents, occupants and environment, and is usually decided by the fire safety

engineer.
3.20
pre-movement time

the time interval between the warning of fire being given (by an alarm or by direct sight of smoke or fire) and the first

move being made towards an exit
3.21
risk

the potential for realisation of an unwanted event, which is a function of the hazard, its probability and its

consequences
3.22
system variables

those parameters which are functions of time and which are used in a fire safety engineering evaluation

They are listed under the category Simulation Dynamics in the global information.

3.23
travel distance

the actual distance that needs to be travelled by a person from any point within a building to the nearest exit, having

regard to the layout of walls, partitions and fittings
3.24
trial design parameters

design parameters (prescribed and estimated) chosen for the purpose of making a fire safety engineering analysis

on one (trial) design
3.25
validation (as applied to fire calculation models)

process of determining the correctness of the assumptions and governing equations implemented in a model when

applied to the entire class of problems addressed by the model
3.26
verification (as applied to mathematical fire models)

process of checking a mathematical fire model for correct physical representation and mathematical accuracy for a

specific application or range of applications

The process involves checking the theoretical basis, the appropriateness of the assumptions used in the model, and

that the model contains no unacceptable mathematical errors and has been shown, by comparison with

experimental data, to provide predictions of the course of events in similar fire situations with a known accuracy.

4 The global approach
4.1 General

Traditional approaches to achieving fire safety in buildings have involved the adoption of a number of complex and

often disjointed requirements for different components of the fire safety system. The value of each to the overall

design objective is unknown and the complementary or compensating nature of these provisions cannot be

quantified.

As a result of the large and rapid increase in innovative and diversified building design, traditional regulations based

on "prescription" rather than "performance" have proved to be restrictive and inflexible. Consequently, more

fundamental approaches to the provision of fire safety in buildings have had to be pursued. A more detailed

discussion of the background to the application of fire safety engineering and its benefits is given in annex A.

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This part of ISO/TR 13387 looks at the provision of fire safety in buildings from a fundamental viewpoint, and it

ignores the constraints that may be applied to building design as a consequence of various national regulations or

codes. The fact that a building has been designed adopting the approach given in this document does not,

therefore, mean that it will satisfy the requirements of national regulations. The document may help to discipline

engineered approaches to fire safety design and to ensure that all the essential requirements and aspects of design

have been properly considered and addressed, and that, having established the objectives of design, these are

demonstrated as being satisfied in an acceptable and quantified manner.

The approach adopted in this part of ISO/TR 13387 is to consider the global objective of fire safety design and to

give guidance on the nature of criteria which may be appropriate to demonstrating compliance with these objectives.

The global design is sub-divided into what are called "subsystems" of the total design, and the document ensures

that the inter-relationship and interdependence of the various subsystems are appreciated, and that the

consequences of all the events in any one subsystem on all other subsystems are identified and addressed.

In addition to life safety, the principles and methodology in this document can also be used to determine property

loss, business interruption, contamination of the environment and destruction of heritage. The Technical Report can

be used, for instance, to predict a contents response-time profile which enables the amount of fire loss (direct,

consequential, etc.) to be determined from a knowledge of the location, value, damageability and salvageability of

the individual items of building contents and spatial distribution of smoke, heat, water and corrosive products.

4.2 Summary of the fire safety engineering assessment process

Fire safety engineering assessment involves the following steps (the basic process is illustrated in Figure 1):

a) Qualitative design review (QDR):

The review is qualitative because not all the values of the design parameters will be known and engineering

judgement will need to be applied to obtain them. It is also qualitative because judgement will need to be used

to decide on a limited number of important fire scenarios for later quantified analysis.

For a large project, it is preferable for the QDR to be undertaken by a team which includes the design team and

the approval authorities.
More information on the QDR is given in annex B.
It is necessary to:

 define fire safety objectives and acceptance criteria — possibly in consultation with the approval

authorities;

 establish the prescribed design parameters by reviewing the architectural design and the proposed fire

safety features;

characterise the building and its occupants, i.e. estimate design parameters not given by the architect;

 identify potential fire hazards and their possible consequences;
 select those fire scenarios which should form part of the quantified analysis;
 establish trial fire safety designs;
 indicate appropriate methods of analysis.
b) Quantitative analysis of design:

 carry out a time-based quantified analysis using the appropriate subsystems — or use another appropriate

method of analysis as indicated in the QDR, making sure that, wherever possible, mathematical models

are verified (see ISO/TR13387-3).
c) Assess the outcome of the analysis against the safety criteria:
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 Repeat the analysis if the acceptance criteria not satisfied (e.g. in a life safety assessment) by controlling

the fire process to increase the time available for safe escape (where appropriate) and/or reducing the time

required to escape.
d) Report and present the results.
Figure 1 — Basic fire safety design process
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4.3 The subsystems of the design
4.3.1 General

The evaluation of the fire safety design of a building is broken down, to simplify the process, into five separate

components of the system (subsystems denoted by SS1 to SS5) as follows:
4.3.2 SS1 — Initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents

This subsystem provides a framework for critically reviewing the suitability of an engineering method for assessing

the potential for the initiation and development of fire and generation of fire effluents. The subsystem may also

provide means to assess the effectiveness of fire safety measures meant to reduce the probability of ignition, to

control fire development, and to reduce accumulation of heat, smoke, and toxic products or products causing non-

thermal damage. Methods for calculating the effects of the design fires for use in the design and assessment of fire

safety of a building are also addressed.
4.3.3 SS2 — Movement of fire effluents

This subsystem provides a framework for critically reviewing the suitability of an engineering method for assessing

the potential for movement of fire effluents during the course of a fire. The subsystem may also provide means to

assess the effectiveness of fire safety measures meant to reduce the adverse effects of the movement of fire

effluents. Methods for calculating the effects of the design fires for use in the design and assessment of fire safety

of a building are also addressed.

The subsystem draws on other subsystems for a prescription or characterisation of the fire. The predictions of the

fire development and the production of fire effluents is provided by subsystem 1. The prediction of the spread of

smoke and flames through openings is addressed by subsystem 2 while the spread of fire through barriers is

provided by subsystem 3.
4.3.4 SS3 — Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of origin

This subsystem provides a framework for critically reviewing the suitability of an engineering method (hand

calculation, computer method or fire test) for assessing the structural response and the potential for fire spread in a

given situation (application). This entails an analysis of the unit physical and chemical processes involved in each of

the modes of fire spread (e.g. room to room, building to building, room to external items). The availability (and

reliability) of the relevant input data for each unit process is also addressed.

The subsystem draws on other subsystems for a prescription or characterisation of the fire. Subsystem 1, for

example, provides predictions of the time to flashover and the temperature history in the room of fire origin. These

data, along with the description of the building assemblies (trial design parameters) are employed by the subsystem

to predict the likelihood (and time) of fire spread, and the likelihood (and time) of structural collapse.

...

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