Information technology -- Method for the determination of ink cartridge yield for monochrome inkjet printers and multi-function devices that contain inkjet printer components

The scope of this document is limited to the evaluation of black ink cartridge page yield for ink-containing cartridges (i.e. integrated ink cartridges and ink cartridges without integrated printheads) for monochrome inkjet print systems. This document can also be applied to the printer component of any multifunctional device that has a digital input printing path, including multi-function devices that contain inkjet printer components. Both liquid and solid ink products can be tested using this document. This document is only intended for the measurement of ink cartridge page yield when printing on plain paper. No other claims can be made from this testing regarding quality, reliability, etc. This document can be used to measure the yield of any cartridge that is used in a significant amount during the printing of the test page defined in ISO/IEC 19752. This document is not for use with printers whose minimum printable size is equal to or greater than A3 or for printers designed or configured to print photos (for example, maximum printable size less than A4 or a printer configuration intended for photo only printing). In addition, this document only applies to drop on demand printing systems. NOTE Integrated ink cartridge is a cartridge that includes at least: an ink containment part, an ink deposition mechanism and an ink transport part (see ISO/IEC 29142-1).

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ISO/IEC 22505:2019 - Information technology -- Method for the determination of ink cartridge yield for monochrome inkjet printers and multi-function devices that contain inkjet printer components
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 22505
First edition
2019-12
Information technology — Method
for the determination of ink cartridge
yield for monochrome inkjet printers
and multi-function devices that
contain inkjet printer components
Reference number
ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)
ISO/IEC 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Test parameters and conditions ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Set-up .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Sample size ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Print mode .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.4 Print environment ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.5 Paper ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.6 Maintenance .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.7 Test page ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Test methodology ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1 Testing procedure ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1.1 Flow chart .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1.2 Preparation ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.3 Installation of test cartridges ................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.4 Testing ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.5 End of cartridge life procedure ........................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Procedure for handling streaks ................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2.2 Nozzle cleaning ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Procedure for handling a defective cartridge, printhead or printer failure ....................................... 8

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 Defective cartridge ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.3 Defective printhead ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.4 Defective printer .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Determination of the declared yield value and declaration ................................................................................... 9

6.1 Yield of cartridges ................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.2 Test data reporting .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Declaration of the yield .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Examples of fade .......................................................................................................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Example of streaks ..................................................................................................................................................13

Annex C (normative) Testing reporting form ...........................................................................................................................................14

Annex D (informative) Process flowchart.....................................................................................................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http:// patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 28, Office equipment.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)
Introduction

The purpose of this document is to provide a process for determining the ink cartridge yield for a given

monochrome inkjet print system (i.e. integrated ink cartridges and ink cartridges without integrated

printheads) using a standard test page.

In the case where a cartridge set can be used in multiple printer models, only one yield test needs to be

performed as long as the difference between printer models does not impact yield.

NOTE A cartridge supplier can choose to use more than one market identifier for a single physical cartridge.

In this case, only one yield test is performed as long as there are no differences in the cartridges other than

market identifiers.
This document prescribes the following:

— the test method that manufacturers, test labs, etc., use to determine ink cartridge yield;

— the method for determination of allowable declared yield value from the test results;

— the appropriate method of describing the yield of cartridges in documentation supplied to the

consumer by the manufacturer.

The cartridge yield is determined by an end of life judgement, or signalled with either of two

phenomena: fade, caused by depletion of ink in the cartridge or automatic printing stop caused by an ink

out detection function.

It is envisioned that one of the uses of this document is for the calculation of cost per page (CPP). While

this document measures a portion of this cost, it is not used as the sole component of CPP calculation.

Additional factors are considered for CPP calculations.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)
Information technology — Method for the determination
of ink cartridge yield for monochrome inkjet printers
and multi-function devices that contain inkjet printer
components
1 Scope

The scope of this document is limited to the evaluation of black ink cartridge page yield for ink-

containing cartridges (i.e. integrated ink cartridges and ink cartridges without integrated printheads)

for monochrome inkjet print systems. This document can also be applied to the printer component of

any multifunctional device that has a digital input printing path, including multi-function devices that

contain inkjet printer components. Both liquid and solid ink products can be tested using this document.

This document is only intended for the measurement of ink cartridge page yield when printing on plain

paper. No other claims can be made from this testing regarding quality, reliability, etc.

This document can be used to measure the yield of any cartridge that is used in a significant amount

during the printing of the test page defined in ISO/IEC 19752.

This document is not for use with printers whose minimum printable size is equal to or greater than A3

or for printers designed or configured to print photos (for example, maximum printable size less than

A4 or a printer configuration intended for photo only printing). In addition, this document only applies

to drop on demand printing systems.

NOTE Integrated ink cartridge is a cartridge that includes at least: an ink containment part, an ink deposition

mechanism and an ink transport part (see ISO/IEC 29142-1).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 19752, Information technology — Office equipment — Method for the determination of toner

cartridge yield for monochromatic electrophotographic printers and multi-function devices that contain

printer components
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)
3.1
fade

phenomenon in which a significant reduction in uniformity occurs due to ink depletion

Note 1 to entry: In this test, fade is defined as a noticeably lighter, 3 mm or greater, gap located in the text, in

the bar chart, or in the boxes around the periphery of the test page (3.9). The determination of the change in

lightness is to be made referenced to the 25 page printed for each cartridge in testing. For examples of fade,

please consult Annex A.

Note 2 to entry: In some printer systems, fade can occur prematurely due to the way that ink is provided to

the printing system. If a printer exhibits fade, a five-minute pause is allowed to provide for recovery of the ink

delivery system and printing can continue. If fade appears on the next page, then the cartridge is judged at end

of life (3.7) and the additional page printed is not counted in the yield calculation. If fade does not appear on the

next page, then printing can continue until the next fade or ink out (3.6) is encountered and the additional page

shall be counted.
3.2
streaks

very thin lines of colourant or missing colourant, other than intended in the test document

Note 1 to entry: Streaks differ from fade (3.1) in the width and severity of increase in lightness, L*, or reduction

in density. Streaks can appear due to a number of reasons, thermal issues and clogged nozzles being two of the

main causes. If these streaks occur in three consecutive test pages (3.9), then a streak removal operation (3.2) is

required. For examples of streaks, please consult Annex B.
3.3
streak removal operation
procedure used to restore the print performance by removing streaks (3.2)

Note 1 to entry: If streaks are observed on 15 consecutive test pages (3.9), first the printer can be left idle for five

minutes. Then an additional 15 test pages are printed. If the streaks are still observed, then a streak removal

operation is conducted according to the latest printer manufacturer documentation. Due to the significant

amount of ink that is used for cleaning, the maximum permissible number of times that the streak removal

operation can be used on a given cartridge is prescribed in 5.2.2.

Note 2 to entry: All test pages printed during this process are included in the page count for determining the yield.

3.4
printhead alignment operation
function that aligns newly installed printheads

Note 1 to entry: If it is mandatory according to the latest printer manufacturer documentation, this operation is

performed during testing. The pages used in the alignment procedure are not counted in the measurement of yield.

3.5
ink low

warning generated by the printing system when it has determined that the amount of ink is such that a

cartridge change may be required soon
Note 1 to entry: It does not indicate that the system is out of ink.
3.6
ink out

signal generated by the printing system when the useable ink in the system is depleted and the printer

stops printing
3.7
end of life
condition determined by one of two mechanisms: fade (3.1) or ink out (3.6)

Note 1 to entry: In the event that the printer can continue printing after ink out is reported, the cartridge is still

considered at end of life.
2 © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)
3.8
monochrome inkjet printer

printer only capable of printing black and not configurable to print another colourant

Note 1 to entry: More than one black cartridge can be installed simultaneously if they have the same cartridge

identifier.
3.9
test page
test file that is printed as a single job
Note 1 to entry: The test page refers to ISO/IEC 19752.
3.10
individual cartridge yield

value determined by counting the number of test pages (3.9) printed between cartridge installation and

end of life (3.7)
3.11
declared cartridge yield

value at or below the lower 90 % confidence bound of the mean as prescribed in 6.1

3.12
non-colourant ink

material designed for liquid state deposition on a substrate, such as gloss optimizers and fixatives, not

containing a colourant
3.13
black ink cartridge
cartridge containing black colourant and no other colourant
Note 1 to entry: Black ink cartridge may contain non-colourant ink (3.12).
4 Test parameters and conditions
4.1 Set-up

Place the printer on a horizontal surface and set-up the printer according to the installation

guide provided in the printer user’s manual. Use the most recent printer driver available from the

manufacturer's website or the supplied driver with the printer. The driver version shall be specified

on the test report. Cartridge installation shall be completed following the instructions in the cartridge

installation guide. If there is a contradiction between the printer and cartridge manuals for the

cartridge installation, the cartridge manual shall take precedence except if changes are recommended

for printer or driver settings.

At the start of the test, all printers shall be set-up using a priming cartridge to ensure that the ink used

in testing is primarily for printing, not for initial priming/cleaning. After the printer is set-up according

to the manufacturer's instructions, the priming cartridge shall be used to print a minimum of 25 copies

of the standard test page. The priming cartridge shall be removed and replaced with a new cartridge

that is used for testing yield. The pages printed during this step are not counted towards yield. Even if

required by the printer, printhead alignment does not have to be performed on the priming cartridges.

The number of pages used in the priming operation shall be included in the test report.

All image and print quality modifiers shall be at their factory pre-set configuration for the printer and

default- installed condition for the driver. If auto media detection is available on the printer, it shall be

disabled and media-type set to plain paper. This is to avoid inaccurate sensing of the media. If the printer

and driver settings differ, then the driver defaults shall be used. Any user selectable ink conservation

modes, (e.g. draft) shall be disabled during testing.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)

For printers that default to duplex printing, the default shall be overridden and the printer shall be set

to simplex for yield testing.

To assure that the test page is printed correctly, any page size modifiers such as Fit to Page and font

substitution shall be turned off. The test page shall be printed using the fonts embedded in the test

page and shall be printed on the page in a size corresponding to the dimensions in the test page defined

by ISO/IEC 19752. Page placement modifiers such as page centering can be used to place the image

properly on the page.

To facilitate automated testing, the test page may be pre-generated using the printer driver. This is

often accomplished using a print to file command. This method is only valid if it does not affect the

measured yield. If a pre-generated file is used, it shall be noted on the test report.

If the printer under test uses an internal PDF interpreter, it is ok to use it as long as the printer defaults

are set to not substitute fonts. If the internal interpreter is used, this shall be noted on the report.

©1)

The application software (for example, Adobe Acrobat Reader ), printer driver and printer can have

page size modifier functions, such as Fit to Page. Ensure that all of these functions are disabled.

4.2 Sample size

The sample size shall be determined such that a minimum of three physical cartridges are tested in each

of three printers. Therefore, the minimum number of tested cartridges is 9 (3 cartridges × 3 printers).

When testing additional engines and cartridges above the minimum, an effort shall be made to test

an equal number of cartridges on each engine. For example, if an additional engine were to be tested

then the minimum number of cartridges to be tested would be 12 (3 cartridges × 4 printers) for a one-

cartridge system.

When testing cartridges for a commercially available product, it is recommended that cartridges and

printers be procured from various sources or sampled from different production lots. The printers and

cartridges shall be within their useful life as stated in their user’s manual.
It is recommended that additional engines and/or cartridges be used in testing.
4.3 Print mode

For reporting cartridge yield, the test shall be run in semi-continuous simplex printing and set in the

driver default print mode at or near rated print speed. Each copy of the test page shall be printed as

a separate one-page print job. This allows for some intra-job servicing and calibration to take place.

Additional pauses can take place due to paper refills and idle time due to end of workdays.

NOTE 1 This does not mean that the printer is required to stop between printed jobs.

Inkjet printers commonly need to service the printing system after a number of prints, or when the

device has been powered down or not used for a given amount of time. This servicing uses ink that

could have been used to print additional pages. It is realized that customers do not normally print in a

continuous fashion, but these changes are made to decrease testing time and increase the repeatability

of the testing process.

NOTE 2 Depending on use conditions, the yield experienced by a given user can vary significantly from the

yield measured by this test method.

1) Adobe Acrobat Reader© is the trade name of a product supplied by Adobe Systems Incorporated. This

information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO

of the product named.
4 © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)
4.4 Print environment

The temperature can have a profound effect on test results. For this reason, the test shall be carried out

according to the following test conditions:
Temperature: Testing room average 23,0 °C ± 2 °C
Readings to be made with a running average of 1 h with readings recorded
at least every 15 min, all running average temperatures are to be between
20,0 °C and 26,0 °C.

EXAMPLE An example of the calculation of the temperature is shown in Table 1 for tempera-

ture readings taken on 15-minute intervals for the testing of one cartridge.
Table 1 — Running temperature calculation example
Testing Room
T T T T T T T T T T T T Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Temperature T 24,0 23,4 20,5 24,2 23,6 22,0 25,5 24,7 22,1 20,8 22,0 23,5 23,0
Ru nni n g aver a ge
temperature N/A N/A N/A 23,0 22,9 22,6 23,8 24,0 23,6 23,3 22,4 22,1
Running average temperature= (T + T + T + T )/4
i-3 i-2 i-1 i
Testing room average = (T + T + … + T )/12
1 2 12

From this, the testing room average would be 23,0 °C, the maximum running average reading 24,0 °C and the

minimum running average reading 22,1 °C. These values can be found highlighted in Table 1. It shall be noted

that the testing room average for temperature are averages of all measurements, not the running averages.

Environmental conditions shall be included in the test report. The maximum and minimum running

averages for temperature shall be reported for each cartridge tested. Please see Annex C for a sample

reporting form.

All materials shall be temperature acclimated to the test room environment. Prior to testing, the printer,

paper and cartridges shall be acclimated to the above conditions. Before acclimation, packaging and

shipping materials shall be opened with care to prevent damage to the cartridges during acclimation.

Paper may be acclimated in the ream wrapper.

Any water condensation shall be avoided when printer, paper and cartridges are carried in the test

environment.
4.5 Paper

The paper used in this test shall represent a common medium weight paper and shall conform to the

printer’s list of approved papers. The paper manufacturer, weight and size, A4 or equivalent, used in

the test are noted on the report. If auto media detection is available on the printer, it shall be disabled,

and the media type set to plain paper. The auto-detect process can have a significant effect on the yield

performance.
4.6 Maintenance

Printer maintenance shall be performed per the printer and cartridge user’s manual.

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/IEC 22505:2019(E)
4.7 Test page

The test page, consisting of a single test page, is outlined and specified in ISO/IEC 19752. The test shall

be conducted using the most recent official electronic test page as the input. The most recent official

test page can also be located at https:// standards .iso .org/ iso -iec/ 22505/ ed -1/ en/ . Failure to use the

exact file specifications invalidates test results. In addition to the test page a publicly available PDF

reader is used in conjunction with the printer driver to generate the printer input and send the file

directly to the printer. The method used for connection between the host computer and the printer

shall be recorded on the test report. For automated testing, a pre-generated print file can be used if

the results are equivalent to direct printing methods. This shall be recorded on the test report. The

version of the test page, the printer driver version and the PDF reader version shall be included in the

test report. Before starting the test, a sample test page shall be printed to check the image and assure

the proper size. The proper size for the test page is specified in ISO/IEC 19752.

There are several PDF-reader versions available; each version can have an impact on the yield results. It

is recommended that the latest version of the chosen PDF reader be used for testing.

To reduce test variability due to other programs, it is recommended that test page generation be

conducted on a printer with a “clean” install of the operating system (OS) with only the printer driver,

PDF reader and any test control software installed. Testing has shown that old installed drivers from

the same or different printers can affect the yield results.

To aid in counting and tracking pages, a header or footer can be added to the test page. Every attempt

shall be made to reduce the size of this addition to minimize the effect on calculated yield. If this

information is included in the test page, it shall be documented in the test report.

The host computer environment such as OS, RAM size, CPU type and application software may affect

the yield test results, the computer environment r
...

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