Cranes — Proof of competence of steel structures

ISO 20332:2016 sets forth general conditions, requirements, methods, and parameter values for performing proof-of-competence determinations of the steel structures of cranes based upon the limit state method. It is intended to be used together with the loads and load combinations of the applicable parts of ISO 8686. ISO 20332:2016 is general and covers cranes of all types. Other International Standards can give specific proof-of-competence requirements for particular crane types. Proof-of-competence determinations, by theoretical calculations and/or testing, are intended to prevent hazards related to the performance of the structure by establishing the limits of strength, e.g. yield, ultimate, fatigue, and brittle fracture. According to ISO 8686‑1 there are two general approaches to proof-of-competence calculations: the limit state method, employing partial safety factors, and the allowable stress method, employing a global safety factor. Though it does not preclude the validity of allowable stress methodology, ISO 20332 deals only with the limit state method. Proof-of-competence calculations for components of accessories (e.g. handrails, stairs, walkways, cabins) are not covered by this International Standard. However, the influence of such attachments on the main structure needs to be considered.

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Vérification d'aptitude des charpentes en acier

ISO 20332:2016 détermine les conditions générales, les exigences, les méthodes et les valeurs de paramètres pour effectuer les déterminations de vérification d'aptitude des charpentes en acier des appareils de levage à charge suspendue, en se basant sur la méthode des états limites. Elle est destinée à être utilisée conjointement avec les parties applicables de l'ISO 8686 concernant les charges et combinaisons de charges. ISO 20332:2016 est générale et couvre tous les types d'appareils de levage à charge suspendue. D'autres Normes internationales peuvent donner des exigences spécifiques de vérification d'aptitude pour des types particuliers d'appareils de levage. Des vérifications d'aptitude, par calculs théoriques et/ou essais, sont destinées à prévenir les risques en rapport avec la performance de la charpente en établissant les limites de résistance, par exemple élastique, à la rupture, à la fatigue, à la rupture fragile. Selon l'ISO 8686‑1, il existe deux approches générales pour les calculs de vérification d'aptitude: ce sont la méthode des états limites, utilisant des facteurs partiels de sécurité, et la méthode des contraintes admissibles, utilisant un facteur global de sécurité. Bien que l'ISO 20332 n'empêche pas la méthode des contraintes admissibles, elle traite uniquement de la méthode des états limites. ISO 20332:2016 ne couvre pas les calculs de vérification d'aptitude des accessoires (par exemple mains courantes, escaliers, passerelles, cabines). Cependant l'influence de telles fixations sur la charpente principale nécessite d'être prise en compte.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-May-2016
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
12-Oct-2021
Completion Date
12-Oct-2021
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20332
Second edition
2016-06-01
Corrected version
2018-11
Cranes — Proof of competence of steel
structures
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Vérification d'aptitude des
charpentes en acier
Reference number
ISO 20332:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(E)
Contents

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1  Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms .......................................................................... 2

4  General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.1  General principles ........................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2  Documentation ................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.3  Alternative methods ....................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4  Materials of structural members ............................................................................................................... 8

4.5  Bolted connections ....................................................................................................................................... 11

4.5.1  Bolt materials ................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.5.2  General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.5.3  Shear and bearing connections ............................................................................................................... 11

4.5.4  Friction grip type (slip resistant) connections .................................................................................. 12

4.5.5  Connections loaded in tension ................................................................................................................. 12

4.6  Pinned connections ...................................................................................................................................... 12

4.7  Welded connections .................................................................................................................................... 12

4.8  Proof-of-competence for structural members and connections ................................................. 13

5  Proof of static strength ............................................................................................................................... 13

5.1  General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.2  Limit design stresses and forces ............................................................................................................. 14

5.2.1  General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

5.2.2  Limit design stress in structural members ......................................................................................... 14

5.2.3  Limit design forces in bolted connections ........................................................................................... 15

5.2.4  Limit design forces in pinned connections .......................................................................................... 23

n stresses in welded connections ..................................................................................... 27

5.2.5  Limit desig

5.3  Execution of the proof ................................................................................................................................. 29

5.3.1  Proof for structural members .................................................................................................................. 29

5.3.2  Proof for bolted connections .................................................................................................................... 29

5.3.3  Proof for pinned connections ................................................................................................................... 29

5.3.4  Proof for welded connections .................................................................................................................. 30

6  Proof of fatigue strength ............................................................................................................................ 31

6.1  General ............................................................................................................................................................. 31

6.2  Limit design stresses ................................................................................................................................... 32

6.2.1  Characteristic fatigue strength ................................................................................................................ 32

6.2.2  Weld qualit y .................................................................................................................................................... 33

6.2.3  Requirements for fatigue testing ............................................................................................................ 34

6.3  Stress histories .............................................................................................................................................. 35

6.3.1  Determination of stress histories ........................................................................................................... 35

6.3.2  Frequency of occurrence of stress cycles ............................................................................................. 35

6.3.3  Stress history parameter ........................................................................................................................... 36

6.3.4  Determination of stress history class, S ............................................................................................... 39

6.4  Execution of the proof ................................................................................................................................. 40

6.5  Determination of the limit design stress range ................................................................................. 40

6.5.1  Applicable methods ..................................................................................................................................... 40

6.5.2  Direct use of stress history parameter ................................................................................................. 40

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
iii
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ISO 20332:2016(E)

6.5.3  Use of S classes .............................................................................................................................................. 41

6.5.4  Independent concurrent normal and/or shear stresses ............................................................... 42

7  Proof of elastic stability ............................................................................................................................. 43

7.1  General ............................................................................................................................................................. 43

7.2  Lateral buckling of members loaded in compression ..................................................................... 43

7.2.1  Critical buckling load .................................................................................................................................. 43

7.2.2  Limit compressive design force .............................................................................................................. 44

7.3  Buckling of plate fields subjected to compressive and shear stresses ..................................... 46

7.3.1  General ............................................................................................................................................................. 46

7.3.2  Limit design stress with respect to longitudinal stress σ ............................................................ 48

7.3.3  Limit design stress with respect to transverse stress σ ............................................................... 50

7.3.4  Limit design stress with respect to shear stress τ ........................................................................... 51

7.4  Execution of the proof ................................................................................................................................ 52

7.4.1  Members loaded in compression ........................................................................................................... 52

7.4.2  Plate fields ...................................................................................................................................................... 52

Annex A (informative) Limit design shear force, F , in shank per bolt and per shear plane

v,Rd

for multiple shear plane connections ................................................................................................... 54

Annex B (informative) Preloaded bolts ............................................................................................................ 55

Annex C (normative) Design weld stresses, σ and τ ......................................................................... 57

w,Sd w,Sd

Annex D (normative) Values of slope constant, m, and characteristic fatigue strength, Δσ ,

Δτ ...................................................................................................................................................................... 61

Annex E (normative) Calculated values of limit design stress range, Δσ and Δσ ...................... 85

Rd Rd,1

Annex F (informative) Evaluation of stress cycles — Example ................................................................. 87

Annex G (informative) Calculation of stiffnesses for connections loaded in tension ....................... 89

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 92

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally

carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a

technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.

International organizations, governmental and non‐governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in

the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all

matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO)

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following
URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 96, Cranes, Subcommittee SC 10, Design

principles and requirements.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 20332:2008), which has been technically

revised.

This corrected version of ISO 20332:2016 incorporates a correction in Formula (67).

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20332:2016(E)
Cranes — Proof of competence of steel structures
1 Scope

This International Standard sets forth general conditions, requirements, methods, and parameter values

for performing proof‐of‐competence determinations of the steel structures of cranes based upon the

limit state method. It is intended to be used together with the loads and load combinations of the

applicable parts of ISO 8686.

This International Standard is general and covers cranes of all types. Other International Standards can

give specific proof‐of‐competence requirements for particular crane types.

Proof‐of‐competence determinations, by theoretical calculations and/or testing, are intended to

prevent hazards related to the performance of the structure by establishing the limits of strength, e.g.

yield, ultimate, fatigue, and brittle fracture.

According to ISO 8686‐1 there are two general approaches to proof‐of‐competence calculations: the

limit state method, employing partial safety factors, and the allowable stress method, employing a global

safety factor. Though it does not preclude the validity of allowable stress methodology, ISO 20332 deals

only with the limit state method.

Proof‐of‐competence calculations for components of accessories (e.g. handrails, stairs, walkways,

cabins) are not covered by this International Standard. However, the influence of such attachments on

the main structure needs to be considered.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 148‐1:2009, Metallic materials — Charpy pendulum impact test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 273:1979, Fasteners — Clearance holes for bolts and screws

ISO 286‐2:2010, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — ISO code system for tolerances on linear

sizes — Part 2: Tables of standard tolerance classes and limit deviations for holes and shafts. Corrected by

ISO 286‐2:2010/Cor 1:2013.
ISO 404:1992, Steel and steel products — General technical delivery requirements

ISO 898‐1:2013, Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel — Part 1: Bolts,

screws and studs with specified property classes — Coarse thread and fine pitch thread

ISO 4042:1999, Fasteners — Electroplated coatings

ISO 4301‐1:2016, Cranes and lifting appliances — Classification — Part 1: General

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(E)
ISO 4306‐1:2007, Cranes — Vocabulary — Part 1: General

ISO 5817:2014, Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding

excluded) — Quality levels for imperfections
ISO 7452:2013, Hot-rolled steel plates — Tolerances on dimensions and shape

ISO 7788:1985, Steel — Surface finish of hot-rolled plates and wide flats — Delivery requirements

ISO 8686‐1:2012, Cranes — Design principles for loads and load combinations — Part 1: General

ISO 8686‐2, Cranes — Design principles for loads and load combinations — Part 2: Mobile cranes

ISO 8686‐3, Cranes — Design principles for loads and load combinations— Part 3: Tower cranes

ISO 8686‐4, Cranes — Design principles for loads and load combinations— Part 4: Jib cranes

ISO 8686‐5, Cranes — Design principles for loads and load combinations— Part 5: Overhead travelling

and portal bridge cranes

ISO 9013:2002, Thermal cutting — Classification of thermal cuts — Geometrical product specification and

quality tolerances

ISO 9587:2007, Metallic and other inorganic coatings — Pretreatments of iron or steel to reduce the risk

of hydrogen embrittlement

ISO 12100, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Risk assessment and

risk reduction

ISO 15330:1999, Fasteners — Preloading test for the detection of hydrogen embrittlement — Parallel

bearing surface method

ISO 17659:2002, Welding — Multilingual terms for welded joints with illustrations

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12100, ISO 17659,

ISO 4306‐1:2007, Clause 6, and the following terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms (see

Table 1) apply.
3.1
grade of steel

marking that defines the strength of steel, usually defining yield stress, f, sometimes also ultimate

strength, f
3.2
quality of steel
marking that defines the impact toughness and test temperature of steel
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20332:2016(E)
Table 1 — Main symbols and abbreviations used in this International Standard
Symbol Description
A Cross‐section
A Equivalent area for calculation
A Net cross‐sectional area at bolt or pin holes
A Minor area of the bolt
A Stress area of the bolt
a Geometric dimension
a Geometric dimension for weld penetration
a Effective weld thickness
b Geometric dimension
c Geometric dimension
D Diameter of available cylinder of clamped material
D Inner diameter of hollow pin
D Outer diameter of hollow pin
d Diameter (shank of bolt, pin)
d Diameter of the hole
d Diameter of the contact area of the bolt head
d Diameter of the hole
E Modulus of elasticity
e, e Edge distances
1 2
F Force
F Tensile force in bolt
F Limit design bearing force
b,Rd
F , F Design bearing force
b,Sd bi,Sd
ΔF Additional force
F Reduction in the compression force due to external tension
F Limit design tensile force
cs,Rd
F Limit force
F External force (on bolted connection)
e,t
F Characteristic value (force)
F Preloading force in bolt
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Symbols Description
F Design preloading force
p,d
F Limit design force
F Design force of the element
F Limit design slip force per bolt and friction interface
s,Rd
F , F Limit design tensile forces per bolt
t1,Rd t2,Rd
F External tensile force per bolt
t,Sd
F Limit design shear force per bolt/pin and shear plane
v,Rd
F Design shear force per bolt/pin and shear plane
v,Sd
F Acting normal/shear force
σ,τ
f Out‐of‐plane imperfection of plate field
f Limit design compressive longitudinal stress
b,Rd,x
f Limit design compressive transverse stress
b,Rd,y
f Limit design buckling shear stress
b,Rd,τ
f Limit stress
f Characteristic value (stress)
f Limit design stress
f Ultimate strength of material
f Ultimate strength of bolts
f Ultimate strength of the weld
f Limit design weld stress
w, Rd
f Yield stress of material or 0,2 % offset yield strength
f Yield stress of bolts
f Yield stress (minimum value) of base material or member
f Yield stress of pins
h Thickness of workpiece
h Distance between weld and contact area of acting load
I Moment of inertia
K Stiffness (slope) of bolt
K Stiffness (slope) of flanges
k Stress spectrum factor based on m of the detail under consideration
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20332:2016(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Symbols Description
k* Specific spectrum ratio factor
k , k Buckling factors for plate fields
σx τ
L Length of compressed member
l Effective clamped length
l Gauge length for imperfection of plate field
l Effective weld length
l Weld length
l Effective length for tension without threat
l Effective length for tension with threat
M Limit design bending moment
M Design bending moment
m (Negative inverse) slope constant of log σ/log N curve
N Number of stress cycles to failure by fatigue
N Compressive force
N Critical buckling load of compressed member
N Limit design compressive force
N Design compressive force
N Number of cycles at the reference point
ref
N Total number of occurrences
NC Notch class
NDT Non‐destructive testing
n Number of stress cycles with stress amplitude of range i
n Number of equally loaded bolts
P Probability of survival
p, p Distances between bolt centres
1 2
Q Shear force
q Impact toughness parameter
R Design resistance
r Radius of wheel
S Class of stress history parameter, s
S Design stresses or forces
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Symbols Description
s Stress history parameter
T Temperature
TIG Tungsten inert gas
t Thickness
U Class of working cycles
u Shape factor
v Diameter ratio
W Elastic section modulus
α Characteristic factor for bearing connection
α Characteristic factor for limit weld stress
γ Fatigue strength specific resistance factor
γ General resistance factor
γ Partial safety factor
γ Total resistance factor
γ Total resistance factor of bolt
γ Total resistance factor for tension on sections with holes
γ Total resistance factor of members
γ Total resistance factor of pins
γ Total resistance factor of slip‐resistance connection
γ Specific resistance factor
γ Specific resistance factor of bolt
γ Specific resistance factor of members
γ Specific resistance factor of pins
γ Specific resistance factor of slip‐resistance connection
γ Specific resistance factor for tension on sections with holes
Δδ Additional elongation
δ Elongation from preloading
Θ Incline of diagonal members
κ Dispersion angle
λ Width of contact area in weld direction
µ Slip factor
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20332:2016(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Symbols Description
ν Relative total number of stress cycles (normalized)
ν Ratio of diameters
σ Indicate the respective stress
Δ Stress range
Δσ Stress range i
Maximum stress range
σ Lower extreme value of stress cycle
Δσ Characteristic fatigue strength (normal stress)
σ Reference stress for plate buckling

σ Constant mean stress selected for one‐parameter classification of stress cycles

Δσ Limit design stress range (normal)
Δσ Limit design stress range for k* = 1
Rd,1
σ Design stress (normal)
Δσ Design stress range (normal)
σ Design compressive longitudinal stress
Sd,x
σ Design compressive transverse stress
Sd,y
σ Upper extreme value of stress cycle
σ Design weld stress (normal)
w, Sd
σ, σ Normal stress component in direction x, y
x y
Maximum stress amplitude
min σ, max σ Extreme values of stresses
τ Shear stress
Δτ Characteristic fatigue strength (shear stress)
τ Design stress (shear)
Δτ Design stress range (shear)
Δτ Limit design stress range (shear)
τ Design weld stress (shear)
w, Sd
ϕ Dynamic factor
Ψ Stress ratio across plate fields
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(E)
4 General
4.1 General principles

Proof‐of‐competence calculations shall be done for components, members, and details exposed to

loading or repetitive loading cycles that could cause failure, cracking, or distortion interfering with

crane functions.

NOTE See ISO 8686 for further information applicable to the various types of crane. Not all calculations are

applicable for every crane type.
4.2 Documentation

The documentation of the proof‐of‐competence calculations shall include the following:

— design assumptions including calculation models;
— applicable loads and load combinations;
— material properties;
— weld quality classes in accordance with ISO 5817;
— properties of connecting elements;
— relevant limit states;
— results of the proof‐of‐competence calculations and tests when applicable.
4.3 Alternative methods

The competence may be verified by experimental methods in addition to or in coordination with the

calculations. The magnitude and distribution of loads during tests shall correspond to the design loads

and load combinations for the relevant limit states.

Alternatively, advanced and recognized theoretical or experimental methods generally may be used,

provided that they conform to the principles of this International Standard.
4.4 Materials of structural members

It is recommended that steels in accordance with the following International Standards be used:

— ISO 630;
— ISO 6930‐1;
— ISO 4950‐1;
— ISO 4951‐1, ISO 4951‐2, and ISO 4951‐3.

Where other steels are used, the specific values of strengths f and f shall be specified. The mechanical

u y

properties and the chemical composition shall be specified in accordance with ISO 404. Furthermore,

the following conditions shall be fulfilled:
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(E)

— the design value of f shall be limited to f/1,05 for materials with f/f < 1,05;

y u u y

— the percentage elongation at fracture A ≥ 7 % on a gauge length LS56, 5 (where S is the

original cross‐sectional area);

— the weldability or non‐weldability of the material shall be specified and, if intended for welding,

weldability demonstrated;

— if the material is intended for cold forming, the pertinent parameters shall be specified.

To allow the use of nominal values of plate thicknesses in the proof calculations, the minus tolerance of

the plate shall be equal or better than that of class A of ISO 7452:2013. Otherwise, the actual minimum

value of plate thickness shall be used.

When verifying the grade and quality of the steel (see referenced International Standards) used for

tensile members, the sum of impact toughness parameters, q, shall be taken into account. Table 2 gives

q for various influences. The required impact energy/test temperatures in dependence of q are

shown in Table 3 and shall be specified by the steel manufacturer on the basis of ISO 148‐1.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(E)
Table 2 — Impact toughness parameters, q
i Influence q
1 Operating temperature T (°C) 0 ≤ T 0
−10 ≤ T < 0 1
−20 ≤ T < −10 2
−30 ≤ T < −20 3
−40 ≤ T < −30 4
−50 ≤ T < −40 6
2 f ≤ 300 0
Yield stress f (N/mm)
300 < f ≤ 460 1
460 < f ≤ 700 2
700 < f ≤ 1 000 3
1 000 < f ≤ 1 300 4
3 Material thickness t (mm) t ≤ 10 0
Equivalent thickness t for solid bars:
10 < t ≤ 20 1
20 < t ≤ 40 2
d b
40 < t ≤ 60 3
60 < t ≤ 80 4
80 < t ≤ 100 5
100 < t ≤ 125 6
d b b 125 < t ≤ 150 7
t for 1,8: t
1,8 h 1,8
4 Δσ > 125 0
Characteristic value of stress range Δσ (N/mm) (see
Annex D)
80 < Δσ ≤ 125 1
56 < Δσ ≤ 80 2
40 < Δσ ≤ 56 3
30 < Δσ ≤ 40 4
Δσ ≤ 30 5
5 Utilization of static strength (see 5.3.1) σ > 0,75 × f 0
Sd Rdσ
0,5 × f < σ −1
Rdσ Sd
and
σ ≤ 0,75 × f
Sd Rdσ
0,25 × f < σ −2
Rdσ Sd
and
σ ≤ 0,5 × f
Sd Rdσ
σ ≤ 0,25 × f −3
Sd Rdσ
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
ISO 20332:
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 20332
ISO/TC 96/SC 10 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2013-09-26 2013-12-26
Cranes — Proof of competence of steel structures

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Vérification d’aptitude des structures en acier

[Revision of first edition (ISO 20332:2008)]
ICS: 53.020.20
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 20332:2013(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20332:2013(E)
Copyright notice

This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright-protected by ISO. Except as

permitted under the applicable laws of the user’s country, neither this ISO draft nor any extract

from it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,

electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission being secured.

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Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.
Violators may be prosecuted.
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20332.2
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations ................................................................................. 2

4 General ................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 General principles ................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2 Documentation ...................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3 Alternative methods .............................................................................................................................. 7

4.4 Materials of structural members .......................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Bolted connections ............................................................................................................................. 10

4.5.1 Bolt materials ....................................................................................................................................... 10

4.5.2 General ................................................................................................................................................. 10

4.5.3 Shear and bearing connections ......................................................................................................... 10

4.5.4 Friction grip type (slip resistant) connections ................................................................................. 11

4.5.5 Connections loaded in tension .......................................................................................................... 11

4.6 Pinned connections ............................................................................................................................ 11

4.7 Welded connections ............................................................................................................................ 11

4.8 Proof of competence for structural members and connections .................................................... 12

5 Proof of static strength ....................................................................................................................... 12

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 12

5.2 Limit design stresses and forces ...................................................................................................... 13

5.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.2.2 Limit design stress in structural members ....................................................................................... 13

5.2.3 Limit design forces in bolted connections ....................................................................................... 14

5.2.4 Limit design forces in pinned connections ...................................................................................... 23

5.2.5 Limit design stresses in welded connections .................................................................................. 27

5.3 Execution of the proof ........................................................................................................................ 31

5.3.1 Proof for structural members ............................................................................................................. 31

5.3.2 Proof for bolted connections ............................................................................................................. 31

5.3.3 Proof for pinned connections ............................................................................................................ 31

5.3.4 Proof for welded connections ............................................................................................................ 32

6 Proof of fatigue strength ..................................................................................................................... 33

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 33

6.2 Limit design stresses .......................................................................................................................... 34

6.2.1 Characteristic fatigue strength .......................................................................................................... 34

6.2.2 Weld quality ......................................................................................................................................... 35

6.2.3 Requirements for fatigue testing ....................................................................................................... 36

6.3 Stress histories .................................................................................................................................... 37

6.3.1 Determination of stress histories ...................................................................................................... 37

6.3.2 Frequency of occurrence of stress cycles ....................................................................................... 37

6.3.3 Stress history parameter .................................................................................................................... 39

6.3.4 Determination of stress history class, S ........................................................................................... 41

6.4 Execution of the proof ........................................................................................................................ 42

6.5 Determination of the limit design stress range ................................................................................ 42

6.5.1 Applicable methods ............................................................................................................................ 42

6.5.2 Direct use of stress history parameter .............................................................................................. 42

6.5.3 Use of S classes .................................................................................................................................. 43

6.5.4 Independent concurrent normal and/or shear stresses .................................................................. 44

7 Proof of elastic stability ...................................................................................................................... 45

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/DIS 20332.2

7.1 General .................................................................................................................................................. 45

7.2 Lateral buckling of members loaded in compression ..................................................................... 45

7.2.1 Critical buckling load .......................................................................................................................... 45

7.2.2 Limit compressive design force ......................................................................................................... 46

7.3 Buckling of plate fields subjected to compressive and shear stresses ........................................ 49

7.3.1 General .................................................................................................................................................. 49

7.3.2 Limit design stress with respect to longitudinal stress  ............................................................ 50

7.3.3 Limit design stress with respect to transverse stress .............................................................. 52

7.3.4 Limit design stress with respect to shear stress  ......................................................................... 54

7.4 Execution of the proof ......................................................................................................................... 55

7.4.1 Members loaded in compression ....................................................................................................... 55

7.4.2 Plate fields ............................................................................................................................................ 55

Annex A (informative) Limit design shear force, F , in shank per bolt and per shear plane for

v,Rd

multiple shear plane connections ...................................................................................................... 57

Annex B (informative) Preloaded bolts ......................................................................................................... 58

Annex C (normative) Design weld stresses,  and  ................................................................... 61

w,Sd w,Sd

C.1 Butt joint ............................................................................................................................................... 61

C.2 Fillet weld .............................................................................................................................................. 62

C.3 T-joint with full and partial penetration ............................................................................................. 63

C.4 Effective distribution length under concentrated load .................................................................... 64

Annex D (normative) Values of slope constant m and characteristic fatigue strength  ,  ............... 65

Annex E (normative) Calculated values of limit design stress range,  and  .................... 85

Rd Rd,1

Annex F (informative) Evaluation of stress cycles — Example ................................................................. 87

Annex G (informative) Calculation of stiffnesses for connections loaded in tension ............................. 89

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 92

iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 20332.2
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 20332 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 96, Cranes - Safety, Subcommittee SC 10, Design

principles and requirements.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 20332:2008). All parts in the document linked

to the subject "limit states" have been technically revised. This has been a complied revision of the document.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/DIS 20332.2
Cranes — Proof of competence of steel structures
1 Scope

This International Standard sets forth general conditions, requirements, methods and parameter values for

performing proof-of-competence determinations of the steel structures of cranes based upon the limit state

method. It is intended to be used together with the loads and load combinations of the applicable parts of

ISO 8686.

This International Standard is general and covers cranes of all types. Other International Standards may give

specific proof-of-competence requirements for particular crane types.

Proofs of competence, by theoretical calculations and/or testing, are intended to prevent hazards related to

the performance of the structure by establishing the limits of strength, e.g. yield, ultimate, fatigue, brittle

fracture.

In accordance with ISO 8686-1, there are two general approaches to proof-of-competence calculations: the

limit state method employing partial safety factors, and the allowable stress method employing a global safety

factor. ISO 20332 however deals only with the limit state method.

Proof-of-competence calculations for components of accessories (e.g. hand rails, stairs, walkways, cabins)

are not covered by this International Standard. However, the influence of such attachments on the main

structure needs to be considered.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 148-1:2009, Metallic materials — Charpy pendulum impact test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 273:1979, Fasteners — Clearance holes for bolts and screws

ISO 286-2:2010, ISO system of limits and fits — Part 2: Tables of standard tolerance grades and limit

deviations for holes and shafts, corrected by ISO 286-2:1988/Cor 1:2006
ISO 404:1992, Steel and steel products — General technical delivery requirements

ISO 898-1:2009, Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel — Part 1: Bolts,

screws and studs with specified property classes — Coarse thread and fine pitch thread

ISO 4301-1:1986, Cranes and lifting appliances — Classification — Part 1: General

ISO 4306-1, Cranes — Vocabulary — Part 1: General

ISO 5817:2003, Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding

excluded) — Quality levels for imperfections, corrected by ISO 5817:2003/Cor 1:2006

ISO 7452:2013, Hot-rolled structural steel plates - Tolerances on dimensions and shape

ISO 7788:1985, Steel - Surface finish of hot-rolled plates and wide flats - Delivery requirements

ISO 8686 (all parts), Cranes — Design principles for loads and load combinations — Part 1: General

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 20332.2

ISO 9013:2002, Thermal cutting — Classification of thermal cuts — Geometrical product specification and

quality tolerances

ISO 12100-1:2004+A1:2009, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Part 1:

Basic terminology, methodology

ISO 12100-2:2004+A1:2009, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Part 2:

Technical principles

ISO 17659:2002, Welding — Multilingual terms for welded joints with illustrations

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12100-1, ISO 12100-2, ISO 17659

and ISO 4306-1:2007, Clause 6, and the following terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations (see Table 1)

apply.
3.1
grade of steel

marking that defines the strength of steel, usually defining yield stress, f , sometimes also ultimate strength, f

y u
3.2
quality of steel
marking that defines the impact toughness and test temperature of steel
Table 1 — Main symbols and abbreviations used in this International Standard
Symbols Description
A Cross-section
A Equivalent area for calculation
A Net cross-sectional area at bolt or pin holes
Minor area of the bolt
A Stress area of the bolt
a Geometric dimension
a Geometric dimension for weld penetration
Effective weld thickness
b Geometric dimension
D Diameter of available cylinder of clamped material
D Inner diameter of hollow pin
D Outer diameter of hollow pin
d Diameter (shank of bolt, pin)
d Diameter of the hole
d Diameter of the contact area of the bolt head
d Diameter of the hole
E Modulus of elasticity
e , e Edge distances
1 2
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ISO/DIS 20332.2
Table 2 (continued)
Symbols Description
F Force
F Tensile force in bolt
F Limit design bearing force
b, Rd
F ; F Design bearing force
b,Sd bi,Sd
F Additional force
F Reduction in the compression force due to external tension
F Limit design tensile force
cs,Rd
F Limit force
F External force (on bolted connection)
e,t
F Characteristic value (force)
F Preloading force in bolt
F Design preloading force
p, d
F Limit design force
F Design force of the element
F Limit design slip force per bolt and friction interface
s, Rd
F F Limit design tensile force per bolt
t1, Rd , t2, Rd
F External tensile force per bolt
t, Sd
F Limit design shear force per bolt/pin and shear plane
v, Rd
F Design shear force per bolt/pin and shear plane
v, Sd
F Acting normal/shear force
,
f Out-of-plane imperfection of plate field
f Limit design compressive longitudinal stress
b,Rd,x
f Limit design compressive transverse stress
b,Rd,y
f Limit design buckling shear stress
b,Rd,
f Limit stress
f Characteristic value (stress)
f Limit design stress
f Ultimate strength of material
f Ultimate strength of bolts
f Ultimate strength of the weld
f Limit design weld stress
w, Rd
f Yield stress of material or 0,2 % offset yield strength
Yield stress of bolts
f Yield stress (minimum value) of base material or member
f Yield stress of pins
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 20332.2
Table 2 (continued)
Symbols Description
h Thickness of workpiece
h Distance between weld and contact area of acting load
I Moment of inertia
K Stiffness (slope) of bolt
Stiffness (slope) of flanges
k Stress spectrum factor based on m of the detail under consideration
k* Specific spectrum ratio factor
Buckling factors for plate fields
k , k
x 
L Length of compressed member
l Effective clamped length
l Gauge length for imperfection of plate field
l Effective weld length
l Weld length
l Effective length for tension without threat
l Effective length for tension with threat
Limit design bending moment
M Design bending moment
m (negative inverse) slope constant of log /log N curve
N Number of stress cycles to failure by fatigue
N Compressive force
N Critical buckling load of compressed member
N Limit design compressive force
N Design compressive force
 Sd
N Number of cycles at the reference point
ref
N Total number of occurrences
NC Notch class
NDT Non destructive testing
n Number of stress cycles with stress amplitude of range i
 n Number of equally loaded bolts
Probability of survival
p , p Distances between bolt centres
1 2
Q Shear force
q Impact toughness parameter
R Design resistance
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ISO/DIS 20332.2
Table 2 (continued)
Symbols Description
r Radius of wheel
S Class of stress history parameter, s
Design stresses or forces
s Stress history parameter
T Temperature
TIG Tungsten inert gas
t Thickness
U Class of working cycles
u Shape factor
v Diameter ratio
Elastic section modulus
Characteristic factor for bearing connection
 Characteristic factor for limit weld stress
Fatigue strength specific resistance factor
General resistance factor
 Partial safety factor
 Total resistance factor
Total resistance factor of bolt
 Total resistance factor for tension on sections with holes
 Total resistance factor of members
Total resistance factor of pins
Total resistance factor of slip-resistance connection
 Specific resistance factor
 Specific resistance factor of bolt
Specific resistance factor of members
 Specific resistance factor of pins
 Specific resistance factor of slip-resistance connection
Specific resistance factor for tension on sections with holes
Additional elongation

 t
Elongation from preloading
Incline of diagonal members
 Dispersion angle
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ISO/DIS 20332.2
Table 2 (continued)
Symbols Description
 Width of contact area in weld direction
µ Slip factor
 Relative total number of stress cycles (normalized)
Ratio of diameters
Indicate the respective stress
 Stress range
Stress range i
ˆ Maximum stress range
Lower extreme value of stress cycle
 Characteristic fatigue strength (normal stress)
 Reference stress for plate buckling

 Constant mean stress selected for one-parameter classification of stress cycles

 Limit design stress range (normal)
Limit design stress range for k* = 1
Rd,1
 Design stress (normal)
 Design stress range (normal)
Design compressive longitudinal stress
Sd,x
Design compressive transverse stress
Sd,y
 Upper extreme value of stress cycle
 Design weld stress (normal)
w, Sd
Normal stress component in direction x, y
 , 
x y
Maximum stress amplitude
min , max  Extreme values of stresses
Shear stress
Characteristic fatigue strength (shear stress)
Design stress (shear)
 Design stress range (shear)
 Limit design stress range (shear)
Design weld stress (shear)
w, Sd
Dynamic factor
 Stress ratio across plate fields
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 20332.2
4 General
4.1 General principles

Proof-of-competence calculations shall be done for components, members and details exposed to loading or

repetitive loading cycles that could cause failure, cracking or distortion interfering with crane functions.

NOTE See ISO 8686 for further information applicable to the various types of crane. Not all calculations are

applicable for every crane type.
4.2 Documentation
The documentation of the proof of competence calculations shall include:
 design assumptions including calculation models;
 applicable loads and load combinations;
 material properties;
 weld quality classes in accordance with ISO 5817;
 properties of connecting elements;
 relevant limit states;
 results of the proof of competence calculations. and tests when applicable.
4.3 Alternative methods

The competence may be verified by experimental methods in addition to, or in coordination with, the

calculations. The magnitude and distribution of loads during tests shall correspond to the design loads and

load combinations for the relevant limit states.

Alternatively, advanced and recognized theoretical or experimental methods generally may be used, provided

that they conform to the principles of this International Standard.
4.4 Materials of structural members

It is recommended that steels in accordance with the following International Standards should be used:

[1]
 ISO 630 as amended ;
[7]
 ISO 6930-1 ;
[3]
 ISO 4950 ;
[4], [5], [6]
 ISO 4951-1, ISO 4951-2 and ISO 4951-3 .

Where other steels are used, the specific values of strengths f and f shall be specified. The mechanical

u y

properties and the chemical composition shall be specified in accordance with ISO 404. Furthermore, the

following conditions shall be fulfilled:

 the design value of f shall be limited to f /1,05 for materials with f /f <1,05;

y u u y
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 20332.2

 the percentage elongation at fracture A≥7% on a gauge length L  5,65 S (where S is the original

0 0
cross-sectional area);

 the weldability or non-weldability of the material shall be specified and, if intended for welding, weldability

demonstrated;

 if the material is intended for cold forming, the pertinent parameters shall be specified.

To allow the use of nominal values of plate thicknesses in the proof calculations, the minus tolerance of the

plate shall be equal or better than that of class A of ISO 7452:2013. Otherwise. the actual minimum value of

plate thickness shall be used.

When verifying the grade and quality of the steel (see referenced International Standards) used for tensile

members, the sum of impact toughness parameters, q , shall be taken into account. Table 2 gives q for

i i

various influences. The required impact energy/test temperatures in dependence of q are shown in

 i

Table 3 and shall be specified by the steel manufacturer on the basis of ISO 148-1.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 20332.2
Table 3 — Impact toughness parameters, q
i Influence q
1 0  T 0
-10  T < 0 1
-20  T < -10
Operating temperature T (°C)
-30  T < -20
-40  T < -30
-50  T < -40 6
2 f  300 0
300 < f  460
Yield stress f (N/mm ) 2
y 460 < f  700
700 1 000 3 Material thickness t (mm) 0
t  10
Equivalent thickness t for solid bars:
10 < t  20
20 < t  40
40 < t  60 3
60 < t  80 4
80 < t  100
d b
100 < t  125
t for  1,8 : t
1,8 h 1,8
125 < t  150 7
4 0
 > 125
80 <   125 1
56<   80 2
Characteristic value of stress range 
(N/mm ) (see Annex D)
40<   56
30<   40
 30
5 Utilization of static strength (see 5.3.1)
  0,75 f
Sd Rdσ
0,5 f 
Rdσ Sd
and
  0,75 f
Sd Rdσ
0,25 f 
Rdσ Sd -2
and
  0,5 f
Sd Rdσ
  0,25 f
Sd Rdσ
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 20332.2
Table 4 — Impact toughness requirement for q
 i
q  5 6  q  8 9  q  11 12  q  14
i i i i
Impact energy/
27 J / + 20C 27 J / 0C 27 J /  20C 27 J /  40C
test temperature requirement
4.5 Bolted connections
4.5.1 Bolt materials

For bolted connections, bolts of the property classes (bolt grades) ISO 898-1:2009, 4.6, 5.6, 8.8, 10.9 or 12.9,

shall be used. Table 4 shows nominal values of the strengths.
Table 5 — Property classes (bolt grades)
Property class
4.6 5.6 8.8 10.9 12.9
(bolt grade)
f (N/mm) 240 300 640 900 1 080
f (N/mm ) 400 500 800 1 000 1 200
Where necessary, the designer should ask the bolt provider to demons
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 20332
Deuxième édition
2016-06-01
Version corrigée
2018-11
Appareils de levage à charge
suspendue — Vérification d'aptitude
des charpentes en acier
Cranes — Proof of competence of steel structures
Numéro de référence
ISO 20332:2016(F)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2016

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20332:2016(F)
Contents

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1  Domaine d'application ................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Références normatives .................................................................................................................................. 1

3  Termes, définitions, symboles et abréviations ..................................................................................... 3

4  Généralités ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.1  Principes généraux ......................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2  Documentation ................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.3  Méthodes alternatives ................................................................................................................................... 9

4.4  Matériaux des éléments de charpente (structuraux) ......................................................................... 9

4.5  Assemblages boulonnés ............................................................................................................................. 11

4.5.1  Matériaux des boulons ................................................................................................................................ 11

4.5.2  Généralités ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

4.5.3  Assemblages travaillant au cisaillement et à la pression diamétrale ....................................... 11

4.5.4  Assemblages de type résistant au glissement .................................................................................... 12

4.5.5  Assemblages travaillant en traction ...................................................................................................... 12

4.6  Assemblages articulés ................................................................................................................................. 12

4.7  Assemblages soudés .................................................................................................................................... 13

4.8  Vérification des éléments de charpente (structuraux) et des assemblages ........................... 13

5  Vérification de la résistance statique .................................................................................................... 14

5.1  Généralités ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.2  Contraintes et efforts limites de calcul ................................................................................................. 14

5.2.1  Généralités ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.2.2  Contrainte limite de calcul des éléments de charpente .................................................................. 15

5.2.3  Efforts limites de calcul des assemblages boulonnés ...................................................................... 16

5.2.4  Efforts limites de calcul dans les assemblages articulés ................................................................ 24

raintes limites de calcul pour les assemblages soudés .......................................................... 28

5.2.5  Cont

5.3  Réalisation de la vérification .................................................................................................................... 31

5.3.1  Vérification des éléments de charpente ............................................................................................... 31

5.3.2  Vérification des assemblages boulonnés ............................................................................................. 31

5.3.3  Vérification des assemblages articu lés ................................................................................................. 32

5.3.4  Vérification des assemblages soudés .................................................................................................... 32

6  Vérification de la résistance à la fatigue .............................................................................................. 33

6.1  Généralités ...................................................................................................................................................... 33

6.2  Contraintes limites de calcul .................................................................................................................... 34

6.2.1  Valeurs caractéristiques de résistance à la fatigue .......................................................................... 34

6.2.2  Qualité de soudage ....................................................................................................................................... 35

6.2.3  Exigences pour des essais de fatigue ..................................................................................................... 37

6.3  Historiques de contrainte .......................................................................................................................... 37

6.3.1  Détermination des historiques de contrainte .................................................................................... 37

6.3.2  Fréquence d’occurrence des cycles de contraintes .......................................................................... 38

6.3.3  Paramètre d'historique de contrainte .................................................................................................. 39

6.3.4  Détermination des classes d'historique de contrainte, S ............................................................... 41

6.4  Réalisation de la vérification .................................................................................................................... 42

6.5  Détermination de l'étendue de contrainte limite de calcul........................................................... 43

6.5.1  Méthodes applicables .................................................................................................................................. 43

6.5.2  Utilisation directe du paramètre d'historique de contrainte ....................................................... 43

6.5.3  Utilisation des classes S .............................................................................................................................. 43

© ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 20332:2016(F)

6.5.4  Contraintes normale et/ou de cisaillement indépendantes et concurrentes ........................ 45

7  Vérification de la stabilité élastique ..................................................................................................... 45

7.1  Généra lités ...................................................................................................................................................... 45

7.2  Flambage latéral des éléments chargés en compression .............................................................. 46

7.2.1  Charge critique de flambage .................................................................................................................... 46

7.2.2  Effort limite de compression de calcul ................................................................................................. 47

7.3  Voilement des plaques soumises à des contraintes de compression et de cisaillement ... 49

7.3.1  Généra lités ...................................................................................................................................................... 49

7.3.2  Contrainte limite de calcul pour la contrainte longitudinale, σ ................................................ 51

7.3.3  Contrainte limite de calcul pour la contrainte transversale σ ................................................... 53

7.3.4  Contrainte limite de calcul pour la contrainte de cisaillement τ ................................................ 55

7.4  Réalisation de la vérification ................................................................................................................... 56

7.4.1  Eléments chargés en compression ......................................................................................................... 56

7.4.2  Plaques ............................................................................................................................................................. 56

Annexe A (informative) Effort limite de cisaillement de calcul F dans une tige, par

v,Rd
boulon et par plan de cisaillement pour des assemblages à plans de cisaillement

multiples .......................................................................................................................................................... 58

Tableau A.1 — Effort limite de cisaillement de calcul F par boulon ajusté et par plan de

v,Rd

cisaillement pour des assemblages à plan de cisaillement multiples ...................................... 58

Tableau A.2 — Effort limite de cisaillement de calcul F dans la tige par boulon normal et

v,Rd

par plan de cisaillement pour les assemblages à plans de cisaillement multiples .............. 58

Annexe B (informative) Boulons précontraints ............................................................................................. 59

Tableau B.1 — Couples de serrage (Nm) pour atteindre le niveau maximal admissible de

précharge 0,7 × F ......................................................................................................................................... 59

Tableau B.2 — Effort limite de glissement de calcul F par boulon et par plan de friction

S,Rd

pour un effort de précharge de calcul F = 0,7 × f × A ............................................................... 60

p,d yb s

Annexe C (normative) Contraintes de calcul de soudure σ et τ ................................................... 61

W,Sd W,Sd

Annexe D (normative) Valeurs de constante de pente m et de résistance à la fatigue

caractéristique Δσ , Δτ .............................................................................................................................. 66

c c

Annexe E (normative) Valeurs calculées d’étendues de contrainte limites de calcul Δσ et

Δσ ................................................................................................................................................................. 90

Rd,1

Annexe F (informative) Evaluation des cycles de contraintes — Exemple ......................................... 92

Annexe G (informative) Calcul des rigidités pour des assemblages travaillant en traction .......... 94

Bibliographie ............................................................................................................................................................... 97

iv © ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20332:2016(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude a le

droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2

(voir www.iso.org/directives).

L'attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet

de droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour

responsable de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails

concernant les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés

lors de l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations

de brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la signification des termes et expressions spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation

de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion de l'ISO aux principes de l'OMC

concernant les obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: Avant‐propos —

Informations supplémentaires.

L'ISO 20332 a été élaborée par le comité technique ISO/TC 96, Appareils de levage à charge suspendue,

sous‐comité SC 10, Conception, principes et exigences.

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 20332:2008), qui a fait l'objet d'une

révision technique.

La présente version corrigée de l'ISO 20332:2016 inclut une correction dans la Formule (67).

© ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés v
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 20332:2016(F)
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Vérification d'aptitude
des charpentes en acier
1 Domaine d'application

La présente Norme internationale détermine les conditions générales, les exigences, les méthodes et les

valeurs de paramètres pour effectuer les déterminations de vérification d'aptitude des charpentes en

acier des appareils de levage à charge suspendue, en se basant sur la méthode des états limites. Elle est

destinée à être utilisée conjointement avec les parties applicables de l'ISO 8686 concernant les charges

et combinaisons de charges.

La présente Norme internationale est générale et couvre tous les types d'appareils de levage à charge

suspendue. D'autres Normes internationales peuvent donner des exigences spécifiques de vérification

d'aptitude pour des types particuliers d’appareils de levage.

Des vérifications d'aptitude, par calculs théoriques et/ou essais, sont destinées à prévenir les risques en

rapport avec la performance de la charpente en établissant les limites de résistance, par exemple

élastique, à la rupture, à la fatigue, à la rupture fragile.

Selon l'ISO 8686‐1, il existe deux approches générales pour les calculs de vérification d'aptitude: ce sont

la méthode des états limites, utilisant des facteurs partiels de sécurité, et la méthode des contraintes

admissibles, utilisant un facteur global de sécurité. Bien que l’ISO 20332 n’empêche pas la méthode des

contraintes admissibles, elle traite uniquement de la méthode des états limites.

La présente Norme internationale ne couvre pas les calculs de vérification d'aptitude des accessoires

(par exemple mains courantes, escaliers, passerelles, cabines). Cependant l'influence de telles fixations

sur la charpente principale nécessite d'être prise en compte.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants, en tout ou en partie, sont référencés de manière normative dans le présent

document, et sont indispensables pour son application. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée

s’applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence (y compris les

éventuels amendements) s’applique.

ISO 148‐1:2009, Matériaux métalliques — Essai de flexion par choc sur éprouvette Charpy — Partie 1:

Méthode d'essai
ISO 273:1979, Éléments de fixation — Trous de passage pour vis

ISO 286‐2:2010, Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) — Système de codification ISO pour les

tolérances sur les tailles linéaires — Partie 2: Tableaux des classes de tolérance normalisées et des écarts

limites des alésages et des arbres. Corrigé par l’ISO 286‐2:2010/Cor 1:2013.

ISO 404:1992, Acier et produits sidérurgiques — Conditions générales techniques de livraison

© ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 20332:2016(F)

ISO 898‐1:2013, Caractéristiques mécaniques des éléments de fixation en acier au carbone et en acier

allié — Partie 1: Vis, goujons et tiges filetées de classes de qualité spécifiées — Filetages à pas gros et

filetages à pas fin
ISO 4042:1999, Éléments de fixation — Revêtements électrolytiques

ISO 4301‐1:2016, Grues et appareils de levage — Vocabulaire — Partie 1: Généralités

ISO 4306‐1, Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Vocabulaire — Partie 1: Généralités

ISO 5817:2014, Soudage — Assemblages en acier, nickel, titane et leurs alliages soudés par fusion

(soudage par faisceau exclu) — Niveaux de qualité par rapport aux défauts

ISO 7452:2013, Tôles en acier laminées à chaud — Tolérances sur les dimensions et la forme

ISO 7788:1985, Acier — État de surface des tôles et larges-plats laminés à chaud — Conditions de

livraison

ISO 8686‐1:2012, Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Principes de calcul des charges et des

combinaisons de charge — Partie 1: Généralités

ISO 8686‐2, Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Principes de calcul des charges et des

combinaisons de charge — Partie 2: Grues mobiles

ISO 8686‐3, Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Principes de calcul des charges et des

combinaisons de charge — Partie 3: Grues à tour

ISO 8686‐4, Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Principes de calcul des charges et des

combinaisons de charges — Partie 4: Grues à flèche

ISO 8686‐5, Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Principes de calcul des charges et des

combinaisons de charges — Partie 5: Ponts roulants et ponts portiques

ISO 9013:2002, Coupage thermique — Classification des coupes thermiques — Spécification géométrique

des produits et tolérances relatives à la qualité

ISO 9587:2007, Revêtements métalliques et autres revêtements inorganiques — Prétraitements du fer ou

de l'acier pour diminuer le risque de fragilisation par l'hydrogène

ISO 12100, Sécurité des machines — Principes généraux de conception — Appréciation du risque et

réduction du risque

ISO 15330:1999, Éléments de fixation — Essai de précharge pour la détection de la fragilisation par

l'hydrogène — Méthode des plaques parallèles

ISO 17659:2002, Soudage — Liste multilingue de termes relatifs aux assemblages et aux joints soudés,

avec illustrations
2 © ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20332:2016(F)
3 Termes, définitions, symboles et abréviations

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 12100, ISO 17659 et

l’ISO 4306‐1:2007, Article 6, ainsi que les termes, définitions, symboles et abréviations suivants (voir le

Tableau 1) s’appliquent.
3.1
nuance de l’acier

marquage qui définit la résistance de l’acier, définissant habituellement la limite d’élasticité, f, et

parfois la résistance à la traction, f
3.2
qualité de l’acier
marquage qui définit la résistance au choc et la température d’essai de l’acier
© ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 20332:2016(F)

Tableau 1 — Principaux symboles et abréviations utilisés dans la présente Norme internationale

Symboles Description
A Section transversale
A Surface équivalente de calcul
A Surface nette de la section transversale au droit de trous de boulon ou d’axe
A Surface réduite d’un boulon
A Section résistante d’un boulon
a Dimension géométrique
a Dimension géométrique de pénétration de soudure
a Largeur de gorge efficace
b Dimension géométrique
c Dimension géométrique
D Diamètre du cylindre équivalent des éléments serrés
D Diamètre intérieur d’un axe creux
D Diamètre extérieur d’un axe creux
d Diamètre (tige de boulon, axe)
d Diamètre de trou
d Diamètre de la surface de contact de la tête de vis
d Diamètre de trou de passage
E Module d'élasticité
e, e Distances
1 2
F Force
F Force de traction dans un boulon
F Effort limite de pression diamétrale de calcul
b,Rd
F ; F Effort de pression diamétrale de calcul
b,Sd bi,Sd
ΔF Force supplémentaire
F Réduction de la force de compression due à une traction extérieure
F Effort limite de traction de calcul
cs,Rd
F Force limite
F Force extérieure (sur un assemblage boulonné)
e,t
F Valeur caractéristique (force)
F Effort de précharge d’un boulon
F Effort de précharge de calcul
p,d
F Effort limite de calcul
F Effort de calcul de l'élément
F Effort limite de glissement de calcul par boulon et par plan de friction
s,Rd
4 © ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20332:2016(F)
Tableau 1 (suite)
Symbole Description
F F Efforts limites de traction de calcul par boulon
t1, Rd, t2, Rd
F Force extérieure de traction par boulon
t,Sd

F Effort limite de cisaillement de calcul par boulon/axe et par plan de cisaillement

v,Rd
F Effort de cisaillement de calcul par boulon/axe et par plan de cisaillement
v,Sd
F Effort normal/tranchant agissant
σ,τ
f Imperfection hors plan des plaques
f Contrainte limite longitudinale de compression de calcul
b,Rd,x
f Contrainte limite transversale de compression de calcul
b,Rd, y
f Contrainte limite de calcul de voilement par cisaillement
b,Rd,τ
f Contrainte limite
f Valeur caractéristique (contrainte)
f Contrainte limite de calcul
f Résistance à la traction d’un matériau
f Résistance à la traction de boulons
f Résistance à la traction de soudure
f Contrainte limite de calcul de soudure
w, Rd

f Limite d’élasticité, ou limite d’élasticité avec une déformation permanente de 0,2 %

f Limite d’élasticité des boulons
f Limite d’élasticité (valeur nominale) d’un matériau de base ou d’un élément
f Limite d’élasticité des axes
h Epaisseur de pièce de fabrication
h Distance entre la soudure et la surface de contact de l’effort agissant
I Moment d’inertie
K Rigidité d'un boulon
K Rigidité des pièces assemblées
k Facteur du spectre de contrainte basé sur la valeur m de l'élément considéré
k* Facteur spécifique de rapport de spectres
k , k Facteurs de voilement pour les plaques
σx τ
L Longueur de l’élément comprimé
l Longueur efficace de serrage
l Longueur entre repères pour les imperfections des plaques
l Longueur efficace de soudure
l Longueur de soudure
l Longueur utile pour la traction sans filetage
© ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés 5
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ISO 20332:2016(F)
Tableau 1 (suite)
Symbole Description
l Longueur utile pour la traction avec filetage
M Moment limite de flexion de calcul
M Moment de flexion de calcul
m (pente inverse) constante de pente de la courbe log σ/log N
N Nombre de cycles de contrainte jusqu’à rupture par fatigue
N Effort de compression
N Effort critique de flambage d’un élément comprimé
N Effort de compression limite de calcul
N Effort de compression de calcul
N Nombre de cycles de contraintes de référence
ref
N Nombre total d'occurrences
NC Classe d'entaille(s)
NDT Essai non destructif
n Nombre de boulons à charge égale
P Probabilité de survie
p , p Distances entre centres de boulons
1 2
Q Effort tranchant
q Paramètre de résistance au choc
R Résistance de calcul
r Rayon de galet
S Classe du paramètre d'historique de contrainte, s
S Contraintes ou forces de calcul
s Paramètre d'historique de contrainte
T Température
TIG Soudage à l'arc en atmosphère inerte avec l'électrode de tungstène
t Epaisseur
U Classe de cycles de travail
u Facteur de forme
v Rapport des diamètres
W Module élastique de section
α Facteur caractéristique d'un assemblage à pression diamétrale
γ Facteur spécifique de résistance à la fatigue
γ Facteur général de résistance
γ Facteur partiel de sécurité
6 © ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20332:2016(F)
Tableau 1 (suite)
Symbole Description
γ Facteur total de résistance
γ Facteur total de résistance d'un boulon
γ Facteur total de résistance pour la traction sur des sections perforées
γ Facteur total de résistance d’éléments
γ Facteur total de résistance d’axes
γ Facteur total de résistance d'un assemblage résistant au glissement
γ Facteur spécifique de résistance
γ Facteur spécifique de résistance d'un boulon
γ Facteur spécifique de résistance d’éléments
γ Facteur spécifique de résistance d’axes
γ Facteur spécifique de résistance d'un assemblage résistant au glissement
γ Facteur spécifique de résistance pour la traction sur des sections perforées
Δδt Allongement supplémentaire
δ Allongement dû à la précharge
Θ Inclinaison des éléments diagonaux
κ Angle de diffusion
λ Largeur de la surface de contact dans la direction de la soudure
µ Facteur de glissement
ν Nombre total relatif des cycles de contrainte (réduit)
ν Rapport de diamètres
σ Indique la contrainte respective
Δσ Etendue de contrainte
Δσ Etendue de contrainte, i
ˆ Etendue de contrainte maximale
σ Valeur extrême inférieure de cycle de contrainte
Δσ Résistance à la fatigue caractéristique (contrainte normale)
σ Contrainte de référence pour le voilement des plaques

Contrainte moyenne constante choisie pour la classification à un paramètre des cycles

de contrainte
Δσ Etendue de contrainte (normale) limite de calcul
Δσ 1 Etendue de contrainte limite de calcul pour k* = 1
Rd,
σ Contrainte (normale) de calcul
Δσ Etendue de contrainte (normales) de calcul
σ Contrainte longitudinale de compression de calcul
Sd, X
© ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés 7
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ISO 20332:2016(F)
Tableau 1 (suite)
Symbole Description
Δσ Contrainte transversale de compression de calcul
Sd, y
σ Valeur extrême supérieure de cycle de contrainte
σ , S Contrainte (normale) de calcul dans la soudure
w d
σ , σ Composante de contrainte normale dans la direction x, y
x y
Amplitude de contrainte maximale
min σ, max σ Valeurs extrêmes de contraintes
τ Contrainte de cisaillement
Δτ Résistance à la fatigue caractéristique (contrainte de cisaillement)
τ Contrainte de calcul (cisaillement)
Δτ Etendue de contrainte de calcul (cisaillement)
Δτ Etendue de contrainte limite de calcul (cisaillement)
τ Contrainte de calcul dans la soudure (cisaillement)
w,Sd
ϕ Facteur dynamique
Ψ Rapport des contraintes à travers les plaques
4 Généralités
4.1 Principes généraux

Les calculs de vérification d'aptitude doivent être effectués pour les composants, les éléments et les

détails exposés au chargement ou aux cycles de chargement répétitifs à même de causer une

défaillance, une fissure ou une déformation interférant avec les fonctions de l'appareil de levage.

NOTE Voir l'ISO 8686 pour des informations supplémentaires applicables aux différents types d'appareils de

levage. Tous les calculs ne sont pas applicables à chaque type d'appareil de levage.

4.2 Documentation
La documentation de la vérification d'aptitude doit inclure:
— les hypothèses de calcul y compris les modèles de calcul;
— les charges et combinaisons de charges applicables;
— les propriétés des matériaux;
— les classes de qualité des soudures, conformément à l'ISO 5817;
— les propriétés des éléments d'assemblage;
— les états limites correspondants;

— les résultats des calculs de la vérification d’aptitude et si nécessaire des essais.

8 © ISO 2016 – T
...

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